Ambient air pollution exposure and blood pressure changes during pregnancy.
ABSTRACT: Maternal exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with adverse birth outcomes such as preterm delivery. However, only one study to date has linked air pollution to blood pressure changes during pregnancy, a period of dramatic cardiovascular function changes.We examined whether maternal exposures to criteria air pollutants, including particles of less than 10 ?m (PM(10)) or 2.5 ?m diameter (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)), sulfur dioxide (SO(2)), and ozone (O(3)), in each trimester of pregnancy are associated with magnitude of rise of blood pressure between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy in a prospectively followed cohort of 1684 pregnant women in Allegheny County, PA.Air pollution measures for maternal ZIP code areas were derived using Kriging interpolation. Using logistic regression analysis, we evaluated the associations between air pollution exposures and blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy.First trimester PM(10) and ozone exposures were associated with blood pressure changes between the first 20 weeks of gestation and late pregnancy, most strongly in non-smokers. Per interquartile increases in first trimester PM(10) and O(3) concentrations were associated with mean increases in systolic blood pressure of 1.88 mm Hg (95% CI=0.84 to 2.93) and 1.84 (95% CI=1.05 to 4.63), respectively, and in diastolic blood pressure of 0.63 mm Hg (95% CI=-0.50 to 1.76) and 1.13 (95% CI=-0.46 to 2.71) in non-smokers.Our novel finding suggests that first trimester PM(10) and O(3) air pollution exposures increase blood pressure in the later stages of pregnancy. These changes may play a role in mediating the relationships between air pollution and adverse birth outcomes.
Project description:Fetal heart rate (FHR) monitoring is essential for fetal management during pregnancy and delivery but results in many false-positive diagnoses. Air pollution affects the uterine environment; thus, air pollution may change FHR reactivity. This study assessed the association between exposure to air pollution during pregnancy and FHR monitoring abnormalities using 2005-2010 data from the Japan Perinatal Registry Network database. Participants were 23,782 singleton pregnant women with FHR monitoring, without acidemia or fetal asphyxia. We assessed exposure to air pollutants, including particulate matter (PM), ozone, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). In a multi-trimester model, first-trimester PM exposure was associated with false positives in FHR monitoring (odds ratio [OR] per interquartile range (10.7 ?g/m3) increase?=?1.20; 95% CI: 1.05-1.37), but not second-trimester exposure (OR?=?1.05; 95% CI: 0.91-1.21) and third-trimester exposure (OR?=?1.06; 95% CI: 0.96-1.17). The association with first-trimester PM exposure persisted after adjustment for exposure to ozone, NO2, and SO2; however, ozone, NO2, and SO2 exposure was not associated with false positives in FHR monitoring. First-trimester PM exposure may alter fetal cardiac response and lead to false positives in FHR monitoring.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Air pollution has been linked to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) but no studies have evaluated impact of preconception and early pregnancy air pollution exposures on GDM risk. METHODS:Electronic medical records provided data on 219,952 singleton deliveries to mothers with (n=11,334) and without GDM (n=208,618). Average maternal exposures to particulate matter (PM) ? 2.5?m (PM2.5) and PM2.5 constituents, PM ? 10?m (PM10), nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide (SO2) and ozone (O3) were estimated for the 3-month preconception window, first trimester, and gestational weeks 1-24 based on modified Community Multiscale Air Quality models for delivery hospital referral regions. Binary regression models with robust standard errors estimated relative risks (RR) for GDM per interquartile range (IQR) increase in pollutant concentrations adjusted for study site, maternal age and race/ethnicity. RESULTS:Preconception maternal exposure to NOX (RR=1.09, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.13) and SO2 (RR=1.05, 1.01, 1.09) were associated with increased risk of subsequent GDM and risk estimates remained elevated for first trimester exposure. Preconception O3 was associated with lower risk of subsequent GDM (RR=0.93, 0.90, 0.96) but risks increased later in pregnancy. CONCLUSION:Maternal exposures to NOx and SO2 preconception and during the first few weeks of pregnancy were associated with increased GDM risk. O3 appeared to increase GDM risk in association with mid-pregnancy exposure but not in earlier time windows. These common exposures merit further investigation.
Project description:PURPOSE:Maternal asthma increases adverse neonatal respiratory outcomes, and pollution may further increase risk. Air quality in relation to neonatal respiratory health has not been studied. METHODS:Transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN), asphyxia, and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were identified using medical records among 223,375 singletons from the Consortium on Safe Labor (2002-2008). Community Multiscale Air Quality models estimated pollutant exposures. Multipollutant Poisson regression models calculated adjusted relative risks of outcomes for interquartile range increases in average exposure. Maternal asthma and preterm delivery were evaluated as effect modifiers. RESULTS:TTN risk increased after particulate matter (PM) less than or equal to 10-micron exposure during preconception and trimester one (9-10%), and whole-pregnancy exposure to PM less than or equal to 2.5 microns (PM2.5; 17%) and carbon monoxide (CO; 10%). Asphyxia risk increased after exposure to PM2.5 in trimester one (48%) and whole pregnancy (84%), CO in trimester two and whole pregnancy (28-32%), and consistently for ozone (34%-73%). RDS risk was associated with increased concentrations of nitrogen oxides (33%-42%) and ozone (9%-21%) during all pregnancy windows. Inverse associations were observed with several pollutants, particularly sulfur dioxide. No interaction with maternal asthma was observed. Restriction to term births yielded similar results. CONCLUSIONS:Several pollutants appear to increase neonatal respiratory outcome risks.
Project description:Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults.We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP).We studied 1,131 mother-infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, area pre-birth cohort. We calculated average exposures by trimester and during the 2 to 90 days before birth for temporally resolved fine particulate matter (? 2.5 ?m; PM2.5), black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides, nitrogen dioxide, ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide measured at stationary monitoring sites, and for spatiotemporally resolved estimates of PM2.5 and BC at the residence level. We measured SBP at a mean age of 30 ± 18 hr with an automated device. We used mixed-effects models to examine associations between air pollutant exposures and SBP, taking into account measurement circumstances; child's birth weight; mother's age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic position, and third-trimester BP; and time trend. Estimates represent differences in SBP associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in each pollutant.Higher mean PM2.5 and BC exposures during the third trimester were associated with higher SBP (e.g., 1.0 mmHg; 95% CI: 0.1, 1.8 for a 0.32-?g/m3 increase in mean 90-day residential BC). In contrast, O3 was negatively associated with SBP (e.g., -2.3 mmHg; 95% CI: -4.4, -0.2 for a 13.5-ppb increase during the 90 days before birth).Exposures to PM2.5 and BC in late pregnancy were positively associated with newborn SBP, whereas O3 was negatively associated with SBP. Longitudinal follow-up will enable us to assess the implications of these findings for health during later childhood and adulthood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambient air pollution and maternal diabetes may affect common biological pathways underlying adverse neurodevelopmental effects. However, joint effects of maternal diabetes and air pollution on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have not been studied. OBJECTIVE:We evaluated whether prenatal and early-life air pollution exposure interacts with maternal diabetes status to affect ASD risk. METHODS:This retrospective cohort study included 246,420 singleton children born in Kaiser Permanente Southern California hospitals in 1999-2009. Children were followed from birth until age 5, during which 2471 ASD cases were diagnosed. Ozone (O3), particulate matter?<?2.5??m (PM2.5) and <10??m in aerodynamic diameter, and nitrogen dioxide measured at regulatory air monitoring stations were interpolated to estimate exposures during preconception and each pregnancy trimester, and first year of life at each child's birth address. Hazard ratios (HRs) for ASD were estimated adjusting for birth year, KPSC service areas, and relevant maternal and child characteristics. For each exposure window, interactions were tested between pollutants and a 4-category maternal diabetes variable (none, GDM???24 and <24?weeks' gestation, and pre-existing type 2 diabetes). For an exposure window with statistically significant global interaction between pollutant and diabetes (p?<?0.05), pollutant-associated HRs were estimated separately for each category of maternal diabetes. RESULTS:There were associations of ASD with preconception, first and third trimesters, and first year of life PM2.5, but not with other pollutants. There were, however, interactions of maternal diabetes with first trimester and first year of life O3. Increased ASD risk was associated with first trimester O3 among mothers with GDM?<?24?weeks' gestation [adjusted HR 1.50 per 15.7?ppb O3 (95% CI: 1.08-2.09)]. No O3 associations with ASD were observed in other categories of maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS:GDM onset early in pregnancy may increase children's susceptibility to prenatal O3-associated ASD risk. These novel findings merit further investigation.
Project description:There is growing evidence of adverse birth outcomes due to exposure to air pollution during gestation. However, recent negative studies are also reported. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of ozone and vehicle exhaust exposure (NO(2)) on the length of the gestational period and risk of preterm delivery. We used data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry on all vaginally delivered singleton births in the Greater Stockholm area who were conceived during 1987-1995 (n = 115,588). Daily average levels of NO(2) (from three measuring stations) and ozone (two stations) were used to estimate trimester and last week of gestation average exposures. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between the two air pollutants and three exposure windows, while logistic regression models were used when analyzing associations with preterm delivery (<37 weeks gestation). Five percent were born preterm. The median gestational period was 40 weeks. Higher levels of ozone during the first trimester were associated with shorter gestation as well as with an elevated risk of preterm delivery, the odds ratio from the most complex model was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.00-1.13) per 10 ?g/m(3) increase in the mean daily 8-h maximum concentration. Higher levels of ozone during the second trimester were associated with shorter gestation but the elevated risk of preterm delivery was not statistically significant. Higher levels of ozone and NO(2) during the last week of gestation were associated with a shorter duration of gestation and NO(2) also with preterm delivery. There were no significant associations between first and second trimester NO(2) exposure estimates and studied outcomes. The effect of first trimester ozone exposure, known to cause oxidative stress, was smallest among women who conceived during autumn when vitamin D status, important for fetal health, in Scandinavian women is the highest.
Project description:Traffic-related air and noise pollution may increase the risk for cardiovascular disorders, especially among susceptible populations like pregnant women. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of exposure to traffic-related air pollution and traffic noise with blood pressure in pregnant women. We extracted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at ?20?weeks gestation, as well as hypertensive disorders of pregnancy from medical records in the HOME Study, a prospective pregnancy and birth cohort from Cincinnati, OH (n?=?370). We estimated exposure to elemental carbon attributable to traffic (ECAT),1 a marker of traffic-related air pollution, at women's residences at ~20?weeks gestation using a validated land use regression model and traffic noise using a publicly available transportation noise model. We used linear mixed models and modified Poisson regression adjusted for covariates to examine associations of ECAT and traffic noise with blood pressure and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy risk, respectively. In adjusted models, we found a 1.6 (95% CI?=?0.02, 3.3; p?=?0.048) mm?Hg increase in SBP associated with an interquartile range increase in ECAT concentration; the association was stronger after adjusting for traffic noise (1.9?mm?Hg, 95%?=?0.1, 3.7; p?=?0.035). ECAT concentrations were not significantly associated with DBP or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, and traffic noise was not associated with SBP, DBP, or hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. There was no evidence of a joint effect of traffic noise and ECAT on any outcome. In this cohort, higher residential traffic-related air pollution exposure at ~20?weeks gestation was associated with higher SBP in late pregnancy. It is important for future studies of traffic-related air or noise pollution to jointly consider both exposures and neighborhood characteristics given their correlation and potential cumulative impact on cardiovascular health.
Project description:Exposures to ambient particulate matter (PM) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. PM2.5 (<2.5 μm) and ozone exposures have been shown to associate with carotid intima media thickness in humans. Animal studies support a causal relationship between air pollution and atherosclerosis and identified adverse PM effects on HDL functionality. We aimed to determine whether brief exposures to PM2.5 and/or ozone could induce effects on HDL anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory capacity in humans.Subjects were exposed to fine concentrated ambient fine particles (CAP) with PM2.5 targeted at 150 μg/m(3), ozone targeted at 240 μg/m(3) (120 ppb), PM2.5 plus ozone targeted at similar concentrations, and filtered air (FA) for 2 h, on 4 different occasions, at least two weeks apart, in a randomized, crossover study. Blood was obtained before exposures (baseline), 1 h after and 20 h after exposures. Plasma HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity and paraoxonase activity were determined. HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity was assessed by a cell-free fluorescent assay and expressed in units of a HDL oxidant index (HOI). Changes in HOI (ΔHOI) were calculated as the difference in HOI from baseline to 1 h after or 20 h after exposures.There was a trend towards bigger ΔHOI between PM2.5 and FA 1 h after exposures (p = 0.18) but not 20 h after. This trend became significant (p <0.05) when baseline HOI was lower (<1.5 or <2.0), indicating decreased HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory capacity shortly after the exposures. There were no significant effects of ozone alone or in combination with PM2.5 on the change in HOI at both time points. The change in HOI due to PM2.5 showed a positive trend with particle mass concentration (p = 0.078) and significantly associated with the slope of systolic blood pressure during exposures (p = 0.005).Brief exposures to concentrated PM2.5 elicited swift effects on HDL anti-oxidant/anti-inflammatory functionality, which could indicate a potential mechanism for how particulate air pollution induces harmful cardiovascular effects.
Project description:Ambient air pollution has been linked to the development of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, evidence of the association is very limited, and no study has estimated the effects of ozone.Our aim was to determine the association of prenatal exposures to particulate matter ? 2.5 ?m (PM2.5) and ozone (O3) with GDM.We used Florida birth vital statistics records to investigate the association between the risk of GDM and two air pollutants (PM2.5 and O3) among 410,267 women who gave birth in Florida between 2004 and 2005. Individual air pollution exposure was assessed at the woman's home address at time of delivery using the hierarchical Bayesian space-time statistical model. We further estimated associations between air pollution exposures during different trimesters and GDM.After controlling for nine covariates, we observed increased odds of GDM with per 5-?g/m3 increase in PM2.5 (ORTrimester1 = 1.16; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.21; ORTrimester2 = 1.15; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.20; ORPregnancy = 1.20; 95% CI: 1.13, 1.26) and per 5-ppb increase in O3 (ORTrimester1 = 1.09; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.11; ORTrimester2 = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.14; ORPregnancy = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.15, 1.21) during both the first trimester and second trimester as well as the full pregnancy in single-pollutant models. Compared with the single-pollutant model, the ORs for O3 were almost identical in the co-pollutant model. However, the ORs for PM2.5 during the first trimester and the full pregnancy were attenuated, and no association was observed for PM2.5 during the second trimester in the co-pollutant model (OR = 1.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 1.07).This population-based study suggests that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of GDM in Florida, USA.Hu H, Ha S, Henderson BH, Warner TD, Roth J, Kan H, Xu X. 2015. Association of atmospheric particulate matter and ozone with gestational diabetes mellitus. Environ Health Perspect 123:853-859; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408456.
Project description:Importance:Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective:To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants:In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures:Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results:Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 μm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-μg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-μg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 μg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance:The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.