Comparative transcriptome analysis and marker development of two closely related Primrose species (Primula poissonii and Primula wilsonii).
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primula species are important early spring garden plants with a centre of diversity and speciation in the East Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains in Western China. Studies on population genetics, speciation and phylogeny of Primula have been impeded by a lack of genomic resources. In the present study, we sequenced the transcriptomes of two closely related primrose species, Primula poissonii and Primula wilsonii, using short reads on the Illumina Genome Analyzer platform. RESULTS: We obtained 55,284 and 55,011 contigs with N50 values of 938 and 1,085 for P. poissonii and P. wilsonii, respectively, and 6,654 pairs of putative orthologs were identified between the two species. Estimations of non-synonymous/synonymous substitution rate ratios for these orthologs indicated that 877 of the pairs may be under positive selection (Ka/Ks?>?0.5), and functional enrichment analysis revealed that significant proportions of the orthologs were in the categories DNA repair, stress resistance, which may provide some hints as to how the two closely related Primula species adapted differentially to extreme environments, such as habitats characterized by aridity, high altitude and high levels of ionizing radiation. It was possible for the first time to estimate the divergence time between the radiated species pair, P. poissonii and P. wilsonii; this was found to be approximately 0.90?±?0.57 Mya, which falls between the Donau and Gunz glaciation in the Middle Pleistocene. Primers based on 54 pairs of orthologous SSR-containing sequences between the two Primula species were designed and verified. About half of these pairs successfully amplified for both species. Of the 959 single copy nuclear genes shared by four model plants (known as APVO genes), 111 single copy nuclear genes were verified as being present in both Primula species and exon-anchored and intron-spanned primers were designed for use. CONCLUSION: We characterized the transcriptomes for the two Primula species, and produced an unprecedented amount of genomic resources for these important garden plants. Evolutionary analysis of these two Primula species not only revealed a more precise divergence time, but also provided some novel insights into how differential adaptations occurred in extreme habitats. Furthermore, we developed two sets of genetic markers, single copy nuclear genes and nuclear microsatellites (EST-SSR). Both these sets of markers will facilitate studies on the genetic improvement, population genetics and phylogenetics of this rapidly adapting taxon.
Project description:The genus Primula is extremely diverse in the east Himalaya-Hengduan Mountains (HHM) in China as a result of rapid radiation. In order to overcome the difficulty of morphological classification of this genus, we surveyed three plastid regions (rbcL, matK, and trnH-psbA) and two nuclear markers (ITS and ITS2) from 227 accessions representing 66 Primula species across 18 sections, to assess their discriminatory power as barcodes. We found that ITS alone or combined with plastid regions showed the best discrimination across different infrageneric ranks and at species level. We suggest rbcL + matK + ITS as the first choice at present to barcode Primula plants. Although the present barcoding combination performed poorly in many closely related species of Primula, it still provided many new insights into current Primula taxonomy, such as the underlying presence of cryptic species, and several potential improper taxonomic treatments. DNA barcoding is one useful technique in the integrative taxonomy of the genus Primula, but it still requires further efforts to improve its effectiveness in some taxonomically challenging groups.
Project description:This report provides a description of Primula sunhangii from the Shennongjia Forestry District, Hubei Province in Central China, which is categorized as a new species of the primrose family. Primula sunhangii is morphologically similar to P. involucrata Wall. ex Duby in terms of its simple umbel, efarinose, and prolonged bracts. However, P. sunhangii is distinguished by its glabrous sepal, short petiole (compare with blade) and cylindrical calyx and capsule. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on nuclear and cpDNA genes demonstrates that P. sunhangii and P. involucrata are closely related. Combining genetic and morphological data, the recognition of P. sunhangii as a unique new species is supported.
Project description:Species-rich genus Primula L. is a typical plant group with which to understand genetic variance between species in different levels of relationships. Chloroplast genome sequences are used to be the information resource for quantifying this difference and reconstructing evolutionary history. In this study, we reported the complete chloroplast genome sequence of Primula sinensis and compared it with other related species. This genome of chloroplast showed a typical circular quadripartite structure with 150,859 bp in sequence length consisting of 37.2% GC base. Two inverted repeated regions (25,535 bp) were separated by a large single-copy region (82,064 bp) and a small single-copy region (17,725 bp). The genome consists of 112 genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes and four rRNA genes. Among them, seven coding genes, seven tRNA genes and four rRNA genes have two copies due to their locations in the IR regions. The accD and infA genes lacking intact open reading frames (ORF) were identified as pseudogenes. SSR and sequence variation analyses were also performed on the plastome of Primula sinensis, comparing with another available plastome of P. poissonii. The four most variable regions, rpl36-rps8, rps16-trnQ, trnH-psbA and ndhC-trnV, were identified. Phylogenetic relationship estimates using three sub-datasets extracted from a matrix of 57 protein-coding gene sequences showed the identical result that was consistent with previous studies. A transcript found from P. sinensis transcriptome showed a high similarity to plastid accD functional region and was identified as a putative plastid transit peptide at the N-terminal region. The result strongly suggested that plastid accD has been functionally transferred to the nucleus in P. sinensis.
Project description:Compared to traditional DNA markers, genome-scale datasets can provide mass information to effectively address historically difficult phylogenies. Primula is the largest genus in the family Primulaceae, with members distributed mainly throughout temperate and arctic areas of the Northern Hemisphere. The phylogenetic relationships among Primula taxa still maintain unresolved, mainly due to intra- and interspecific morphological variation, which was caused by frequent hybridization and introgression. In this study, we sequenced and assembled four complete plastid genomes (Primula handeliana, Primula woodwardii, Primula knuthiana, and Androsace laxa) by Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 10 Primula species (including 7 published plastid genomes) were analyzed to investigate the plastid genome sequence divergence and their inferences for the phylogeny of Primula. The 10 Primula plastid genomes were similar in terms of their gene content and order, GC content, and codon usage, but slightly different in the number of the repeat. Moderate sequence divergence was observed among Primula plastid genomes. Phylogenetic analysis strongly supported that Primula was monophyletic and more closely related to Androsace in the Primulaceae family. The phylogenetic relationships among the 10 Primula species showed that the placement of P. knuthiana-P. veris clade was uncertain in the phylogenetic tree. This study indicated that plastid genome data were highly effective to investigate the phylogeny.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The historical orogenesis and associated climatic changes of mountain areas have been suggested to partly account for the occurrence of high levels of biodiversity and endemism. However, their effects on dispersal, differentiation and evolution of many groups of plants are still unknown. In this study, we examined the detailed diversification history of Primula sect. Armerina, and used biogeographic analysis and macro-evolutionary modeling to investigate a series of different questions concerning the evolution of the geographical and ecological distribution of the species in this section. RESULTS:We sequenced five chloroplast and one nuclear genes for species of Primula sect. Armerina. Neither chloroplast nor nuclear trees support the monophyly of the section. The major incongruences between the two trees occur among closely related species and may be explained by hybridization. Our dating analyses based on the chloroplast dataset suggest that this section began to diverge from its relatives around 3.55 million years ago, largely coinciding with the last major uplift of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP). Biogeographic analysis supports the origin of the section in the Himalayan Mountains and dispersal from the Himalayas to Northeastern QTP, Western QTP and Hengduan Mountains. Furthermore, evolutionary models of ecological niches show that the two P. fasciculata clades have significantly different climatic niche optima and rates of niche evolution, indicating niche evolution under climatic changes and further providing evidence for explaining their biogeographic patterns. CONCLUSION:Our results support the hypothesis that geologic and climatic events play important roles in driving biological diversification of organisms in the QTP area. The Pliocene uplift of the QTP and following climatic changes most likely promoted both the inter- and intraspecific divergence of Primula sect. Armerina. This study also illustrates how niche evolution under climatic changes influences biogeographic patterns.
Project description:Salix wilsonii is an important ornamental willow tree widely distributed in China. In this study, an integrated circular chloroplast genome was reconstructed for S. wilsonii based on the chloroplast reads screened from the whole-genome sequencing data generated with the PacBio RSII platform. The obtained pseudomolecule was 155,750 bp long and had a typical quadripartite structure, comprising a large single copy region (LSC, 84,638 bp) and a small single copy region (SSC, 16,282 bp) separated by two inverted repeat regions (IR, 27,415 bp). The S. wilsonii chloroplast genome encoded 115 unique genes, including four rRNA genes, 30 tRNA genes, 78 protein-coding genes, and three pseudogenes. Repetitive sequence analysis identified 32 tandem repeats, 22 forward repeats, two reverse repeats, and five palindromic repeats. Additionally, a total of 118 perfect microsatellites were detected, with mononucleotide repeats being the most common (89.83%). By comparing the S. wilsonii chloroplast genome with those of other rosid plant species, significant contractions or expansions were identified at the IR-LSC/SSC borders. Phylogenetic analysis of 17 willow species confirmed that S. wilsonii was most closely related to S. chaenomeloides and revealed the monophyly of the genus Salix. The complete S. wilsonii chloroplast genome provides an additional sequence-based resource for studying the evolution of organelle genomes in woody plants.
Project description:Premise of the study:Microsatellite primers were developed for Primula ovalifolia, a member of Primula section Petiolares (Primulaceae), to study the population genetics and species delimitation in this section. Methods and Results:A total of 4753 markers were successfully designated from 5139 putative simple sequence repeat loci. We isolated 38 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat markers from 220 selected marker sites and tested polymorphism in three populations of P. ovalifolia, one of P. tardiflora, and one of P. epilosa. The number of alleles per locus ranged from one to 19, and the observed and expected levels of heterozygosity varied from 0 to 0.938 and 0 to 0.915, respectively. Most of the loci could be successfully cross-amplified in the two congeneric species. Conclusions:These markers will be useful for further population genetic analysis and gene flow estimation of P. ovalifolia and its relatives.
Project description:Primula veris L. and Primula elatior (L.) Hill represent medicinal plants used for the production of herbal teas and preparations with antioxidant and expectorant activity. Flowers and roots of both species possess the same biological activity. In the presented study, raw materials of wild growing P. veris and P. elatior were compared in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds using a fast and simple HPLC-DAD method. The study showed that flowers of both species were rich in flavonoids. However, P. veris flowers were characterized with a distinctly higher content of isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside, astragalin, and (+)-catechin, whereas P. elatior occurred to be a richer source of rutoside and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside. Hyperoside was found exclusively in P. elatior flowers. Phenolic glycosides (primverin and primulaverin) were identified only in the roots. Their content was about ten times higher in P. veris in comparison with P. elatior underground organs. The obtained results clearly show that both Primula species differ distinctly in terms of the content and composition of phenolic compounds. The compounds differentiating both species to the highest degree (hyperoside, in flowers, as well as primverin and primulaverin, in the roots) may be useful chemical markers in the identification and evaluation of both species.
Project description:The island-like distribution of subalpine habitats across mountain ranges can trigger the parallel evolution of locally adapted ecotypes. Such naturally replicated scenarios allow testing hypotheses on how elevational differentiation structures genetic diversity within species. Nevertheless, the parallel colonization of subalpine habitats across different mountain ranges has only rarely been documented with molecular data. We chose Primula elatior (Primulaceae), naturally spanning entire elevation range in multiple mountain regions of central Europe, to test for the origin of its scattered subalpine populations. Nuclear microsatellite variation revealed three genetic groups corresponding with the distinct study regions. We found that genetic differentiation between foothill and subalpine populations within each region was relatively low, suggesting that the colonization of subalpine habitats occurred independently within each mountain range. Furthermore, the strongest differentiation was usually found between the subalpine populations suggesting that mountain ridges may act as migration barriers that can reduce gene flow more strongly than elevational differences between foothill and subalpine populations. Finally, we found that subalpine colonization did not result in a loss of genetic diversity relative to foothill populations in agreement with the high migration rates that we document here between the subalpine and the foothill populations. In summary, our study shows subalpine Primula elatior populations are genetically diverse and distinct results of parallel colonization events from multiple foothill gene pools.
Project description:PREMISE OF THE STUDY:Microsatellite markers from Primula sikkimensis (Primulaceae) were developed for testing deep lineage divergence and speciation events. METHODS AND RESULTS:A total of 3112 microsatellites were identified from 61,755 unique reads though 454 pyrosequencing technology. Twenty-nine microsatellite loci were selected for PCR amplification and polymorphic analyses. Among the 29 tested markers, 17 microsatellite loci were further used for genotyping in three wild P. sikkimensis populations. The number of alleles varied from one to eight, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.111 to 1.000. Ten simple sequence repeat loci could be successfully cross-amplified in two Primula species. The transferability values were 76.5% in P. florindae and 58.8% in P. alpicola, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:These microsatellite markers will be valuable for testing the hypothesis of lineage divergence, genetic introgression, and cryptic speciation events between P. sikkimensis and its closely related taxa.