Polymorphisms of nucleotide excision repair genes predict melanoma survival.
ABSTRACT: Melanoma is the most highly malignant skin cancer, and nucleotide excision repair (NER) is involved in melanoma susceptibility. In this analysis of 1,042 melanoma patients, we evaluated whether genetic variants of NER genes may predict survival outcome of melanoma patients. We used genotyping data of 74 tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in eight core NER genes from our genome-wide association study (including two in XPA, 14 in XPC, three in XPE, four in ERCC1, 10 in ERCC2, eight in ERCC3, 14 in ERCC4, and 19 in ERCC5) and evaluated their associations with prognosis of melanoma patients. Using the Cox proportional hazards model and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found a predictive role of XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871 SNPs in the prognosis of melanoma patients (rs28720291: AG vs. GG, adjusted hazard ratio (adjHR)=11.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-40.9, P=0.0003; rs4150314: AG vs. GG, adjHR=4.76, 95% CI 1.09-20.8, P=0.038; rs2470458: AA vs. AG/GG, adjHR=2.11, 95% CI 1.03-4.33, P=0.040; and rs50871: AA vs. AC/CC adjHR=2.27, 95% CI 1.18-4.35, P=0.015). Patients with an increasing number of unfavorable genotypes had markedly increased death risk. Genetic variants of NER genes, particularly XPE rs28720291, ERCC5 rs4150314, XPC rs2470458, and ERCC2 rs50871, may independently or jointly modulate survival outcome of melanoma patients. Because our results were based on a median follow-up of 3 years without multiple test corrections, additional large prospective studies are needed to confirm our findings.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a versatile system that repairs various DNA damage. Polymorphisms of core NER genes could change NER ability and affect gastric cancer (GC) prognosis. We systematically analyzed the association between 43 SNPs of ten key NER pathway genes (ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, ERCC8, XPA, XPC, and DDB2) and overall survival (OS) of 373 GC patients in Chinese. Genotyping was performed by Sequenom MassARRAY platform. We found for the first time that carriers of ERCC2 rs50871 GG genotype demonstrated significantly increased hazards of death than GT/TT individuals (HR=2.55, P=0.002); ERCC6 rs1917799 heterozygote GT were associated with significantly shorter OS than wild-type TT (adjusted HR=1.68, P=0.048); patients with DDB2 rs3781619 GG genotype suffered higher hazards of death compared with AG/AA carriers (adjusted HR=2.30, P=0.003). Patients with ERCC1 rs3212961 AA/AC genotype exhibited longer OS than CC genotype (adjusted HR=0.63, P=0.028); ERCC5 rs2094258 AA/AG genotype revealed significantly favorable OS compared with GG genotype (adjusted HR=0.65, P=0.033); DDB2 rs830083 CG genotype could increase OS compared with GG genotype (adjusted HR=0.61, P=0.042). Furthermore, patients simultaneously carrying two "hazard" genotypes exhibited even significantly worse survival with HR of 3.75, 3.76 and 6.30, respectively. Similarly, combination of "favorable" genotypes predicted better prognosis with HR of 0.56, 0.49 and 0.33, respectively. In conclusion, ERCC2 rs50871 G/T, ERCC6 rs1917799 G/T, DDB2 rs3781619 A/G polymorphisms could predict shorter OS while ERCC1 rs3212961 A/C, ERCC5 rs2094258 A/G, DDB2 rs830083 C/G polymorphisms could predict longer OS of GC, which might serve as promising biomarkers for GC prognosis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with resected esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC) remains controversial for its uncertain role in improving overall survival (OS). Nucleotide excision repair (NER) removes DNA-adducts in tumor cells induced by the platinum-based chemotherapy and thus may modulate efficacy of the treatment. The present study evaluated if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of NER genes were prognostic biomarkers in ESCC patients treated with platinum-based adjuvant chemotherapy (PAC). METHODS:The analysis included 572 patients, for whom six SNPs of NER genes [i.e., XPC (rs1870134 and rs2228001), ERCC2/XPD rs238406 and ERCC5/XPG (rs2094258, rs2296147 and rs873601)] were detected with the TaqMan assay. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate their associations with disease free survival (DFS) and OS of these ESCC patients receiving PAC. Receiving operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the role of the risk genotypes in the DFS and OS. RESULTS:We found that ERCC5/XPG rs2094258 and rs873601 and ERCC2/XPD rs238406 SNPs were independently associated with poorer DFS and OS of ESCC patients [ERCC5/XPG rs2094258: CT+TT vs. CC: adjusted hazards ratio (adjHR) = 1.68 and P = 0.012 for DFS; adjHR = 1.99 and P = 0.0001 for OS; ERCC5/XPG rs873601: GA+GG vs. AA: adjHR = 1.59 and P = 0.024 for DFS; adjHR = 1.91 and P = 0.0005 for OS; ERCC2/XPD rs238406: TT vs. GG+GT: adjHR = 1.43 and P = 0.020 for DFS; adjHR = 1.52 and P = 0.008 for OS]. These HRs increased as the number of risk genotypes increased in the combined analysis. The model combining the risk genotypes with clinical characteristics or the TNM stage system was better in predicting outcomes in ESCC patients with PAC. CONCLUSION:SNPs of ERCC2/XPD and ERCC5/XPG may independently and jointly predict survival of ESCC patients treated with PAC in this study population. Further validation in other study populations is warranted.
Project description:We systematically analyzed the association of nine SNPs of seven key NER pathway genes with the development of laryngeal cancer patients, and investigated whether NER pathway polymorphisms could serve as potential biomarkers for laryngeal cancer risk. 271 patients with pathologically proven laryngeal cancer and 271 control subjects were included in our study. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs2298881, ERCC2 rs13181 and rs50871, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, ERCC5 rs2094258, XPA rs2808668 and XPC rs2228001 were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By conditional logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying the TT genotype of ERCC1 rs11615 were correlated with an increased risk of larynx cancer when compared with the CC genotype (OR=1.89, 95% CI=1.07-3.37; P value=0.02). Moreover, individuals with the GG genotype of ERCC2 rs50871 were associated with an elevated risk of larynx cancer when compare with the TT genotype (OR=2.03, 95% CI=1.15-3.63; P value=0.01). We found a significant interaction between ERCC2 rs50871 polymorphism and tobacco smoking in the risk of larynx cancer (P for interaction <0.05). In conclusion, our study showed that ERCC1 rs11615 and ERCC2 rs50871 polymorphisms could influence the risk of larynx cancer in Chinese population, particularly among smokers.
Project description:Nucleotide excision repair (NER) plays a critical role in maintaining genome integrity. This study aimed to investigate the expression of NER genes and their associations with colorectal cancer (CRC) development.Expressions of NER genes in CRC and normal tissues were analysed by ONCOMINE. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data were downloaded to explore relationship of NER expression with clinicopathological parameters and survival of CRC.ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, and DDB2 were upregulated while ERCC4 was downregulated in CRC. For colon cancer, high ERCC3 expression was related to better T stage; ERCC5 expression indicated deeper T stage and distant metastasis; DDB2 expression suggested earlier TNM stage. For rectal cancer, ERCC2 expression correlated with favourable T stage; XPA expression predicted worse TNM stage. ERCC2 expression was associated with worse overall survival (OS) in colon cancer (HR = 1.53, P = 0.043). Colon cancer patients with high ERCC4 expression showed favorable OS in males (HR = 0.54, P = 0.035). High XPC expression demonstrated decreased death hazards in rectal cancer (HR = 0.40, P = 0.026).ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, and DDB2 were differently expressed in CRC and normal tissues; ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC5, XPA, and DDB2 correlated with clinicopathological parameters of CRC, while ERCC2, ERCC4, and XPC might predict CRC prognosis.
Project description:Hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the genes encoding nucleotide excision repair (NER) proteins are involved in every step of the DNA recognition-unwinding-incision process, which may affect cancer risk. However, only a limited number of studies have examined the association of NER SNPs with hepatocellular cancer (HCC) risk.In screening stage, single-locus analysis showed that six SNPs in five genes were associated with HCC risk, including three risk SNPs (XPA rs10817938, XPC rs1870134 and ERCC2 rs238417) and three protective SNPs (ERCC1 rs2298881 and rs3212961, and ERCC5 rs873601). In verification stage, only XPC rs1870134 was verified to be associated with HCC risk (P = 4.7 × 10-4). Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression and MDR analysis consistently revealed a gene-gene interaction among ERCC1 rs2298881 and XPC rs1870134 SNPs associated with HCC risk (Pinteraction = 0.023). When analyzing the effect of the positive SNP on the mRNA expression, we found XPC rs1870134 GG genotype which was associated with an increased HCC risk showed lower XPC mRNA expression.This study designed as "screening-verification" experiments and included a total of 1472 participants (570 HCC patients vs. 902 controls). We explored 39 SNPs in eight genes involved in NER Pathways, including XPA, XPC, DDB2, ERCC3, ERCC2, ERCC1, ERCC4 and ERCC5, using Sequenom MassARRAY and KASPar platform. Eighty-six cases of HCC and the neighboring noncancerous tissues were subjected to the measurement of mRNA expression level of the promising gene.XPC promoter rs1870134 SNP and SNP-SNP interaction were associated with HCC risk.
Project description:We performed a study to investigate the role of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC5, XPA and XPC polymorphisms from perspective of the whole NER pathway in the prognosis of gastric cancer. A total of 410 gastric cancer patients were recruited between January 2010 and December 2011. Restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) was used to analyze genotypes of ERCC1 rs11615 and rs3212986, ERCC2 rs13181 and s1799793, ERCC5 rs17655, XPA rs1800975 and XPC rs2228001. Our study found that carriers of ERCC1 rs3212986 TT genotype showed significantly favorable survival than wide-type GG genotype in multivariate analysis (OR=6.38, 95% CI=2.54-19.03), and patients with variant CC genotype of ERCC2 rs13181 exhibited better response to chemotherapy than those with AA genotype (OR=2.21, 95% CI=1.17-4.25). By Cox proportional hazards model, patients with variant TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 exhibited longer PFS and OS than those who had GG genotype (for PFS, HR=0.37, 95% CI=0.17-0.75; for OS, HR=0.36, 95% CI=0.13-0.87). For ERCC2 rs13181 polymorphism, carriers with CC genotype demonstrated significantly increased hazards of progression of disease and death in multivariate model (for PFS, HR=0.48, 95% CI=0.26-0.88; for OS, HR=0.44, 95% CI=0.20-0.91). In conclusion, our finding suggests that ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs13181 gene polymorphism could influence the response to chemotherapy and clinical outcome of gastric cancer.
Project description:Since nucleotide excision repair (NER) is primarily responsible for detecting and removing bulky DNA lesions induced by tobacco smoke in the respiratory tract, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NER protein-encoding genes may influence lung cancer risk, particularly in smokers. Studies testing this hypothesis have produced inconsistent results, with most analyzing a few SNPs in relatively small population samples. In a study nested in the Beta- Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial, we examined 79 tag and previously reported risk-associated SNPs in the ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, POLE, XPA, and XPC genes in 744 lung cancer cases and 1,477 controls, all of whom were non-Hispanic white smokers. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated to estimate lung cancer risk associated with SNP genotypes and haplotypes, adjusting for case-control matching factors. Lung cancer risk was modestly associated with LIG1 rs156640 (OR per G allele, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), rs156641 (OR per A allele, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.08-1.40), and rs8100261 (OR per A allele, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.76-0.98); XPA rs3176658 (OR per A allele, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.69-1.00); and ERCC2 rs50871 (OR per C allele, 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). Associations with LIG1 and XPA, but not ERCC2, haplotypes were found. The results of this study and others suggest that inherited variants in LIG1 and possibly other NER genes may predispose to smoking-related lung cancer. Given that chance likely accounts for one or more of the associations observed, replication of our findings is needed.
Project description:In our study, we conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, XPA, XPC and DDB2 gene polymorphisms in the risk of pancreatic cancer. Between May 2012 and May 2014, a total of 246 patients with who were newly diagnosed with histopathologically confirmed primary pancreatic cancer and 246 controls were selected into our study. Genotyping of ERCC1 rs3212986 and rs11615, ERCC2 rs13181, ERCC3 rs4150441, ERCC4 rs6498486, ERCC5 rs873601, XPA rs2808668, XPC rs2228000, XPC rs2228001 and DDB2 rs2029298 were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) coupled with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). By conditional logistic regression analysis, individuals carrying with TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and GG genotype of ERCC2 rs13181 were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer when compared with wide-type genotype, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 2.40 (1.29-4.52) and 2.27 (1.26-4.15), respectively. We found that individuals carrying with GT+TT genotype of ERCC1 rs3212986 and TG+GG genotype of ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms were correlated with higher risk of pancreatic cancer in smokers when compared with non-smokers, and the adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.89 (1.05-3.40) and 1.88 (1.06-3.34), respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that ERCC1 rs3212986 and ERCC2 rs1318 gene polymorphisms contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer, especially in smokers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Exposure to estrogens increases the risk of endometrial cancer. Certain estrogen metabolites can form bulky DNA adducts, which are removed via nucleotide excision repair (NER), and the ability to carry out this repair might be related to endometrial cancer risk. METHODS:We examined 64 tag and functional single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the NER genes ERCC1, ERCC2 (XPD), ERCC3 (XPB), ERCC4 (XPF), ERCC5 (XPG), LIG1, XPA, and XPC in a population-based case-control study in Washington state, with 783 endometrial cancer cases and 795 controls. RESULTS:The presence of ERCC5 rs4150386 C, LIG1 rs3730865 C, XPA rs2808667 T, or XPC rs3731127 T alleles was associated with risk of endometrial cancer, with respective age-, county-, and reference year-adjusted per-allele ORs and 95% CIs of 0.68 (0.53-0.87, P = 0.002), 1.46 (1.02-2.10, P = 0.04), 0.71 (0.52-0.97, P = 0.03), and 1.57 (1.13-2.17, P = 0.007), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Certain ERCC5, LIG1, XPA, and XPC genotypes might influence endometrial cancer risk. IMPACT:Because of multiple redundancies in DNA repair pathways (and therefore a low prior probability) and the large number of associations examined, false-positive findings are likely. Further characterization of the relation between variation in NER genes and endometrial cancer risk is warranted.
Project description:Few studies on the association between nucleotide excision repair (NER) variants and lung cancer risk have included Latinos and African Americans. We examine variants in 6 NER genes (ERCC2, ERCC4, ERCC5, LIG1, RAD23B and XPC) in association with primary lung cancer risk among 113 Latino and 255 African American subjects newly diagnosed with primary lung cancer from 1998 to 2003 in the San Francisco Bay Area and 579 healthy controls (299 Latinos and 280 African Americans). Individual single nucleotide polymorphism and haplotype analyses, multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) and principal components analysis (PCA) were performed to assess the association between 6 genes in the NER pathway and lung cancer risk. Among Latinos, ERCC2 haplotype CGA (rs238406, rs11878644, rs6966) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) of 0.65 and 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44-0.97], especially among nonsmokers (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.12-0.67). From MDR analysis, in Latinos, smoking and 3 SNPs (ERCC2 rs171140, ERCC5 rs17655 and LIG1 rs20581) together had a prediction accuracy of 67.4% (p = 0.001) for lung cancer. Among African Americans, His/His genotype of ERCC5 His1104Asp (rs17655) was associated with increased lung cancer risk (OR = 1.78; 95% CI: 1.09-2.91), and LIG1 haplotype GGGAA (rs20581, rs156641, rs3730931, rs20579 and rs439132) was associated with reduced lung cancer risk (OR = 0.61; 95% CI: 0.42-0.88). Our study suggests different elements of the NER pathway may be important in the different ethnic groups resulting either from different linkage relationship, genetic backgrounds and/or exposure histories.