Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of Omp6, a protoilludene synthase from Omphalotus olearius.
ABSTRACT: Basidiomycetes produce a wide range of industrially relevant natural products. One of the main classes of natural products isolated from fungi are terpenoids, a highly diverse group of secondary metabolites, many of which are bioactive and have been adapted for pharmaceutical purposes. The discovery of a suite of novel sesquiterpene synthases from Omphalotus olearius via genome sequencing and bioinformatic analyses has recently been described. Here, the expression, purification and crystallization of one of these enzymes (Omp6), a protoilludene synthase, is reported. A native crystal diffracted to a resolution of 2.9?Å and belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 43.67, b = 76.76, c = 107.22?Å, ? = ? = 90, ? = 95°. A diffraction data set was collected on a home-source Rigaku/MSC MicroMax-007 X-ray generator.
Project description:Protoilludene is a valuable sesquiterpene and serves as a precursor for several medicinal compounds and antimicrobial chemicals. It can be synthesized by heterologous expression of protoilludene synthase in Escherichia coli with overexpression of mevalonate (MVA) or methylerythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway, and farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) synthase. Here, we present E. coli as a cell factory for protoilludene production.Protoilludene was successfully produced in E. coli by overexpression of a hybrid exogenous MVA pathway, endogenous FPP synthase (IspA), and protoilludene synthase (OMP7) of Omphalotus olearius. For improving protoilludene production, the MVA pathway was engineered to increase synthesis of building blocks isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) by sequential order permutation of the lower MVA portion (MvL), the alteration of promoters and copy numbers for the upper MVA portion (MvU), and the coordination of both portions, resulting in an efficient entire MVA pathway. To reduce the accumulation of mevalonate observed in the culture broth due to lower efficiency of the MvL than the MvU, the MvL was further engineered by homolog substitution with the corresponding genes from Staphylococcus aureus. Finally, the highest protoilludene production of 1199 mg/L was obtained from recombinant E. coli harboring the optimized hybrid MVA pathway in a test tube culture.This is the first report of microbial synthesis of protoilludene by using an engineered E. coli strain. The protoilludene production was increased by approx. Thousandfold from an initial titer of 1.14 mg/L. The strategies of both the sequential order permutation and homolog substitution could provide a new perspective of engineering MVA pathway, and be applied to optimization of other metabolic pathways.
Project description:The Basidiomycota fungi represent a diverse source of natural products, particularly the sesquiterpenoids. Recently, genome sequencing, genome mining, and the subsequent discovery of a suite of sesquiterpene synthases in Omphalotus olearius was described. A predictive framework was developed to facilitate the discovery of sesquiterpene synthases in Basidiomycota. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a conservation of both sequence and initial cyclization mechanisms used. Here, the first robust application of this predictive framework is reported. It was used to selectively identify sesquiterpene synthases that follow 1,6-, 1,10-, and 1,11-cyclization mechanisms in the crust fungus Stereum hirsutum. The successful identification and characterization of a 1,6- and a 1,10-cyclizing sesquiterpene synthase, as well as three 1,11-cyclizing ?(6) -protoilludene synthases, is described. This study verifies the accuracy and utility of the predictive framework as a roadmap for the discovery of specific sesquiterpene synthases from Basidiomycota, and thus represents an important step forward in natural product discovery.
Project description:Backbone N-methylation and macrocyclization improve the pharmacological properties of peptides by enhancing their proteolytic stability, membrane permeability and target selectivity. Borosins are backbone N-methylated peptide macrocycles derived from a precursor protein which contains a peptide α-N-methyltransferase domain autocatalytically modifying the core peptide located at its C-terminus. Founding members of borosins are the omphalotins from the mushroom Omphalotus olearius (omphalotins A-I) with nine out of 12 L-amino acids being backbone N-methylated. The omphalotin biosynthetic gene cluster codes for the precursor protein OphMA, the protease prolyloligopeptidase OphP and other proteins that are likely to be involved in other post-translational modifications of the peptide. Mining of available fungal genome sequences revealed the existence of highly homologous gene clusters in the basidiomycetes Lentinula edodes and Dendrothele bispora. The respective borosins, referred to as lentinulins and dendrothelins are naturally produced by L. edodes and D. bispora as shown by analysis of respective mycelial extracts. We produced all three homologous peptide natural products by coexpression of OphMA hybrid proteins and OphP in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant peptides differ in their nematotoxic activity against the plant pathogen Meloidogyne incognita. Our findings pave the way for the production of borosin peptide natural products and their potential application as novel biopharmaceuticals and biopesticides.
Project description:An atypical two-cysteine peroxidase, SAOUHSC_01822, from the virulent Staphylococcus aureus strain NCTC 8325 plays a major role in the response of the bacterium to oxidative stress. The protein was cloned, expressed, purified to homogeneity and crystallized. The protein was crystallized from 2 M ammonium sulfate, 0.1 M Na HEPES pH 7, 2%(v/v) PEG 400. A complete diffraction data set was collected to 2.3 angstrom resolution using a Rigaku MicroMax HF007 Cu K alpha X-ray generator and a Rigaku R-AXIS IV(+)(+) detector. The crystals belonged to space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 43.50, b = 149.35, c = 73.73 angstrom, beta = 104.4 degrees, and contained four molecules in the asymmetric unit.
Project description:The secondary metabolome of Basidiomycota represents a largely uncharacterized source of pharmaceutically relevant natural products. Terpenoids are the primary class of bioactive compounds isolated from mushrooms. The Jack O'Lantern mushroom Omphalotus olearius was identified 50 years ago as a prolific producer of anticancer illudin sesquiterpenoids; however, to date there have been exceptionally few studies into the biosynthesis of these important compounds. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of O. olearius, which reveals a diverse network of sesquiterpene synthases and two metabolic gene clusters associated with illudin biosynthesis. Characterization of the sesquiterpene synthases enabled a comprehensive survey of all currently available Basidiomycota genomes, thereby creating a predictive resource for terpenoid natural product biosynthesis in these organisms. Our results will facilitate discovery and biosynthetic production of unique pharmaceutically relevant bioactive compounds from Basidiomycota.
Project description:A wide variety of sesquiterpenoids have been isolated from basidiomycetes, and their bioactive properties have attracted significant attention in an effort to understand biosynthetic machineries. As both sesquiterpene synthases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases play key roles in the diversification of sesquiterpenoids, it is important to widely and mutually understand their biochemical properties. In this study, we performed genome-wide annotation and functional characterization of sesquiterpene synthases from the brown-rot basidiomycete Postia placenta. Using RT-PCR, we isolated 16 sesquiterpene synthases genes as full-length cDNAs. Heterologous expression revealed that the sesquiterpene synthases could produce a series of sesquiterpene scaffolds with distinct metabolic profiles. Based on metabolic studies, we identified 25 sesquiterpene scaffolds including ?6-protoilludene produced by the sesquiterpene synthases. In particular, a protoilludene synthase from the brown-rot basidiomycete was characterized for the first time. Furthermore, we conducted a semi-comprehensive functional screening of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases from P. placenta to elucidate biosynthetic machineries involved in metabolisms of ?6-protoilludene. Coexpression of protoilludene synthase and 184 isoforms of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases enabled the identification of CYP5344B1, CYP5348E1 and CYP5348J3, which catalysed the hydroxylation reaction of ?6-protoilludene to produce ?6-protoilludene-8-ol and ?6-protoilludene-5-ol. Furthermore, structural isomers of ?7-protoilludene-6-ol were obtained from incubation of ?6-protoilludene-8-ol in acidic culture medium.
Project description:We describe methods to express the nucleoprotein (NP) of Lassa fever virus (LASV) in E. coli, to purify and crystallize it using the sitting-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals were screened using Rigaku micro-007 X-ray generator and a dataset was collected at a resolution of 2.36 Å. The crystals belong to space group P3, with the unit cell parameters a = b = 176.35 Å, c = 56.40 Å, ? = ? = 90°, and ? = 120°. Using the X-ray diffraction method, we constructed a three-dimensional structure of the LASV NP that should aid in the development of novel therapeutic strategies against this virus, for which vaccine and effective treatment modalities are currently unavailable.
Project description:In recent years, a variety of fungal cyclic peptides with interesting bioactivities have been discovered. For many of these peptides, the biosynthetic pathways are unknown and their elucidation often holds surprises. The cyclic and backbone N-methylated omphalotins from Omphalotus olearius were recently shown to constitute a novel class (borosins) of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptides, members of which are produced by many fungi, including species of the genus Rhizopogon. Other recently discovered fungal peptide macrocycles include the mariannamides from Mariannaea elegans and the backbone N-methylated verrucamides and broomeanamides from Myrothecium verrucaria and Sphaerostilbella broomeana, respectively. Here, we present draft genome sequences of four fungal species Rhizopogon roseolus, Mariannaea elegans, Myrothecium verrucaria, and Sphaerostilbella broomeana. We screened these genomes for precursor proteins or gene clusters involved in the mariannamide, verrucamide, and broomeanamide biosynthesis including a general screen for borosin-producing precursor proteins. While our genomic screen for potential ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide precursor proteins of mariannamides, verrucamides, broomeanamides, and borosins remained unsuccessful, antiSMASH predicted nonribosomal peptide synthase gene clusters that may be responsible for the biosynthesis of mariannamides, verrucamides, and broomeanamides. In M. verrucaria, our antiSMASH search led to a putative NRPS gene cluster with a predicted peptide product of 20 amino acids, including multiple nonproteinogenic isovalines. This cluster likely encodes a member of the peptaibols, an antimicrobial class of peptides previously isolated primarily from the Genus Trichoderma. The nonribosomal peptide synthase gene clusters discovered in our screenings are promising candidates for future research.
Project description:In the title compound, C22H23FO3S, the cyclo-pentyl ring adopts an envelope conformation with the flap atom connected to the benzofuran residue. The 4-fluoro-phenyl ring makes a dihedral angle of 43.67 (3)° with the mean plane [r.m.s. deviation = 0.008 (1) Å] of the benzofuran fragment. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three--dimensional network. The crystal structure also exhibits slipped π-π inter-actions between the benzene and furan rings of neighbouring mol-ecules [centroid-centroid distance = 3.883 (2) Å and slippage = 1.731 (2) Å].