Cloning, expression, purification, crystallization and X-ray crystallographic analysis of Rv2606c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv.
ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis is a widespread and deadly infectious disease, and one third of the human population is already infected. Vitamin B6 is known to be synthesized through consecutive reactions mediated by pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase (PdxS) and glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT). The gene product Rv2606c, the PdxS pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method in the presence of 8%(w/v) PEG 8000, 0.1?M 3-(cyclohexylamino)-1-propanesulfonic acid pH 10.5 and 0.2?M sodium chloride at 295?K. X-ray diffraction data were collected to a maximum resolution of 1.7?Å on a synchrotron beamline. The crystal belonged to space group I222 or I212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 110.75, b = 126.08, c = 180.82?Å, ? = ? = ? = 90°. With three molecules per asymmetric unit, the crystal volume per unit protein weight (VM) was 3.79?Å(3)?Da(-1).
Project description:Pyridoxal biosynthesis lyase (PdxS) is an important player in the biosynthesis of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), the biologically active form of vitamin B(6). PLP is an important cofactor involved in the metabolic pathway of amine-containing natural products such as amino acids and amino sugars. PdxS catalyzes the condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) and ammonia, while glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine. PdxS and PdxT form a complex, PLP synthase, and widely exist in eubacteria, archaea, fungi and plants. To facilitate further structural comparisons among PdxS proteins, the structural analysis of PdxS from Pyrococcus horikoshii encoded by the Ph1355 gene was initiated. PdxS from P. horikoshii was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and crystallized at 296 K using 2-methyl-2,4-pentanediol as a precipitant. Crystals of P. horikoshii PdxS diffracted to 2.61 Å resolution and belonged to the monoclinic space group P2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 59.30, b = 178.56, c = 109.23 Å, ? = 102.97°. The asymmetric unit contained six monomers, with a corresponding V(M) of 2.54 Å(3) Da(-1) and a solvent content of 51.5% by volume.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis synthesizes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, the active form of vitamin B(6), by a poorly characterized pathway involving the yaaD and yaaE genes. The pdxS (yaaD) mutant was confirmed to be a strict B(6) auxotroph, but the pdxT (yaaE) mutant turned out to be a conditional auxotroph depending on the availability of ammonium in the growth medium. The PdxS and PdxT proteins copurified during affinity chromatography and apparently form a complex that has glutaminase activity. PdxS and PdxT appear to encode the synthase and glutaminase subunits, respectively, of a glutamine amidotransferase of as-yet-unknown specificity essential for B(6) biosynthesis.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor for numerous enzymes involved in a diversity of cellular processes in living organisms. Previous analysis of the Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae S-8 genome sequence revealed the presence of pdxS and pdxT genes, which are implicated in deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate (DXP)-independent pathway of PLP biosynthesis; however, little is known about their roles in A. pleuropneumoniae pathogenicity. Our data demonstrated that A. pleuropneumoniae could synthesize PLP by PdxS and PdxT enzymes. Disruption of the pdxS and pdxT genes rendered the pathogen auxotrophic for PLP, and the defective growth as a result of these mutants was chemically compensated by the addition of PLP, suggesting the importance of PLP production for A. pleuropneumoniae growth and viability. Additionally, the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants displayed morphological defects as indicated by irregular and aberrant shapes in the absence of PLP. The reduced growth of the pdxS and pdxT deletion mutants under osmotic and oxidative stress conditions suggests that the PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT are associated with the stress tolerance of A. pleuropneumoniae. Furthermore, disruption of the PLP biosynthesis pathway led to reduced colonization and attenuated virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae in the BALB/c mouse model. The data presented in this study reveal the critical role of PLP synthases PdxS/PdxT in viability, stress tolerance, and virulence of A. pleuropneumoniae.
Project description:Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is the biologically active form of vitamin B(6) and is de novo synthesized from three substrates, dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP), riburose 5-phosphate (RBP), and ammonia hydrolysed from glutamine. Glutamine amidotransferase (PdxT) catalyzes the production of ammonia from glutamine, while PdxS catalyzes the following condensation of ribulose 5-phosphate (Ru5P), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3P), and ammonia. PdxS exists as a hexamer or dodecamer depending on species and makes a 1:1 complex with PdxT. Pyrococcus horikoshii PdxS has a 37 amino acids insertion region, which is found in some archaeal PdxS proteins, but its structure and function are unknown. To provide further structural information on the role of the insertion region, the oligomeric state, and ligand binding mode of P. horikoshii PdxS, the crystal structure of PdxS from P. horikoshii was solved in two forms: (i) apo form, (ii) r ibose 5-phosphate (R5P) complex and the quaternary structure of PdxS in solution was determined by analytical gel filtration. P. horikoshii PdxS forms hexamer in solution based on analytical gel filtration data. When we superimpose the structure of P. horikoshii PdxS with other dodecamer structures of PdxS, the additional insertion is located apart from the active site and induces a steric clash on the hexamer-hexamer interface of PdxS proteins. Our results suggest that the additional insertion perturbs dodecamer formation of P. horikoshii PdxS.
Project description:Vitamin B? is an essential cofactor for a large number of enzymes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In this study, we characterized the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis pathway in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Our results revealed that S. pneumoniae possesses a de novo vitamin B? biosynthesis pathway encoded by the pdxST genes. Purified PdxS functionally displayed as PLP synthase, whereas PdxT exhibited glutaminase activity in vitro. Deletion of pdxS, but not pdxT, resulted in a vitamin B? auxotrophic mutant. The defective growth of the ?pdxS mutant in a vitamin B?-depleted medium could be chemically restored in the presence of the B? vitamers at optimal concentrations. By analyzing PdxS expression levels, we demonstrated that the expression of pdxS was repressed by PLP and activated by a transcription factor, PdxR. A pneumococcal ?pdxR mutant also exhibited as a vitamin B? auxotroph. In addition, we found that disruption of the vitamin B? biosynthesis pathway in S. pneumoniae caused a significant attenuation in a chinchilla middle ear infection model and a minor attenuation in a mouse pneumonia model, indicating that the impact of vitamin B? synthesis on virulence depends upon the bacterial infection niche.
Project description:Two crystal forms of Escherichia coli tryptophanase (tryptophan indole-lyase, Trpase) were obtained under the same crystallization conditions. Both forms belonged to the same space group P43212 but had slightly different unit-cell parameters. The holo crystal form, with pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) bound to Lys270 of both polypeptide chains in the asymmetric unit, diffracted to 2.9?Å resolution. The second crystal form diffracted to 3.2?Å resolution. Of the two subunits in the asymmetric unit, one was found in the holo form, while the other appeared to be in the apo form in a wide-open conformation with two sulfate ions bound in the vicinity of the active site. The conformation of all holo subunits is the same in both crystal forms. The structures suggest that Trpase is flexible in the apo form. Its conformation partially closes upon binding of PLP. The closed conformation might correspond to the enzyme in its active state with both cofactor and substrate bound in a similar way as in tyrosine phenol-lyase.
Project description:Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (Ab) has emerged as a leading nosocomial pathogen because of its resistance to most currently available antibiotics. Cystathionine ?-lyase (CBL), a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent enzyme, catalyzes the second step in the transsulfuration pathway, which is essential for the metabolic interconversion of the sulfur-containing amino acids homocysteine and methionine. The enzymes of the transsulfuration pathway are considered to be attractive drug targets owing to their specificity to microbes and plants. As a potential target for the development of novel antibacterial drugs, the AbCBL protein was expressed, purified and crystallized. An AbCBL crystal diffracted to 1.57?Å resolution and belonged to the trigonal space group P3112, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.9, c = 136.5?Å. The asymmetric unit contained two monomers, with a corresponding VM of 2.3?Å(3)?Da(-1) and a solvent content of 46.9%.
Project description:Although the routes of de novo pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) biosynthesis have been well described, studies of the engineering of an intracellular PLP supply are limited, and the effects of cellular PLP levels on PLP-dependent enzyme-based whole-cell biocatalyst activity have not been described. To investigate the effects of PLP cofactor availability on whole-cell biocatalysis, the ribose 5-phosphate (R5P)-dependent pathway genes pdxS and pdxT of Bacillus subtilis were introduced into the lysine decarboxylase (CadA)-overexpressing Escherichia coli strain BL-CadA. This strain was then used as a whole-cell biocatalyst for cadaverine production from L-lysine. Co-expression strategies were evaluated, and the culture medium was optimised to improve the biocatalyst performance. As a result, the intracellular PLP concentration reached 1144?nmol/gDCW, and a specific cadaverine productivity of 25?g/gDCW/h was achieved; these values were 2.4-fold and 2.9-fold higher than those of unmodified BL-CadA, respectively. Additionally, the resulting strain AST3 showed a cadaverine titre (p?=?0.143, ??=?0.05) similar to that of the BL-CadA strain with the addition of 0.1?mM PLP. These approaches for improving intracellular PLP levels to enhance whole-cell lysine bioconversion activity show great promise for the engineering of a PLP cofactor to optimise whole-cell biocatalysis.
Project description:The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase converts 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate to p-aminobenzoate and pyruvate in one of the crucial steps in the folate-biosynthesis pathway. The primary structure of the hypothetical protein TTHA0621 from Thermus thermophilus HB8 suggests that TTHA0621 is a putative 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase. Here, the crystal structure of TTHA0621 is reported at 1.93 A resolution. The asymmetric unit contained four NCS molecules related by 222 noncrystallographic symmetry, in which the formation of intact dimers may be functionally important. The cofactor pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) binds to the protein in the large cleft formed by the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of TTHA0621. The high structural similarity and the conservation of the functional residues in the catalytic region compared with 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase (PabC; EC 126.96.36.199) from Escherichia coli suggest that the TTHA0621 protein may also possess 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase activity.
Project description:O-Acetylhomoserine sulfhydrylase (OAHS) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) dependent sulfide-utilizing enzyme in the L-cysteine and L-methionine biosynthetic pathways of various enteric bacteria and fungi. OAHS catalyzes the conversion of O-acetylhomoserine to homocysteine using sulfide in a process known as direct sulfhydrylation. However, the source of the sulfur has not been identified and no structures of OAHS have been reported in the literature. Here, the crystal structure of Wolinella succinogenes OAHS (MetY) determined at 2.2?Å resolution is reported. MetY crystallized in space group C2 with two monomers in the asymmetric unit. Size-exclusion chromatography, dynamic light scattering and crystal packing indicate that the biological unit is a tetramer in solution. This is further supported by the crystal structure, in which a tetramer is formed using a combination of noncrystallographic and crystallographic twofold axes. A search for structurally homologous proteins revealed that MetY has the same fold as cystathionine ?-lyase and methionine ?-lyase. The active sites of these enzymes, which are also PLP-dependent, share a high degree of structural similarity, suggesting that MetY belongs to the ?-elimination subclass of the Cys/Met metabolism PLP-dependent family of enzymes. The structure of MetY, together with biochemical data, provides insight into the mechanism of sulfur transfer to a small molecule via a protein thiocarboxylate intermediate.