The role of NOI-domain containing proteins in plant immune signaling.
ABSTRACT: Here we present an overview of our existing knowledge on the function of RIN4 as a regulator of plant defense and as a guardee of multiple plant R-proteins. Domain analysis of RIN4 reveals two NOI domains. The NOI domain was originally identified in a screen for nitrate induced genes. The domain is comprised of approximately 30 amino acids and contains 2 conserved motifs (PXFGXW and Y/FTXXF). The NOI gene family contains members exclusively from the plant lineage as far back as moss. In addition to the conserved NOI domain, members within the family also contain conserved C-terminal cysteine residue(s) which are sites for acylation and membrane tethering. Other than these two characteristic features, the sequence of the family of NOI-containing proteins is diverse and, with the exception of RIN4, their functions are not known. Recently published interactome data showing interactions between RIN4 and components of the exocyst complex prompt us to raise the hypothesis that RIN4 might be involved in defense associated vesicle trafficking.
Project description:The exocyst is a conserved vesicle-tethering complex with principal roles in cell polarity and morphogenesis. Several studies point to its involvement in polarized secretion during microbial pathogen defense. In this context, we have found an interaction between the Arabidopsis EXO70B1 exocyst subunit, a protein which was previously associated with both the defense response and autophagy, and RPM1 INTERACTING PROTEIN 4 (RIN4), the best studied member of the NOI protein family and a known regulator of plant defense pathways. Interestingly, fragments of RIN4 mimicking the cleavage caused by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protease, AvrRpt2, fail to interact strongly with EXO70B1. We observed that transiently expressed RIN4, but not the plasma membrane (PM) protein aquaporin PIP2, recruits EXO70B1 to the PM. Unlike EXO70B1, RIN4 does not recruit the core exocyst subunit SEC6 to the PM under these conditions. Furthermore, the AvrRpt2 effector protease delivered by P. syringae is able to release both RIN4 and EXO70B1 to the cytoplasm. We present a model for how RIN4 might regulate the localization and putative function of EXO70B1 and speculate on the role the AvrRpt2 protease might have in the regulation of this defense response.
Project description:Plant pathogenic Pseudomonas syringae deliver type III effector proteins into the host cell, where they function to manipulate host defense and metabolism to benefit the extracellular bacterial colony. The activity of these virulence factors can be monitored by plant disease resistance proteins deployed to "guard" the targeted host proteins. The Arabidopsis RIN4 protein is targeted by three different type III effectors. Specific manipulation of RIN4 by each of them leads to activation of either the RPM1 or RPS2 disease resistance proteins. The type III effector AvrRpt2 is a cysteine protease that is autoprocessed inside the host cell where it activates RPS2 by causing RIN4 disappearance. RIN4 contains two sites related to the AvrRpt2 cleavage site (RCS1 and RCS2). We demonstrate that AvrRpt2-dependent cleavage of RIN4 at RCS2 is functionally critical in vivo. This event leads to proteasome-mediated elimination of all but a membrane-embedded approximately 6.4-kDa C-terminal fragment of RIN4. One or more of three consecutive cysteines in this C-terminal fragment are required for RIN4 localization; these are likely to be palmitoylation and/or prenylation sites. AvrRpt2-dependent cleavage at RCS2, and release of the remainder of RIN4 from the membrane, consequently prevents RPM1 activation by AvrRpm1 or AvrB. RCS2 is contained within the smallest tested fragment of RIN4 that binds AvrB in vitro. Thus, at least two bacterial virulence factors target the same domain of RIN4, a approximately 30-aa plant-specific signature sequence found in a small Arabidopsis protein family that may be additional targets for these bacterial virulence factors.
Project description:The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein avirulence protein B (AvrB) is delivered into plant cells, where it targets the Arabidopsis RIN4 protein (resistance to Pseudomonas maculicula protein 1 [RPM1]-interacting protein). RIN4 is a regulator of basal host defense responses. Targeting of RIN4 by AvrB is recognized by the host RPM1 nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat disease resistance protein, leading to accelerated defense responses, cessation of pathogen growth, and hypersensitive host cell death at the infection site. We determined the structure of AvrB complexed with an AvrB-binding fragment of RIN4 at 2.3 A resolution. We also determined the structure of AvrB in complex with adenosine diphosphate bound in a binding pocket adjacent to the RIN4 binding domain. AvrB residues important for RIN4 interaction are required for full RPM1 activation. AvrB residues that contact adenosine diphosphate are also required for initiation of RPM1 function. Nucleotide-binding residues of AvrB are also required for its phosphorylation by an unknown Arabidopsis protein(s). We conclude that AvrB is activated inside the host cell by nucleotide binding and subsequent phosphorylation and, independently, interacts with RIN4. Our data suggest that activated AvrB, bound to RIN4, is indirectly recognized by RPM1 to initiate plant immune system function.
Project description:As sessile organisms, plants have developed sophisticated system to defend themselves against microbial attack. Since plants do not have specialized immune cells, all plant cells appear to have the innate ability to recognize pathogens and turn on an appropriate defense response. The plant innate immune system has two major branches: PAMPs (pathogen associated molecular patterns)-triggered immunity (PTI) and effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The ability to discriminate between self and non-self is a fundamental feature of living organisms, and it is a prerequisite for the activation of plant defenses specific to microbial infection. Arabidopsis cells express receptors that detect extracellular molecules or structures of the microbes, which are called collectively PAMPs and activate PTI. However, nucleotidebinding site leucine-rich repeats (NB-LRR) proteins mediated ETI is induced by direct or indirect recognition of effector molecules encoded by avr genes. In Arabidopsis, plasmamembrane localized multifunctional protein RIN4 (RPM1interacting protein 4) plays important role in both PTI and ETI. Previous studies have suggested that RIN4 functions as a negative regulator of PTI. In addition, many different bacterial effector proteins modify RIN4 to destabilize plant immunity and several NB-LRR proteins, including RPM1 (resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola 1), RPS2 (resistance to P. syringae 2) guard RIN4. This review summarizes the current studies that have described signaling mechanism of RIN4 function, modification of RIN4 by bacterial effectors and different interacting partner of RIN4 in defense related pathway. In addition, the emerging role of the RIN4 in plant physiology and intercellular signaling as it presents in exosomes will be discussed.
Project description:Plants recognize microbes via specific pattern recognition receptors that are activated by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs), resulting in MAMP-triggered immunity (MTI). Successful pathogens bypass MTI in genetically diverse hosts via deployment of effectors (virulence factors) that inhibit MTI responses, leading to pathogen proliferation. Plant pathogenic bacteria like Pseudomonas syringae utilize a type III secretion system to deliver effectors into cells. These effectors can contribute to pathogen virulence or elicit disease resistance, depending upon the host plant genotype. In disease resistant genotypes, intracellular immune receptors, typically belonging to the nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat family of proteins, perceive bacterial effector(s) and initiate downstream defense responses (effector triggered immunity) that include the hypersensitive response, and transcriptional re-programming leading to various cellular outputs that collectively halt pathogen growth. Nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensors can be indirectly activated via perturbation of a host protein acting as an effector target. AvrRpm1 is a P. syringae type III effector. Upon secretion into the host cell, AvrRpm1 is acylated by host enzymes and directed to the plasma membrane, where it contributes to virulence. This is correlated with phosphorylation of Arabidopsis RIN4 in vivo. RIN4 is a negative regulator of MAMP-triggered immunity, and its modification in the presence of four diverse type III effectors, including AvrRpm1, likely enhances this RIN4 regulatory function. The RPM1 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor perceives RIN4 perturbation in disease resistant plants, leading to a successful immune response. Here, demonstrate that AvrRpm1 has a fold homologous to the catalytic domain of poly(ADP-ribosyl) polymerase. Site-directed mutagenesis of each residue in the putative catalytic triad, His63-Tyr122-Asp185 of AvrRpm1, results in loss of both AvrRpm1-dependent virulence and AvrRpm1-mediated activation of RPM1, but, surprisingly, causes a gain of function: the ability to activate the RPS2 nucleotide binding leucine-rich repeat sensor.
Project description:The Arabidopsis NB-LRR immune receptor RPM1 recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors AvrB or AvrRpm1 to mount an immune response. Although neither effector is itself a kinase, AvrRpm1 and AvrB are known to target Arabidopsis RIN4, a negative regulator of basal plant defense, for phosphorylation. We show that RIN4 phosphorylation activates RPM1. RIN4(142-176) is necessary and, with appropriate localization sequences, sufficient to support effector-triggered RPM1 activation, with the threonine residue at position 166 being critical. Phosphomimic substitutions at T166 cause effector-independent RPM1 activation. RIN4 T166 is phosphorylated in vivo in the presence of AvrB or AvrRpm1. RIN4 mutants that lose interaction with AvrB cannot be coimmunoprecipitated with RPM1. This defines a common interaction platform required for RPM1 activation by phosphorylated RIN4 in response to pathogenic effectors. Conservation of an analogous threonine across all RIN4-like proteins suggests a key function for this residue beyond the regulation of RPM1.
Project description:Plant immunity can be induced by two major classes of pathogen-associated molecules. Pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs or MAMPs) are conserved molecular components of microbes that serve as "non-self" features to induce PAMP-triggered immunity (PTI). Pathogen effector proteins used to promote virulence can also be recognized as "non-self" features or induce a "modified-self" state that can induce effector-triggered immunity (ETI). The Arabidopsis protein RIN4 plays an important role in both branches of plant immunity. Three unrelated type III secretion effector (TTSE) proteins from the phytopathogen Pseudomonas syringae, AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2, and AvrB, target RIN4, resulting in ETI that effectively restricts pathogen growth. However, no pathogenic advantage has been demonstrated for RIN4 manipulation by these TTSEs. Here, we show that the TTSE HopF2(Pto) also targets Arabidopsis RIN4. Transgenic plants conditionally expressing HopF2(Pto) were compromised for AvrRpt2-induced RIN4 modification and associated ETI. HopF2(Pto) interfered with AvrRpt2-induced RIN4 modification in vitro but not with AvrRpt2 activation, suggestive of RIN4 targeting by HopF2(Pto). In support of this hypothesis, HopF2 (Pto) interacted with RIN4 in vitro and in vivo. Unlike AvrRpm1, AvrRpt2, and AvrB, HopF2(Pto) did not induce ETI and instead promoted P. syringae growth in Arabidopsis. This virulence activity was not observed in plants genetically lacking RIN4. These data provide evidence that RIN4 is a major virulence target of HopF2(Pto) and that a pathogenic advantage can be conveyed by TTSEs that target RIN4.
Project description:During exocytosis, the evolutionarily conserved exocyst complex tethers Golgi-derived vesicles to the target plasma membrane, a critical function for secretory pathways. Here we show that exo70B1 loss-of-function mutants express activated defense responses upon infection and express enhanced resistance to fungal, oomycete and bacterial pathogens. In a screen for mutants that suppress exo70B1 resistance, we identified nine alleles of TIR-NBS2 (TN2), suggesting that loss-of-function of EXO70B1 leads to activation of this nucleotide binding domain and leucine-rich repeat-containing (NLR)-like disease resistance protein. This NLR-like protein is atypical because it lacks the LRR domain common in typical NLR receptors. In addition, we show that TN2 interacts with EXO70B1 in yeast and in planta. Our study thus provides a link between the exocyst complex and the function of a 'TIR-NBS only' immune receptor like protein. Our data are consistent with a speculative model wherein pathogen effectors could evolve to target EXO70B1 to manipulate plant secretion machinery. TN2 could monitor EXO70B1 integrity as part of an immune receptor complex.
Project description:Plants have evolved sophisticated surveillance systems to recognize pathogen effectors delivered into host cells. RPM1 is an NB-LRR immune receptor that recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae effectors AvrB and AvrRpm1. Both effectors associate with and affect the phosphorylation of RIN4, an immune regulator. Although the kinase and the specific mechanisms involved are unclear, it has been hypothesized that RPM1 recognizes phosphorylated RIN4. Here, we identify RIPK as a RIN4-interacting receptor-like protein kinase that phosphorylates RIN4. In response to bacterial effectors, RIPK phosphorylates RIN4 at amino acid residues T21, S160, and T166. RIN4 phosphomimetic mutants display constitutive activation of RPM1-mediated defense responses and RIN4 phosphorylation is induced by AvrB and AvrRpm1 during P. syringae infection. RIPK knockout lines exhibit reduced RIN4 phosphorylation and blunted RPM1-mediated defense responses. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the RIPK kinase associates with and modifies an effector-targeted protein complex to initiate host immunity.
Project description:During infection of Arabidopsis thaliana, the bacterium Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato delivers the effector protein AvrRpt2 into the plant cell cytosol. Within the plant cell, AvrRpt2 undergoes N-terminal processing and causes elimination of Arabidopsis RIN4. Previous work established that AvrRpt2 is a putative cysteine protease, and AvrRpt2 processing and RIN4 elimination require an intact predicted catalytic triad in that AvrRpt2. In this work, proteolytic events that depend on AvrRpt2 activity were characterized. The amino acid sequence surrounding the processing site of AvrRpt2 and two related sequences from RIN4 triggered Avr-Rpt2-dependent proteolytic cleavage of a synthetic substrate, demonstrating that these sequences are cleavage recognition sites for AvrRpt2 activity. Processing-deficient AvrRpt2 mutants were identified and shown to retain their ability to eliminate wild-type RIN4. Single amino acid substitutions were made in each of the two RIN4 cleavage sites, and mutation of both sites resulted in cleavage-resistant RIN4. Growth of Pseudomonas expressing AvrRpt2 was significantly higher than catalytically inactive mutants on Arabidopsis rin4/rps2 mutant plants, suggesting there are additional protein targets of AvrRpt2 that account for the virulence activity of this effector. Bioinformatics analysis identified putative Arabidopsis proteins containing sequences similar to the proteolytic cleavage sites conserved in AvrRpt2 and RIN4. Several of these proteins were eliminated in an AvrRpt2-dependent manner in a transient in planta expression system. These results identify amino acids important for AvrRpt2 substrate recognition and cleavage as well as demonstrate AvrRpt2 protease activity eliminates multiple Arabidopsis proteins in a transient expression system.