Molecular details of cAMP generation in mammalian cells: a tale of two systems.
ABSTRACT: The second messenger cAMP has been extensively studied for half a century, but the plethora of regulatory mechanisms controlling cAMP synthesis in mammalian cells is just beginning to be revealed. In mammalian cells, cAMP is produced by two evolutionary related families of adenylyl cyclases, soluble adenylyl cyclases (sAC) and transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). These two enzyme families serve distinct physiological functions. They share a conserved overall architecture in their catalytic domains and a common catalytic mechanism, but they differ in their sub-cellular localizations and responses to various regulators. The major regulators of tmACs are heterotrimeric G proteins, which transduce extracellular signals via G protein-coupled receptors. sAC enzymes, in contrast, are regulated by the intracellular signaling molecules bicarbonate and calcium. Here, we discuss and compare the biochemical, structural and regulatory characteristics of the two mammalian AC families. This comparison reveals the mechanisms underlying their different properties but also illustrates many unifying themes for these evolutionary related signaling enzymes.
Project description:In beta cells, both glucose and hormones, such as GLP-1, stimulate production of the second messenger cAMP, but glucose and GLP-1 elicit distinct cellular responses. We now show in INS-1E insulinoma cells that glucose and GLP-1 produce cAMP with distinct kinetics via different adenylyl cyclases. GLP-1 induces a rapid cAMP signal mediated by G protein-responsive transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC). In contrast, glucose elicits a delayed cAMP rise mediated by bicarbonate, calcium, and ATP-sensitive soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). This glucose-induced, sAC-dependent cAMP rise is dependent upon calcium influx and is responsible for the glucose-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. These results demonstrate that sAC-generated and tmAC-generated cAMP define distinct signaling cascades.
Project description:cAMP is important in sea urchin sperm signaling, yet the molecular nature of the adenylyl cyclases (ACs) involved remained unknown. These cells were recently shown to contain an ortholog of the mammalian soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Here, we show that sAC is present in the sperm head and as in mammals is stimulated by bicarbonate. The acrosome reaction (AR), a process essential for fertilization, is influenced by the bicarbonate concentration in seawater. By using functional assays and immunofluorescence techniques we document that sea urchin sperm also express orthologs of multiple isoforms of transmembrane ACs (tmACs). Our findings employing selective inhibitors for each class of AC indicate that both sAC and tmACs participate in the sperm acrosome reaction.
Project description:In a model for neuronal movement, PC12 cells undergo fast migration in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) and phorbol ester (PMA). We previously showed that NGF increases intracellular cAMP via activation of soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). In this report, we demonstrate that sAC activation is an essential component of NGF- + PMA-induced fast migration in PC12 cells. Interestingly, PMA also raises intracellular cAMP but does so by stimulating transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmAC); however, this tmAC-generated cAMP does not contribute to fast migration. Therefore, cells must possess independent pools of cAMP capable of modulating distinct functions.
Project description:Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates G protein-dependent and internalization-dependent signaling mechanisms. Here, we report that the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response of CRHR1 in physiologically relevant scenarios engages separate cAMP sources, involving the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). cAMP produced by tmACs and sAC is required for the acute phase of extracellular signal regulated kinase 1/2 activation triggered by CRH-stimulated CRHR1, but only sAC activity is essential for the sustained internalization-dependent phase. Thus, different cAMP sources are involved in different signaling mechanisms. Examination of the cAMP response revealed that CRH-activated CRHR1 generates cAMP after endocytosis. Characterizing CRHR1 signaling uncovered a specific link between CRH-activated CRHR1, sAC, and endosome-based signaling. We provide evidence of sAC being involved in an endocytosis-dependent cAMP response, strengthening the emerging model of GPCR signaling in which the cAMP response does not occur exclusively at the plasma membrane and introducing the notion of sAC as an alternative source of cAMP.
Project description:Corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) activates the atypical soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) in addition to transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs). Both cAMP sources were shown to be required for the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 triggered by activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) CRHR1 in neuronal and neuroendocrine contexts. Here, we show that activated CRHR1 promotes growth arrest and neurite elongation in neuronal hippocampal cells (HT22-CRHR1 cells). By characterising CRHR1 signalling mechanisms involved in the neuritogenic effect, we demonstrate that neurite outgrowth in HT22-CRHR1 cells takes place by a sAC-dependent, ERK1/2-independent signalling cascade. Both tmACs and sAC are involved in corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)-mediated CREB phosphorylation and c-fos induction, but only sAC-generated cAMP pools are critical for the neuritogenic effect of CRH, further highlighting the engagement of two sources of cAMP downstream of the activation of a GPCR, and reinforcing the notion that restricted cAMP microdomains may regulate independent cellular processes.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Trichomonas vaginalis has an unusually large genome (approximately 160 Mb) encoding approximately 60,000 proteins. With the goal of beginning to understand why some Trichomonas genes are present in so many copies, we characterized here a family of approximately 123 Trichomonas genes that encode transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (TMACs).<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>The large family of TMACs genes is the result of recent duplications of a small set of ancestral genes that appear to be unique to trichomonads. Duplicated TMAC genes are not closely associated with repetitive elements, and duplications of flanking sequences are rare. However, there is evidence for TMAC gene replacements by homologous recombination. A high percentage of TMAC genes (approximately 46%) are pseudogenes, as they contain stop codons and/or frame shifts, or the genes are truncated. Numerous stop codons present in the genome project G3 strain are not present in orthologous genes of two other Trichomonas strains (S1 and B7RC2). Each TMAC is composed of a series of N-terminal transmembrane helices and a single C-terminal cyclase domain that has adenylyl cyclase activity. Multiple TMAC genes are transcribed by Trichomonas cloned by limiting dilution.<h4>Conclusions/significance</h4>We conclude that one reason for the unusually large genome of Trichomonas is the presence of unstable families of genes such as those encoding TMACs that are undergoing massive gene duplication and concomitant development of pseudogenes.
Project description:cAMP is a critical second messenger mediating activity-dependent neuronal survival and neurite growth. We investigated the expression and function of the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC, ADCY10) in CNS retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). We found sAC protein expressed in multiple RGC compartments including the nucleus, cytoplasm and axons. sAC activation increased cAMP above the level seen with transmembrane adenylate cyclase (tmAC) activation. Electrical activity and bicarbonate, both physiologic sAC activators, significantly increased survival and axon growth, whereas pharmacologic or siRNA-mediated sAC inhibition dramatically decreased RGC survival and axon growth in vitro, and survival in vivo. Conversely, RGC survival and axon growth were unaltered in RGCs from AC1/AC8 double knock-out mice or after specifically inhibiting tmACs. These data identify a novel sAC-mediated cAMP signaling pathway regulating RGC survival and axon growth, and suggest new neuroprotective or regenerative strategies based on sAC modulation.
Project description:In mammals, the second messenger cAMP is synthesized by a family of transmembrane isoforms (tmACs) and one known cytoplasmic enzyme, "soluble" adenylyl cyclase (sAC). Understanding the individual contributions of these families to cAMP signaling requires tools which can distinguish them. Here, we describe the structure-based development of isoform discriminating AC inhibitors. Docking calculations using a library of small molecules with the crystal structure of a sAC homologue complexed with the noncompetitive inhibitor catechol estrogen identified two novel inhibitors, 3,20-dioxopregn-4-en-21-yl4-bromobenzenesulfonate (2) and 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,13,13,14,14-dodecachloro-1,4,4a,4b,5,8,8a,12b-octahydro-11-sulfo-1,4:5,8-dimethanotriphenylene-10-carboxylic acid (3). In vitro testing revealed that 3 defines a novel AC inhibitor scaffold with high affinity for human sAC and less inhibitory effect on mammalian tmACs. 2 also discriminates between sAC and tmACs, and it appears to simultaneously block the original binding pocket and a neighboring interaction site. Our results show that compounds exploiting the catechol estrogen binding site can produce potent, isoform discriminating AC inhibitors.
Project description:Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is an evolutionarily conserved bicarbonate sensor. In mammals, it is responsible for bicarbonate-induced, cAMP-dependent processes in sperm required for fertilization and postulated to be involved in other bicarbonate- and carbon dioxide-dependent functions throughout the body. Among eukaryotes, sAC-like cyclases have been detected in mammals and in the fungi Dictyostelium; these enzymes display extensive similarity extending through two cyclase catalytic domains and a long carboxy terminal extension. sAC-like cyclases are also found in a number of bacterial phyla (Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria), but these enzymes generally possess only a single catalytic domain and little, if any, homology with the remainder of the mammalian protein. Database mining through a number of recently sequenced genomes identified sAC orthologues in additional metazoan phyla (Arthropoda and Chordata) and additional bacterial phyla (Chloroflexi). Interestingly, the Chloroflexi sAC-like cyclases, a family of three enzymes from the thermophilic eubacterium, Chloroflexus aurantiacus, are more similar to eukaryotic sAC-like cyclases (i.e., mammalian sAC and Dictyostelium SgcA) than they are to other bacterial adenylyl cyclases (ACs) (i.e., from Cyanobacteria). The Chloroflexus sAC-like cyclases each possess two cyclase catalytic domains and extensive similarity with mammalian enzymes through their carboxy termini. We cloned one of the Chloroflexus sAC-like cyclases and confirmed it to be stimulated by bicarbonate. These data extend the family of organisms possessing bicarbonate-responsive ACs to numerous phyla within the bacterial and eukaryotic kingdoms.
Project description:<h4>Background and purpose</h4>H2 O2 is widely understood to regulate intracellular signalling. In airway epithelia, H2 O2 stimulates anion secretion primarily by activating an autocrine PGE2 signalling pathway via EP4 and EP1 receptors to initiate cytic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) secretion. This study investigated signalling downstream of the receptors activated by H2 O2 .<h4>Experimental approach</h4>Anion secretion by differentiated bronchial epithelial cells was measured in Ussing chambers during stimulation with H2 O2 , an EP4 receptor agonist or β2 -adrenoceptor agonist in the presence and absence of inhibitors of ACs and downstream effectors. Intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]I ) changes were followed by microscopy using fura-2-loaded cells and PKA activation followed by FRET microscopy.<h4>Key results</h4>Transmembrane adenylyl cyclase (tmAC) and soluble AC (sAC) were both necessary for H2 O2 and EP4 receptor-mediated CFTR activation in bronchial epithelia. H2 O2 and EP4 receptor agonist stimulated tmAC to increase exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac) activity that drives PLC activation to raise [Ca(2+) ]i via Ca(2+) store release (and not entry). Increased [Ca(2+) ]i led to sAC activation and further increases in CFTR activity. Stimulation of sAC did not depend on changes in [HCO3 (-) ]. Ca(2+) -activated apical KCa 1.1 channels and cAMP-activated basolateral KV 7.1 channels contributed to H2 O2 -stimulated anion currents. A similar Epac-mediated pathway was seen following β2 -adrenoceptor or forskolin stimulation.<h4>Conclusions and implications</h4>H2 O2 initiated a complex signalling cascade that used direct stimulation of tmACs by Gαs followed by Epac-mediated Ca(2+) crosstalk to activate sAC. The Epac-mediated Ca(2+) signal constituted a positive feedback loop that amplified CFTR anion secretion following stimulation of tmAC by a variety of stimuli.