Inositol hexaphosphate inhibits tumor growth, vascularity, and metabolism in TRAMP mice: a multiparametric magnetic resonance study.
ABSTRACT: Herein, employing anatomical and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we evaluated noninvasively, the in vivo, chemopreventive efficacy of inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a major constituent of high-fiber diets, against prostate tumor growth and progression in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Male TRAMP mice, beginning at 4 weeks of age, were fed with 1%, 2%, or 4% (w/v) IP6 in drinking water or only drinking water till 28 weeks of age and monitored using MRI over the course of study. Longitudinal assessment of prostate volumes by conventional MRI and tumor vascularity by gadolinium-based DCE-MRI showed a profound reduction in tumor size, partly due to antiangiogenic effects by IP6 treatment. As potential mechanisms of IP6 efficacy, decrease in the expression of glucose transporter GLUT-4 protein together with an increase in levels of phospho-AMP-activated kinase (AMPK(Th172)) were observed in prostate tissues of mice from IP6 fed-groups, suggesting that IP6 is interfering with the metabolic events occurring in TRAMP prostate. Investigative metabolomics study using quantitative high-resolution (1)H-NMR on prostate tissue extracts showed that IP6 significantly decreased glucose metabolism and membrane phospholipid synthesis, in addition to causing an increase in myoinositol levels in the prostate. Together, these findings show that oral IP6 supplement blocks growth and angiogenesis of prostate cancer in the TRAMP model in conjunction with metabolic events involved in tumor sustenance. This results in energy deprivation within the tumor, suggesting a practical and translational potential of IP6 treatment in suppressing growth and progression of prostate cancer in humans.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide (CP) is commonly used as an anticancer agent but has been associated with high toxicity in several animal organs, including the testes. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) is a polyphosphorylated carbohydrate that is present in foods with high fibre contents and has a wide range of essential physiological and pathological activities. Thus, we estimated the defensive effects of IP6 against CP-related testicular toxicity in rats. Sperm counts, motilities, viabilities and abnormalities and levels of testosterone, luteinising hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone were evaluated. Testicle specimens were also processed for histological and biochemical analyses, including determinations of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, total antioxidant capacity, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, ß-glucuronidase, c-reactive protein, monocyte chemoattractant protein and leukotriene-4 and in comet assays. CP treatments were associated with deleterious histopathological, biochemical and genetic changes in rat testicles, and these were ameliorated by IP6 supplements in drinking water.
Project description:Effective transverse relaxivity of gadolinium-based contrast agents is often neglected in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Here, we assess time and tissue dependence of R2* enhancement and its impact on pharmacokinetic parameter quantification and treatment monitoring. Multiecho DCE-MRI was performed at 7 T on mice bearing subcutaneous TOV-21G human ovarian cancer xenografts (n = 8) and on the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model (n = 7). Subsequently, the TOV-21G tumor-bearing mice were treated with bevacizumab and rescanned 2 days later. Pharmacokinetic analysis (extended Tofts model) was performed using either the first echo signal only (standard single-echo DCE-MRI) or the estimated signal at TE = 0 derived from exponential fitting of R2* relaxation (R2*-corrected). Neglecting R2* enhancement causes underestimation of Gd-DOTA concentration (peak enhancement underestimated by 9.4%-16% in TOV-21G tumors and 13%-20% in TRAMP prostates). Median Ktrans and ve were underestimated in every mouse (TOV-21G Ktrans: 11%-19%, TOV-21G ve: 5.3%-8.9%; TRAMP Ktrans: 8.6%-19%, TRAMP ve: 12%-21%). Bevacizumab treatment reduced Ktrans in all TOV-21G tumors after 48 hours. Treatment effect was significantly greater in all tumors after R2* correction (median change of -0.050 min-1 in R2*-corrected Ktrans vs. -0.037 min-1 in uncorrected Ktrans). R2* enhancement in DCE-MRI is both time- and tissue-dependent and may not be negligible at 7 T in tissue with high Ktrans. This has consequences for the use of Ktrans and other DCE-MRI parameters as biomarkers, because treatment effect size can be underestimated when R2* enhancement is neglected.
Project description:Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), or phytic acid is a natural dietary ingredient and has been described as a "natural cancer fighter", being an essential component of nutritional diets. The marked anti-cancer effect of IP6 has resulted in our quest for an understanding of its mechanism of action. In particular, our data provided strong evidence for the induction of apoptotic cell death, which may be attributable to the up-regulation of Bax and down-regulation of Bcl-xl in favor of apoptosis. In addition, the up-regulation of caspase-3 and -8 expression and activation of both caspases may also contribute to the apoptotic cell death of human colorectal adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells when exposed to IP6. Collectively, this present study has shown that rice bran IP6 induces apoptosis, by regulating the pro- and anti-apoptotic markers; Bax and Bcl-xl and via the activation of caspase molecules (caspase-3 and -8).
Project description:Arrestins specifically bind activated and phosphorylated G protein-coupled receptors and orchestrate both receptor trafficking and channel signaling through G protein-independent pathways via direct interactions with numerous nonreceptor partners. Here we report the first successful use of solution NMR in mapping the binding sites in arrestin-1 (visual arrestin) for two polyanionic compounds that mimic phosphorylated light-activated rhodopsin: inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) and heparin. This yielded an identification of residues involved in the binding with these ligands that was more complete than what has previously been feasible. IP6 and heparin appear to bind to the same site on arrestin-1, centered on a positively charged region in the N-domain. We present the first direct evidence that both IP6 and heparin induced a complete release of the arrestin C-tail. These observations provide novel insight into the nature of the transition of arrestin from the basal to active state and demonstrate the potential of NMR-based methods in the study of protein-protein interactions involving members of the arrestin family.
Project description:1. Inositol hexaphosphate causes the shape of the oxidation-reduction equilibrium curve to become hyberbolic at acid pH values. 2. Inositol hexaphosphate also causes a decrease in the alkaline oxidation Bohr effect at these same pH values. 3. These results support the idea that inositol hexaphosphate causes methaemoglobin to take up the deoxyhaemoglobin quaternary structure at pH6.5.
Project description:Maternal exposure to a carcinogen is associated with increased risk of different cancers in the offspring. The foetus is highly sensitive to carcinogens and this contributes to the foetal basis of the onset of disease. The better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in the offspring is needed for the newer preventive strategies. We evaluated the effects of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) given on the 17th day of gestation and antitumour agent inositol hexaphosphate (IP6) to the mothers at the early stage of lung tumourigenesis in F1 mice. There was no treatment related effects on the litter size or body weight of the F1 mice at the PND12 or 24. Analysis of PCNA, NF-?B (p50), IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, caspase-3, caspase-9, PARP, Akt signalling and downstream cyclin D1 along with miR-155, suggested the modulation of proliferation, inflammation and apoptosis at PND12 and 24. IP6 administration to the predisposed mothers prevented the proliferation, inflammation and enhanced apoptosis in F1 lung as showed by a reduction in PCNA, NF-?B (p50), IL-6, COX-2, pSTAT3, STAT3, miR-155 and increase in caspases, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. IP6 administration also inhibited the activation of Akt and cyclin D1. Our study shows that tumourigenic changes take place in the lungs of the F1 generation from the carcinogen predisposed mothers even before the onset of tumours and the simultaneous intake of chemopreventive agent during the gestation or lactation period could prevent the lymphocytic infiltration and hyperplasia preceding the tumourigenesis.
Project description:Purpose:To develop a robust and clinically applicable automated method for analyzing Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE-) MRI of the prostate as a guide for targeted biopsies and treatments. Materials and methods:An unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) method was used to analyze prostate DCE-MRI from 71 sequential radiotherapy patients. Identified regions of interest (ROIs) with increased perfusion were assigned either to the peripheral (PZ) or transition zone (TZ). Six quantitative features, associated with the washin and washout part of the weighted average DCE curve from the ROI, were calculated. The associations between the assigned DCE-scores and Gleason Score (GS) were investigated. A heatmap of tumor aggressiveness covering the entire prostate was generated and validated with histopathology from MRI-ultrasound fused (MRI-US) targeted biopsies. Results:The volumes of the PR-identified ROI's were significantly correlated with the highest GS from the biopsy session for each patient. Following normalization (and only after normalization) with gluteus maximus muscle's DCE signal, the quantitative features in PZ were significantly correlated with GS. These correlations straightened in subset of patients with available MRI-US biopsies when GS from the individual biopsies were used. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for discrimination between indolent vs aggressive cancer for the significant quantitative features reached 0.88-0.95. When DCE-scores were calculated in normal appearing tissues, the features were highly discriminative for cancer vs no cancer both in PZ and TZ. The generated heatmap of tumor aggressiveness coincided with the location and GS of the MRI-US biopsies. Conclusion:A quantitative approach for DCE-MRI analysis was developed. The resultant map of aggressiveness correlated well with tumor location and GS and is applicable for integration in radiotherapy/radiology imaging software for clinical translation.
Project description:Background and Purpose:Although several methods have been developed to predict the outcome of patients with prostate cancer, early diagnosis of individual patient remains challenging. The aim of the present study was to correlate tumor perfusion parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and clinical prognostic factors and further to explore the diagnostic value of DCE-MRI parameters in early stage prostate cancer. Patients and Methods:Sixty-two newly diagnosed patients with histologically proven prostate adenocarcinoma were enrolled in our prospective study. Transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsy (12 cores, 6 on each lobe) was performed in each patient. Pathology was reviewed and graded according to the Gleason system. DCE-MRI was performed and analyzed using a two-compartmental model; quantitative parameters including volume transfer constant (K trans), reflux constant (K ep), and initial area under curve (iAUC) were calculated from the tumors and correlated with prostate-specific antigen (PSA), Gleason score, and clinical stage. Results:K trans (0.11 ± 0.02 min-1 versus 0.16 ± 0.06 min-1; p < 0.05), K ep (0.38 ± 0.08 min-1 versus 0.60 ± 0.23 min-1; p < 0.01), and iAUC (14.33 ± 2.66 mmoL/L/min versus 17.40 ± 5.97 mmoL/L/min; p < 0.05) were all lower in the clinical stage T1c tumors (tumor number, n=11) than that of tumors in clinical stage T2 (n=58). Serum PSA correlated with both tumor K trans (r=0.304, p < 0.05) and iAUC (r=0.258, p < 0.05). Conclusions:Our study has confirmed that DCE-MRI is a promising biomarker that reflects the microcirculation of prostate cancer. DCE-MRI in combination with clinical prognostic factors may provide an effective new tool for the basis of early diagnosis and treatment decisions.
Project description:This study aimed to develop an automated procedure for identifying suspicious foci of residual/recurrent disease in the prostate bed using dynamic contrast-enhanced-MRI (DCE-MRI) in prostate cancer patients after prostatectomy.Data of 22 patients presenting for salvage radiotherapy (RT) with an identified gross tumor volume (GTV) in the prostate bed were analyzed retrospectively. An unsupervised pattern recognition method was used to analyze DCE-MRI curves from the prostate bed. Data were represented as a product of a number of signal-vs.-time patterns and their weights. The temporal pattern, characterized by fast wash-in and gradual wash-out, was considered the "tumor" pattern. The corresponding weights were thresholded based on the number (1, 1.5, 2, 2.5) of standard deviations away from the mean, denoted as DCE1.0, …, DCE2.5, and displayed on the T2-weighted MRI. The resultant four volumes were compared with the GTV and maximum pre-RT prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level. Pharmacokinetic modeling was also carried out.Principal component analysis determined 2-4 significant patterns in patients' DCE-MRI. Analysis and display of the identified suspicious foci was performed in commercial software (MIM Corporation, Cleveland, OH, USA). In general, DCE1.0/DCE1.5 highlighted larger areas than GTV. DCE2.0 and GTV were significantly correlated (r = 0.60, p < 0.05). DCE2.0/DCA2.5 were also significantly correlated with PSA (r = 0.52, 0.67, p < 0.05). Ktrans for DCE2.5 was statistically higher than the GTV's Ktrans (p < 0.05), indicating that the automatic volume better captures areas of malignancy.A software tool was developed for identification and visualization of the suspicious foci in DCE-MRI from post-prostatectomy patients and was integrated into the treatment planning system.