Characterization and pharmacological properties of a novel multifunctional Kunitz inhibitor from Erythrina velutina seeds.
ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of peptidases isolated from leguminous seeds have been studied for their pharmacological properties. The present study focused on purification, biochemical characterization and anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant evaluation of a novel Kunitz trypsin inhibitor from Erythrina velutina seeds (EvTI). Trypsin inhibitors were purified by ammonium sulfate (30-60%), fractionation followed by Trypsin-Sepharose affinity chromatography and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The purified inhibitor showed molecular mass of 19,210.48 Da. Furthermore, a second isoform with 19,228.16 Da was also observed. The inhibitor that showed highest trypsin specificity and enhanced recovery yield was named EvTI (P2) and was selected for further analysis. The EvTI peptide fragments, generated by trypsin and pepsin digestion, were further analyzed by MALDI-ToF-ToF mass spectrometry, allowing a partial primary structure elucidation. EvTI exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin with IC50 of 2.2×10(-8) mol.L(-1) and constant inhibition (Ki) of 1.0×10(-8) mol.L(-1), by a non-competitive mechanism. In addition to inhibit the activity of trypsin, EvTI also inhibited factor Xa and neutrophil elastase, but do not inhibit thrombin, chymotrypsin or peptidase 3. EvTI was investigated for its anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties. Firstly, EvTI showed no cytotoxic effect on human peripheral blood cells. Nevertheless, the inhibitor was able to prolong the clotting time in a dose-dependent manner by using in vitro and in vivo models. Due to anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant EvTI properties, two sepsis models were here challenged. EvTI inhibited leukocyte migration and specifically acted by inhibiting TNF-? release and stimulating IFN-? and IL-12 synthesis. The data presented clearly contribute to a better understanding of the use of Kunitz inhibitors in sepsis as a bioactive agent capable of interfering in blood coagulation and inflammation.
Project description:A Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor protein has been purified and characterized from seeds of Acacia nilotica L. LC-MS/MS analysis of Acacia nilotica trypsin inhibitor (AnTI) provided the N-terminal fragment of 11 amino acids which yielded 100% identity with already reported Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor protein of Acacia confusa (AcTI) in UniProtKB database search. SDS-PAGE showed a single band of ~21 kDa under nonreduced condition and appearance of a daughter band (17 kDa) in the presence of ?-mercaptoethanol indicating the presence of interchain disulfide linkage typical for Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors. AnTI was purified from seed extract by using a combination of anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Since AnTI showed maximum homology with AcTI, a molecular structure of AcTI was predicted which showed highly ?-sheeted molecular conformation similar to crystallographic structure of Enterolobium contortisiliquum trypsin inhibitor (EcTI). AnTI (20 µg) produces significant population inhibition against different human pathogenic bacteria along strong antifungal activity (50 µg). Entomotoxin potential of AnTI was evaluated against two stored grain insect pests Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Tenebrionidae: Coleoptera) and Sitophilus oryzae (Linnaeus) (Curculionidae: Coleoptera). Statistically significant mortality of T. castaneum adults was observed at 1.5 mg after 15 days in comparison to control. Additionally, number of total eggs, larvae, pupae, adults, and their male/female ratio were also severely reduced in comparison to control. Similarly, two generation progeny of S. oryzae was studied after mixing AnTI with rice kernels. Mean percent mortality of adult population was significantly higher after 9 days of exposure in comparison to control group. AnTI significantly reduced the F1 generation while little mortality was observed for F2 generation. Exploration of such potent molecules is the prerequisite of our time regarding the anticipation of postantibiotic era and the development of insect resistance against chemical pesticides.
Project description:Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are natural defense proteins of plants found to be active against gut proteases of various insects. A pigeonpea wild relative Cajanus platycarpus was identified as a source of resistance against Helicoverpa armigera, a most devastating pest of several crops including pigeonpea. In the light of earlier studies, trypsin-specific PIs (CpPI 63) were purified from mature dry seeds of C. platycarpus (ICPW-63) and characterized their biochemical properties in contributing to H. armigera resistance. CpPI 63 possessed significant H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor (HGPI) activity than trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity. Analysis of CpPI 63 using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry revealed that it contained several isoinhibitors and small oligomers with masses ranging between 6 and 58 kDa. The gelatin activity staining studies suggest that these isoinhibitors and oligomers possessed strong inhibitory activity against H. armigera gut trypsin-like proteases (HGPs). The N-terminal sequence of the isoinhibitors (pI 6.6 and pI 5.6) of CpPI 63 exhibited 80% homology with several Kunitz trypsin inhibitors (KTIs) as well as miraculin-like proteins (MLPs). Further, modification of lysine residue(s) lead to 80% loss in both TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63. In contrast, the TI and HGPI activities of CpPI 63 were stable over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions. The reported results provide a biochemical basis for pod borer resistance in C. platycarpus.
Project description:Soybean Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (SKTI), extracted from soybean (Glycine max L.) seeds, possesses insect resistance and anti-tumor properties. But its specific mechanisms of action are not yet known. This article reports an efficient method to produce recombinant SKTI (rSKTI) in Escherichia coli, reveals some biochemical properties of rSKTI, and discusses the inhibition mechanism of SKTI. The rSKTI was expressed as inclusion body in E. coli BL21 (DE3). After refolding, the active rSKTI was obtained and was further purified with anion-exchange chromatography (DEAE-FF) efficiently. There were similar biochemical properties between SKTI and rSKTI. The optimum pH and the optimum temperature were pH 8.0 and 35 °C, respectively, being stable during pH 7.0-11.0 and below 37 °C. The activity against trypsin was inhibited by Co2+, Mn2+, Fe3+, Al3+, and epoxy chloropropane. Inhibition kinetic assay of SKTI against trypsin as Lineweaver-Burk plots analysis both showed an unchanged Km and a decreased Vmax with N-benzoyl-L-arginine ethyl ester (BAEE) as substrate. Molecular modeling showed Arg63 of SKTI (active residue of SKTI) that interacts with four residues of trypsin, including three catalytic site (His57, Asp102, and Ser195) and one binding site (Asp189), forming five interactions. These provide reference for understanding the inhibition mechanism of such kind of Kunitz trypsin inhibitors.
Project description:A serine protease inhibitor from Enterolobium contortisiliquum (EcTI) belongs to the Kunitz family of plant inhibitors, common in plant seeds. It was shown that EcTI inhibits the invasion of gastric cancer cells through alterations in integrin-dependent cell signaling pathway. We determined high-resolution crystal structures of free EcTI (at 1.75 Å) and complexed with bovine trypsin (at 2 Å). High quality of the resulting electron density maps and the redundancy of structural information indicated that the sequence of the crystallized isoform contained 176 residues and differed from the one published previously. The structure of the complex confirmed the standard inhibitory mechanism in which the reactive loop of the inhibitor is docked into trypsin active site with the side chains of Arg64 and Ile65 occupying the S1 and S1' pockets, respectively. The overall conformation of the reactive loop undergoes only minor adjustments upon binding to trypsin. Larger deviations are seen in the vicinity of Arg64, driven by the needs to satisfy specificity requirements. A comparison of the EcTI-trypsin complex with the complexes of related Kunitz inhibitors has shown that rigid body rotation of the inhibitors by as much as 15° is required for accurate juxtaposition of the reactive loop with the active site while preserving its conformation. Modeling of the putative complexes of EcTI with several serine proteases and a comparison with equivalent models for other Kunitz inhibitors elucidated the structural basis for the fine differences in their specificity, providing tools that might allow modification of their potency towards the individual enzymes.
Project description:In this study, the aim was to determine the complete sequence of the Copaifera langsdorffii trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-1 using 2-dimensional (2D)-PAGE, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF), and quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) spectrometry. Spots A (CTI-1) and F (CTI-2) were submitted to enzymatic digestions with trypsin, SV8, and clostripain. The accurate mass of the peptide obtained from each digest was determined by mass spectrometry (MS) using MALDI-TOF. The most abundant peptides were purified and sequenced in a liquid chromatograph connected to an electrospray ionization-QTOF MS. When the purified trypsin inhibitor was submitted to 2D electrophoresis, different spots were observed, suggesting that the protein is composed of 2 subunits with microheterogeneity. Isoelectric points of 8.0, 8.5, and 9.0 were determined for the 11 kDa subunit and of 4.7, 4.6, and 4.3 for the 9 kDa subunit. The primary structure of CTI-1, determined from the mass of the peptide of the enzymatic digestions and the sequence obtained by MS, indicated 180 shared amino acid residues and a high degree of similarity with other Kunitz (KTI)-type inhibitors. The peptide also contained an Arg residue at the reactive site position. Its 3-dimensional structure revealed that this is because the structural discrepancies do not affect the canonical conformation of the reactive loop of the peptide. Results demonstrate that a detailed investigation of the structural particularities of CTI-1 could provide a better understanding of the mechanism of action of these proteins, as well as clarify its biologic function in the seeds. CTI-1 belongs to the KTI family and is composed of 2 polypeptide chains and only 1 disulfide bridge.
Project description:Sea anemones are a rich source of Kunitz-type polypeptides that possess not only protease inhibitor activity, but also Kv channels toxicity, analgesic, antihistamine, and anti-inflammatory activities. Two Kunitz-type inhibitors belonging to a new Heteractis crispa RG (HCRG) polypeptide subfamily have been isolated from the sea anemone Heteractis crispa. The amino acid sequences of HCRG1 and HCRG2 identified using the Edman degradation method share up to 95% of their identity with the representatives of the HCGS polypeptide multigene subfamily derived from H. crispa cDNA. Polypeptides are characterized by positively charged Arg at the N-terminus as well as P1 Lys residue at their canonical binding loop, identical to those of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI). These polypeptides are shown by our current evidence to be more potent inhibitors of trypsin than the known representatives of the HCGS subfamily with P1Thr. The kinetic and thermodynamic characteristics of the intermolecular interactions between inhibitors and serine proteases were determined by the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) method. Residues functionally important for polypeptide binding to trypsin were revealed using molecular modeling methods. Furthermore, HCRG1 and HCRG2 possess anti-inflammatory activity, reducing tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) secretions, as well as proIL-1β expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. However, there was no effect on nitric oxide (NO) generation.
Project description:Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitors are involved in various physiological processes, such as ion channel blocking, blood coagulation, fibrinolysis, and inflammation. While spider-derived Kunitz-type proteins show activity in trypsin or chymotrypsin inhibition and K(+) channel blocking, no additional role for these proteins has been elucidated. In this study, we identified the first spider (Araneus ventricosus) Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor (AvKTI) that acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor. AvKTI possesses a Kunitz domain consisting of a 57-amino-acid mature peptide that displays features consistent with Kunitz-type inhibitors, including six conserved cysteine residues and a P1 lysine residue. Recombinant AvKTI, expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells, showed a dual inhibitory activity against trypsin (K(i) 7.34 nM) and chymotrypsin (K(i) 37.75 nM), defining a role for AvKTI as a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor. Additionally, AvKTI showed no detectable inhibitory effects on factor Xa, thrombin, or tissue plasminogen activator; however, AvKTI inhibited plasmin (K(i) 4.89 nM) and neutrophil elastase (K(i) 169.07 nM), indicating that it acts as an antifibrinolytic factor and an antielastolytic factor. These findings constitute molecular evidence that AvKTI acts as a plasmin inhibitor and an elastase inhibitor and also provide a novel view of the functions of a spider-derived Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor.
Project description:Elastase-like enzymes are involved in important diseases such as acute pancreatitis, chronic inflammatory lung diseases, and cancer. Structural insights into their interaction with specific inhibitors will contribute to the development of novel anti-elastase compounds that resist rapid oxidation and proteolysis. Proteinaceous Kunitz-type inhibitors homologous to the bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) provide a suitable scaffold, but the structural aspects of their interaction with elastase-like enzymes have not been elucidated. Here, we increased the selectivity of ShPI-1, a versatile serine protease inhibitor from the sea anemone Stichodactyla helianthus with high biomedical and biotechnological potential, toward elastase-like enzymes by substitution of the P1 residue (Lys(13)) with leucine. The variant (rShPI-1/K13L) exhibits a novel anti-porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE) activity together with a significantly improved inhibition of human neuthrophil elastase and chymotrypsin. The crystal structure of the PPE·rShPI-1/K13L complex determined at 2.0 Å resolution provided the first details of the canonical interaction between a BPTI-Kunitz-type domain and elastase-like enzymes. In addition to the essential impact of the variant P1 residue for complex stability, the interface is improved by increased contributions of the primary and secondary binding loop as compared with similar trypsin and chymotrypsin complexes. A comparison of the interaction network with elastase complexes of canonical inhibitors from the chelonian in family supports a key role of the P3 site in ShPI-1 in directing its selectivity against pancreatic and neutrophil elastases. Our results provide the structural basis for site-specific mutagenesis to further improve the binding affinity and/or direct the selectivity of BPTI-Kunitz-type inhibitors toward elastase-like enzymes.
Project description:Mesotrypsin is an isoform of trypsin that is uniquely resistant to polypeptide trypsin inhibitors and can cleave some inhibitors rapidly. Previous studies have shown that the amyloid precursor protein Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (APPI) is a specific substrate of mesotrypsin and that stabilization of the APPI cleavage site in a canonical conformation contributes to recognition by mesotrypsin. We hypothesized that other proteins possessing potential cleavage sites stabilized in a similar conformation might also be mesotrypsin substrates. Here we evaluated a series of candidate substrates, including human Kunitz protease inhibitor domains from amyloid precursor-like protein 2 (APLP2), bikunin, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor type 2 (HAI2), tissue factor pathway inhibitor-1 (TFPI1), and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI2), as well as E-selectin, an unrelated protein possessing a potential cleavage site displaying canonical conformation. We find that Kunitz domains within APLP2, bikunin, and HAI2 are cleaved by mesotrypsin with kinetic profiles of specific substrates. TFPI1 and TFPI2 Kunitz domains are cleaved less efficiently by mesotrypsin, and E-selectin is not cleaved at the anticipated site. Cocrystal structures of mesotrypsin with HAI2 and bikunin Kunitz domains reveal the mode of mesotrypsin interaction with its canonical substrates. Our data suggest that major determinants of mesotrypsin substrate specificity include sequence preferences at the P1 and P'2 positions along with conformational stabilization of the cleavage site in the canonical conformation. Mesotrypsin up-regulation has been implicated previously in cancer progression, and proteolytic clearance of Kunitz protease inhibitors offers potential mechanisms by which mesotrypsin may mediate pathological effects in cancer.
Project description:Vascular injury results in the activation of coagulation and the release of proteolytic enzymes from neutrophils and connective- tissue cells. High concentrations of these inflammatory proteinases may destroy blood coagulation proteins, contributing to coagulation and bleeding disorders associated with severe inflammation. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) is released from neutrophils at sites of inflammation and vascular disease. We have investigated the effect of MMP-8 degradation on the anticoagulant function of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) as a potential pathological mechanism contributing to coagulation disorders. MMP-8 cleaves TFPI following Ser(174) within the connecting region between the second and third Kunitz domains ( k (cat)/ K (m) approximately 75 M(-1).s(-1)) as well as following Lys(20) within the NH(2)-terminal region. MMP-8 cleavage of TFPI decreases the anticoagulant activity of TFPI in factor Xa initiated clotting assays as well as the ability of TFPI to inhibit factor Xa in amidolytic assays. Yet, MMP-8 cleavage does not alter the ability of TFPI to inhibit trypsin. Since the inhibition of both factor Xa and trypsin is mediated by binding to the second Kunitz domain, these results suggest that regions of TFPI other than the second Kunitz domain may directly interact with factor Xa. (125)I-factor Xa ligand blots of TFPI fragments generated following MMP-8 degradation were used for probing binding interactions between factor Xa and regions of TFPI, other than the second Kunitz domain. In experiments performed under reducing conditions that disrupt the Kunitz domain structure, (125)I-factor Xa binds to the C-terminal fragment of MMP-8-degraded TFPI. This fragment contains portions of TFPI distal to Ser(174), which include the third Kunitz domain and the basic C-terminal region. An altered form of TFPI lacking the third Kunitz domain, but containing the C-terminal region, was used to demonstrate that the C-terminal region directly interacts with factor Xa.