Inhibition of cardiac Ca2+ release channels (RyR2) determines efficacy of class I antiarrhythmic drugs in catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.
ABSTRACT: Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is caused by mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin (Casq2) and can be difficult to treat. The class Ic antiarrhythmic drug flecainide blocks RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT in mice and humans. It is not known whether other class I antiarrhythmic drugs also block RyR2 channels and to what extent RyR2 channel inhibition contributes to antiarrhythmic efficacy in CPVT.We first measured the effect of all class I antiarrhythmic drugs marketed in the United States (quinidine, procainamide, disopyramide, lidocaine, mexiletine, flecainide, and propafenone) on single RyR2 channels incorporated into lipid bilayers. Only flecainide and propafenone inhibited RyR2 channels, with the S-enantiomer of propafenone having a significantly lower potency than R-propafenone or flecainide. In Casq2(-/-) myocytes, the propafenone enantiomers and flecainide significantly reduced arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves at clinically relevant concentrations, whereas Na(+) channel inhibitors without RyR2 blocking properties did not. In Casq2(-/-) mice, 5 mg/kg R-propafenone or 20 mg/kg S-propafenone prevented exercise-induced CPVT, whereas procainamide (20 mg/kg) or lidocaine (20 mg/kg) were ineffective (n=5 to 9 mice, P<0.05). QRS duration was not significantly different, indicating a similar degree of Na(+) channel inhibition. Clinically, propafenone (900 mg/d) prevented ICD shocks in a 22-year-old CPVT patient who had been refractory to maximal standard drug therapy and bilateral stellate ganglionectomy.RyR2 cardiac Ca(2+) release channel inhibition appears to determine efficacy of class I drugs for the prevention of CPVT in Casq2(-/-) mice. Propafenone may be an alternative to flecainide for CPVT patients symptomatic on ?-blockers.
Project description:Ca(2+) waves can trigger ventricular arrhythmias such as catecholaminergic-polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Drugs that prevent Ca(2+) waves may have antiarrhythmic properties. Here, we use permeabilized ventricular myocytes from a CPVT mouse model lacking calsequestrin (casq2) to screen all clinically available class I antiarrhythmic drugs and selected other antiarrhythmic agents for activity against Ca(2+) waves. Casq2-/- myocytes were imaged in line-scan mode and the following Ca(2+) wave parameters analyzed: wave incidence, amplitude, frequency, and propagation speed. IC(50) (potency) and maximum inhibition (efficacy) were calculated for each drug. Drugs fell into 3 distinct categories. Category 1 drugs (flecainide and R-propafenone) suppressed wave parameters with the highest potency (IC(50)<10 ?M) and efficacy (>50% maximum wave inhibition). Category 2 drugs (encainide, quinidine, lidocaine, and verapamil) had intermediate potency (IC(50) 20-40 ?M) and efficacy (20-40% maximum wave inhibition). Category 3 drugs (procainamide, disopyramide, mexiletine, cibenzoline, and ranolazine) had no significant effects on Ca(2+) waves at the highest concentration tested (100 ?M). Propafenone was stereoselective, with R-propafenone suppressing waves more potently than S-propafenone (IC(50): R-propafenone 2 ± 0.2 ?M vs. S-propafenone 54 ± 18 ?M). Both flecainide and R-propafenone decreased Ca(2+) spark mass and converted propagated Ca(2+) waves into non-propagated wavelets and frequent sparks, suggesting that reduction in spark mass, not spark frequency, was responsible for wave suppression. Among all class I antiarrhythmic drugs, flecainide and R-propafenone inhibit Ca(2+) waves with the highest potency and efficacy. Permeabilized casq2-/- myocytes are a simple in-vitro assay for finding drugs with activity against Ca(2+) waves. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Possible Editorial'.
Project description:Flecainide blocks ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) channels in the open state, suppresses arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves and prevents catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) in mice and humans. We hypothesized that differences in RyR2 activity induced by CPVT mutations determines the potency of open-state RyR2 blockers like flecainide (FLEC) and R-propafenone (RPROP) against Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes. Using confocal microscopy, we studied Ca2+ sparks and waves in isolated saponin-permeabilized ventricular myocytes from two CPVT mouse models (Casq2-/-, RyR2-R4496C+/-), wild-type (c57bl/6, WT) mice, and WT rabbits (New Zealand white rabbits). Consistent with increased RyR2 activity, Ca2+ spark and wave frequencies were significantly higher in CPVT compared to WT mouse myocytes. We next obtained concentration-response curves of Ca2+ wave inhibition for FLEC, RPROP (another open-state RyR2 blocker), and tetracaine (TET) (a state-independent RyR2 blocker). Both FLEC and RPROP inhibited Ca2+ waves with significantly higher potency (lower IC50) and efficacy in CPVT compared to WT. In contrast, TET had similar potency in all groups studied. Increasing RyR2 activity of permeabilized WT myocytes by exposure to caffeine (150 µM) increased the potency of FLEC and RPROP but not of TET. RPROP and FLEC were also significantly more potent in rabbit ventricular myocytes that intrinsically exhibit higher Ca2+ spark rates than WT mouse ventricular myocytes. In conclusion, RyR2 activity determines the potency of open-state blockers FLEC and RPROP for suppressing arrhythmogenic Ca2+ waves in cardiomyocytes, a mechanism likely relevant to antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in CPVT.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) causes sudden cardiac death due to mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR2), calsequestrin, or calmodulin. Flecainide, a class I antiarrhythmic drug, inhibits Na(+) and RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT. The purpose of this study is to identify inhibitory mechanisms of flecainide on RyR2. RyR2 were isolated from sheep heart, incorporated into lipid bilayers, and investigated by single-channel recording under various activating conditions, including the presence of cytoplasmic ATP (2 mM) and a range of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)], [Mg(2+)], pH, and [caffeine]. Flecainide applied to either the cytoplasmic or luminal sides of the membrane inhibited RyR2 by two distinct modes: 1) a fast block consisting of brief substate and closed events with a mean duration of ?1 ms, and 2) a slow block consisting of closed events with a mean duration of ?1 second. Both inhibition modes were alleviated by increasing cytoplasmic pH from 7.4 to 9.5 but were unaffected by luminal pH. The slow block was potentiated in RyR2 channels that had relatively low open probability, whereas the fast block was unaffected by RyR2 activation. These results show that these two modes are independent mechanisms for RyR2 inhibition, both having a cytoplasmic site of action. The slow mode is a closed-channel block, whereas the fast mode blocks RyR2 in the open state. At diastolic cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] (100 nM), flecainide possesses an additional inhibitory mechanism that reduces RyR2 burst duration. Hence, multiple modes of action underlie RyR2 inhibition by flecainide.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is linked to mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin. We recently found that the drug flecainide inhibits RyR2 channels and prevents CPVT in mice and humans. Here we compared the effects of flecainide and tetracaine, a known RyR2 inhibitor ineffective in CPVT myocytes, on arrhythmogenic Ca(2+) waves and elementary sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release events, Ca(2+) sparks. In ventricular myocytes isolated from a CPVT mouse model, flecainide significantly reduced spark amplitude and spark width, resulting in a 40% reduction in spark mass. Surprisingly, flecainide significantly increased spark frequency. As a result, flecainide had no significant effect on spark-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak or SR Ca(2+) content. In contrast, tetracaine decreased spark frequency and spark-mediated SR Ca(2+) leak, resulting in a significantly increased SR Ca(2+) content. Measurements in permeabilized rat ventricular myocytes confirmed the different effects of flecainide and tetracaine on spark frequency and Ca(2+) waves. In lipid bilayers, flecainide inhibited RyR2 channels by open state block, whereas tetracaine primarily prolonged RyR2 closed times. The differential effects of flecainide and tetracaine on sparks and RyR2 gating can explain why flecainide, unlike tetracaine, does not change the balance of SR Ca(2+) fluxes. We suggest that the smaller spark mass contributes to flecainide's antiarrhythmic action by reducing the probability of saltatory wave propagation between adjacent Ca(2+) release units. Our results indicate that inhibition of the RyR2 open state provides a new therapeutic strategy to prevent diastolic Ca(2+) waves resulting in triggered arrhythmias, such as CPVT.
Project description:Atrial fibrillation (AF) risk has been associated with leaky ryanodine receptor 2 (RyR2) Ca release channels. Patients with mutations in RyR2 or in the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca-binding protein calsequestrin 2 (Casq2) display an increased risk for AF. Here, we examine the underlying mechanisms of AF associated with loss of Casq2 and test mechanism-based drug therapy.Compared with wild-type Casq2+/+ mice, atrial burst pacing consistently induced atrial flutter or AF in Casq2-/- mice and in isolated Casq2-/- hearts. Atrial optical voltage maps obtained from isolated hearts revealed multiple independent activation sites arising predominantly from the pulmonary vein region. Ca and voltage mapping demonstrated diastolic subthreshold spontaneous Ca elevations (SCaEs) and delayed afterdepolarizations whenever the pacing train failed to induce AF. The dual RyR2 and Na channel inhibitor R-propafenone (3 ?mol/L) significantly reduced frequency and amplitude of SCaEs and delayed afterdepolarizations in atrial myocytes and intact atria and prevented induction of AF. In contrast, the S-enantiomer of propafenone, an equipotent Na channel blocker but much weaker RyR2 inhibitor, did not reduce SCaEs and delayed afterdepolarizations and failed to prevent AF.Loss of Casq2 increases risk of AF by promoting regional SCaEs and delayed afterdepolarizations in atrial tissue, which can be prevented by RyR2 inhibition with R-propafenone. Targeting AF caused by leaky RyR2 Ca channels with R-propafenone may be a more mechanism-based approach to treating this common arrhythmia.
Project description:Mutations in the cardiac ryanodine receptor (RYR2) are the leading cause for catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). In this study, we evaluated antiarrhythmic efficacy of carvedilol and flecainide in CPVT patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) carrying different mutations in RYR2. iPSC-CMs were generated from skin biopsies of CPVT patients carrying exon 3 deletion and L4115 or V4653F mutation in RYR2 and of a healthy individual. Ca2+ kinetics and drug effects were studied with Fluo-4 AM indicator. Carvedilol abolished Ca2+ abnormalities in 31% of L4115F, 36% of V4653F, and 46% of exon 3 deletion carrying CPVT cardiomyocytes and flecainide 33%, 30%, and 52%, respectively. Both drugs lowered the intracellular Ca2+ level and beating rate of the cardiomyocytes significantly. Moreover, flecainide caused abnormal Ca2+ transients in 61% of controls compared to 26% of those with carvedilol. Carvedilol and flecainide were equally effective in CPVT iPSC-CMs. However, flecainide induced arrhythmias in 61% of control cells. CPVT cardiomyocytes carrying the exon 3 deletion had the most severe Ca2+ abnormalities, but they had the best response to drug therapies. According to this study, the arrhythmia-abolishing effect of neither of the drugs is optimal. iPSC-CMs provide a unique platform for testing drugs for CPVT.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is caused by mutations in cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin (Casq2) genes. Sinoatrial node dysfunction associated with CPVT may increase the risk for ventricular arrhythmia (VA).To test the hypothesis that CPVT is suppressed by supraventricular overdrive stimulation.Using CPVT mouse models (Casq2(-/-) and RyR2(R4496C/+) mice), the effect of increasing sinus heart rate was tested by pretreatment with atropine and by atrial overdrive pacing. Increasing intrinsic sinus rate with atropine before catecholamine challenge suppressed ventricular tachycardia in 86% of Casq2(-/-) mice (6/7) and significantly reduced the VA score (atropine: 0.6±0.2 versus vehicle: 1.7±0.3; P<0.05). Atrial overdrive pacing completely prevented VA in 16 of 19 (84%) Casq2(-/-) and in 7 of 8 (88%) RyR2(R4496C/+) mice and significantly reduced ventricular premature beats in both CPVT models (P<0.05). Rapid pacing also prevented spontaneous calcium waves and triggered beats in isolated CPVT myocytes. In humans, heart rate dependence of CPVT was evaluated by screening a CPVT patient registry for antiarrhythmic drug-naïve individuals that reached >85% of their maximum-predicted heart rate during exercise testing. All 18 CPVT patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria exhibited VA before reaching 87% of maximum heart rate. In 6 CPVT patients (33%), VA were paradoxically suppressed as sinus heart rates increased further with continued exercise.Accelerated supraventricular rates suppress VAs in 2 CPVT mouse models and in a subset of CPVT patients. Hypothetically, atrial overdrive pacing may be a therapy for preventing exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia in treatment-refractory CPVT patients.
Project description:Flecainide suppresses cardiac tachyarrhythmias including paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, supraventricular tachycardia and arrhythmic long QT syndromes (LQTS), as well as the Ca2+ -mediated, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). However, flecainide can also exert pro-arrhythmic effects most notably following myocardial infarction and when used to diagnose Brugada syndrome (BrS). These divergent actions result from its physiological and pharmacological actions at multiple, interacting levels of cellular organization. These were studied in murine genetic models with modified Nav channel or intracellular ryanodine receptor (RyR2)-Ca2+ channel function. Flecainide accesses its transmembrane Nav 1.5 channel binding site during activated, open, states producing a use-dependent antagonism. Closing either activation or inactivation gates traps flecainide within the pore. An early peak INa related to activation of Nav channels followed by rapid de-activation, drives action potential (AP) upstrokes and their propagation. This is diminished in pro-arrhythmic conditions reflecting loss of function of Nav 1.5 channels, such as BrS, accordingly exacerbated by flecainide challenge. Contrastingly, pro-arrhythmic effects attributed to prolonged AP recovery by abnormal late INaL following gain-of-function modifications of Nav 1.5 channels in LQTS3 are reduced by flecainide. Anti-arrhythmic effects of flecainide that reduce triggering in CPVT models mediated by sarcoplasmic reticular Ca2+ release could arise from its primary actions on Nav channels indirectly decreasing [Ca2+ ]i through a reduced [Na+ ]i and/or direct open-state RyR2-Ca2+ channel antagonism. The consequent [Ca2+ ]i alterations could also modify AP propagation velocity and therefore arrhythmic substrate through its actions on Nav 1.5 channel function. This is consistent with the paradoxical differences between flecainide actions upon Na+ currents, AP conduction and arrhythmogenesis under circumstances of normal and increased RyR2 function. LINKED ARTICLES:This article is part of a themed section on Spotlight on Small Molecules in Cardiovascular Diseases. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v175.8/issuetoc.
Project description:Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial arrhythmic syndrome caused by mutations in genes encoding the calcium-regulation proteins cardiac ryanodine receptor (RyR2) or calsequestrin-2 (CASQ2). Mechanistic studies indicate that CPVT is mediated by diastolic Ca(2+) overload and increased Ca(2+) leak through the RyR2 channel, implying that treatment targeting these defects might be efficacious in CPVT.CPVT mouse models that lack CASQ2 were treated with Ca(2+) -channel inhibitors, ?-adrenergic inhibitors, or Mg(2+) . Treatment effects on ventricular arrhythmia, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) protein expression and Ca(2+) transients of isolated myocytes were assessed. Each study agent reduced the frequency of stress-induced ventricular arrhythmia in mutant mice. The Ca(2+) channel blocker verapamil was most efficacious and completely prevented arrhythmia in 85% of mice. Verapamil significantly increased the SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes, diminished diastolic Ca(2+) overload, increased systolic Ca(2+) amplitude, and prevented Ca(2+) oscillations in stressed mutant myocytes.Ca(2+) channel inhibition by verapamil rectified abnormal calcium handling in CPVT myocytes and prevented ventricular arrhythmias. Verapamil-induced partial normalization of SR Ca(2+) content in mutant myocytes implicates CASQ2 as modulator of RyR2 activity, rather than or in addition to, Ca(2+) buffer protein. Agents such as verapamil that attenuate cardiomyocyte calcium overload are appropriate for assessing clinical efficacy in human CPVT.
Project description:Catecholamine-induced polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a familial disorder caused by cardiac ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) or calsequestrin 2 (CASQ2) gene mutations. To define how CASQ2 mutations cause CPVT, we produced and studied mice carrying a human D307H missense mutation (CASQ(307/307)) or a CASQ2-null mutation (CASQ(DeltaE9/DeltaE9)). Both CASQ2 mutations caused identical consequences. Young mutant mice had structurally normal hearts but stress-induced ventricular arrhythmias; aging produced cardiac hypertrophy and reduced contractile function. Mutant myocytes had reduced CASQ2 and increased calreticulin and RyR2 (with normal phosphorylated proportions) but unchanged calstabin levels, as well as reduced total sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+), prolonged Ca(2+) release, and delayed Ca(2+) reuptake. Stress further diminished Ca(2+) transients, elevated cytosolic Ca(2+), and triggered frequent, spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release. Treatment with Mg(2+), a RyR2 inhibitor, normalized myocyte Ca(2+) cycling and decreased CPVT in mutant mice, indicating RyR2 dysfunction was critical to mutant CASQ2 pathophysiology. We conclude that CPVT-causing CASQ2 missense mutations function as null alleles. In the absence of CASQ2, calreticulin, a fetal Ca(2+)-binding protein normally downregulated at birth, remains a prominent SR component. Adaptive changes to CASQ2 deficiency (increased posttranscriptional expression of calreticulin and RyR2) maintained electrical-mechanical coupling, but increased RyR2 leakiness, a paradoxical response further exacerbated by stress. The central role of RyR2 dysfunction in CASQ2 deficiency unifies the pathophysiologic mechanism underlying CPVT due to RyR2 or CASQ2 mutations and suggests a therapeutic approach for these inherited cardiac arrhythmias.