Biosynthesis of sesquiterpene lactones in pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium).
ABSTRACT: The daisy-like flowers of pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium) are used to extract pyrethrins, a botanical insecticide with a long history of safe and effective use. Pyrethrum flowers also contain other potential defense compounds, particularly sesquiterpene lactones (STLs), which represent problematic allergenic residues in the extracts that are removed by the pyrethrum industry. The STLs are stored in glandular trichomes present on the pyrethrum achenes, and have been shown to be active against herbivores, micro-organisms and in the below-ground competition with other plants. Despite these reported bioactivities and industrial significance, the biosynthetic origin of pyrethrum sesquiterpene lactones remains unknown. In the present study, we show that germacratrien-12-oic acid is most likely the central precursor for all sesquiterpene lactones present in pyrethrum. The formation of the lactone ring depends on the regio- (C6 or C8) and stereo-selective (? or ?) hydroxylation of germacratrien-12-oic acid. Candidate genes implicated in three committed steps leading from farnesyl diphosphate to STL and other oxygenated derivatives of germacratrien-12-oic acid were retrieved from a pyrethrum trichome EST library, cloned, and characterized in yeast and in planta. The diversity and distribution of sesquiterpene lactones in different tissues and the correlation with the expression of these genes are shown and discussed.
Project description:Pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium), which is a perennial Asteraceae plant with white daisy-like flowers, is the original source of mosquito coils and is known for the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin class of natural insecticides. However, the molecular basis of the production of pyrethrins by T. cinerariifolium has yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we present the 7.1-Gb draft genome of T. cinerariifolium, consisting of 2,016,451 scaffolds and 60,080 genes predicted with high confidence. Notably, analyses of transposable elements (TEs) indicated that TEs occupy 33.84% of the genome sequence. Furthermore, TEs of the sire and oryco clades were found to be enriched in the T. cinerariifolium-specific evolutionary lineage, occupying a total of 13% of the genome sequence, a proportion approximately 8-fold higher than that in other plants. InterProScan analysis demonstrated that biodefense-related toxic proteins (e.g., ribosome inactivating proteins), signal transduction-related proteins (e.g., histidine kinases), and metabolic enzymes (e.g., lipoxygenases, acyl-CoA dehydrogenases/oxygenases, and P450s) are also highly enriched in the T. cinerariifolium genome. Molecular phylogenetic analysis detected a variety of enzymes with genus-specific multiplication, including both common enzymes and others that appear to be specific to pyrethrin biosynthesis. Together, these data identify possible novel components of the pyrethrin biosynthesis pathway and provide new insights into the unique genomic features of T. cinerariifolium.
Project description:Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium (Trevir.) Sch. Bip.), a plant species endemic to the east Adriatic coast, is used worldwide for production of the organic insecticide, pyrethrin. Most studies concerning Dalmatian pyrethrum have focused on its morphological and biochemical traits relevant for breeding. However, little is known about the chromosomal evolution and genome organization of this species. Our study aims are to identify, classify, and characterize repetitive DNA in the T. cinerariifolium genome using clustering analysis of a low coverage genomic dataset. Repetitive DNA represents about 71.63% of the genome. T. cinerariifolium exhibits linked 5S and 35S rDNA configuration (L-type). FISH reveals amplification of interstitial telomeric repeats (ITRs) in T. cinerariifolium. Of the three newly identified satellite DNA families, TcSAT1 and TcSAT2 are located subterminally on most of T. cinerariifolium chromosomes, while TcSAT3 family is located intercalary within the longer arm of two chromosome pairs. FISH reveals high levels of polymorphism of the TcSAT1 and TcSAT2 sites by comparative screening of 28 individuals. TcSAT2 is more variable than TcSAT1 regarding the number and position of FISH signals. Altogether, our data highlights the dynamic nature of DNA sequences associated with subtelomeres in T. cinerariifolium and suggests that subtelomeres represent one of the most dynamic and rapidly evolving regions in eukaryotic genomes.
Project description:Dalmatian pyrethrum (Tanacetum cinerariifolium Trevir./Sch./Bip.) is an outcrossing, perennial insecticidal plant, restricted to the eastern Adriatic coast (Mediterranean). Amplified fragment-length polymorphisms (AFLP) were used to investigate the genetic diversity and structure within and among 20 natural plant populations. The highest level of gene diversity, the number of private alleles and the frequency down-weighted marker values (DW) were found in northern Adriatic populations and gradually decreased towards the southern boundary of the species range. Genetic impoverishment of these southern populations is most likely the result of human-related activities. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that most of the genetic diversity was attributed to differences among individuals within populations (85.78%), which are expected due to the outcrossing nature of the species. A Bayesian analysis of the population structure identified two dominant genetic clusters. A spatial analysis of the genetic diversity indicated that 5.6% of the genetic differentiation resulted from isolation by distance (IBD), while 12.3% of the genetic differentiation among populations followed the pattern of isolation by environmental distance (IBED). Knowledge of the genetic diversity patterns of the natural populations and the mechanism behind these patterns is required for the exploitation and possible conservation management of this endemic and economically important species.
Project description:Tanacetum cinerariifolium flowers synthesize six pyrethrins that function as effective insecticides. trans-Chrysanthemol is an early intermediate in the synthesis of the monoterpene moiety of pyrethrins. Previously, the pyrethrum enzyme chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (TcCDS) was shown to catalyze the formation of the prenyl diphosphate compound chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP) by condensing two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). Later work also showed that with a low concentration of DMAPP, TcCDS can also remove the diphosphate group to give chrysanthemol. The removal of the phosphate groups from other prenyl diphosphates, such as DMAPP, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and geranyl diphosphate (GPP), was previously shown to occur in two steps. In those cases, the first phosphate group is removed by a member of the Nudix hydrolase protein family, and the second by other unidentified phosphatases. These previously characterized Nudix proteins involved in the hydrolysis of prenyl diphosphates were shown to be cytosolic. Here we report that a plastidic Nudix protein from pyrethrum, designated TcNudix1, has high specificity for CPP and can hydrolyze it to chrysanthemol monophosphate (CMP). TcNudix1 is expressed specifically in the trichomes of the ovaries, where chrysanthemol is produced. TcNudix1 expression patterns and pathway reconstitution experiments presented here implicate the TcNudix1 protein in the biosynthesis of chrysanthemol.
Project description:Pyrethrins are monoterpenoids and consist of either a chrysanthemic acid or pyrethric acid with a rethrolone moiety. Natural pyrethrins are safe and eco-friendly while possessing strong insecticidal properties. Despite such advantages of commercial value coming with the eco-friendly tag, most enzymes/genes involved in the pyrethrin biosynthesis pathway remain unidentified and uncharacterized. Since the flowers of Tanacetum cinerariifolium are rich in major pyrethrins, next generation transcriptome sequencing was undertaken to compare the flowers and the leaves of the plant de novo to identify differentially expressed transcripts and ascertain which among them might be involved in and responsible for the differential accumulation of pyrethrins in T. cinerariifolium flowers.In this first tissue specific transcriptome analysis of the non-model plant T. cinerariifolium, a total of 23,200,000 and 28,500,110 high quality Illumina next generation sequence reads, with a length of 101 bp, were generated for the flower and leaf tissue respectively. After functional enrichment analysis and GO based annotation using public protein databases such as UniRef, PFAM, SMART, KEGG and NR, 4443 and 8901 unigenes were identified in the flower and leaf tissue respectively. These could be assigned to 13344 KEGG pathways and the pyrethrin biosynthesis contextualized. The 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway was involved in the biosynthesis of acid moiety of pyrethrin and this pathway predominated in the flowers as compared to the leaves. However, enzymes related to oxylipin biosynthesis were found predominantly in the leaf tissue, which suggested that major steps of pyrethrin biosynthesis occurred in the flowers.Transcriptome comparison between the flower and leaf tissue of T. cinerariifolium provided an elaborate list of tissue specific transcripts that was useful in elucidating the differences in the expression of the biosynthetic pathways leading to differential presence of pyrethrin in the flowers. The information generated on genes, pathways and markers related to pyrethrin biosynthesis in this study will be helpful in enhancing the production of these useful compounds for value added breeding programs. Related proteome comparison to overlay our transcriptome comparison can generate more relevant information to better understand flower specific accumulation of secondary metabolites in general and pyrethrin accumulation in particular.
Project description:Natural pyrethrins are used to control household and agricultural pests, and it is of value to understand biosynthesis in Tanacetum cinerariifolium for enhanced production. We previously found that a blend of four green leaf volatiles (GLVs) and (E)-?-farnesene emitted by T. cinerariifolium seedlings enhanced gene expressions of certain biosynthetic enzymes in unwounded seedlings; however, the extent to which such a regulation facilitates pyrethrin biosynthesis remains unknown. Here we have investigated the effects of the blend of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on gene expressions of seven biosynthetic enzymes. VOC treatment resulted in enhanced chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS), chrysanthemic acid synthase (CAS), Tanacetum cinerariifolium GDSL lipase (TcGLIP) and acyl-Coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACX1) gene expressions that reached a peak at a 12 h VOC treatment, whereas the treatment minimally influenced the expressions of other biosynthetic genes. In undifferentiated Tanacetum tissues, such VOC-induced amplification of CDS, CAS, TcGLIP and ACX1 gene expressions were markedly reduced, suggesting that a high-resolution, VOC-mediated communication is an event selective to differentiated plants.