A role for the MRN complex in ATR activation via TOPBP1 recruitment.
ABSTRACT: The MRN (MRE11-RAD50-NBS1) complex has been implicated in many aspects of the DNA damage response. It has key roles in sensing and processing DNA double-strand breaks, as well as in activation of ATM (ataxia telangiectasia mutated). We reveal a function for MRN in ATR (ATM- and RAD3-related) activation by using defined ATR-activating DNA structures in Xenopus egg extracts. Strikingly, we demonstrate that MRN is required for recruitment of TOPBP1 to an ATR-activating structure that contains a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) and a double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) junction and that this recruitment is necessary for phosphorylation of CHK1. We also show that the 911 (RAD9-RAD1-HUS1) complex is not required for TOPBP1 recruitment but is essential for TOPBP1 function. Thus, whereas MRN is required for TOPBP1 recruitment at an ssDNA-to-dsDNA junction, 911 is required for TOPBP1 "activation." These findings provide molecular insights into how ATR is activated.
Project description:The activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) depends upon ATM in human cells and Xenopus egg extracts. One important aspect of this dependency involves regulation of TopBP1 by ATM. In Xenopus egg extracts, ATM associates with TopBP1 and thereupon phosphorylates it on S1131. This phosphorylation enhances the capacity of TopBP1 to activate the ATR-ATRIP complex. We show that TopBP1 also interacts with the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex in egg extracts in a checkpoint-regulated manner. This interaction involves the Nbs1 subunit of the complex. ATM can no longer interact with TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted egg extracts, which suggests that the MRN complex helps to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. The association between TopBP1 and Nbs1 involves the first pair of BRCT repeats in TopBP1. In addition, the two tandem BRCT repeats of Nbs1 are required for this binding. Functional studies with mutated forms of TopBP1 and Nbs1 suggested that the BRCT-dependent association of these proteins is critical for a normal checkpoint response to DSBs. These findings suggest that the MRN complex is a crucial mediator in the process whereby ATM promotes the TopBP1-dependent activation of ATR-ATRIP in response to DSBs.
Project description:The protein kinases ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM-Rad3 related (ATR) are activated in response to DNA damage, genotoxic stress and virus infections. Here we show that during infection with wild-type adenovirus, ATR and its cofactors RPA32, ATRIP and TopBP1 accumulate at viral replication centres, but there is minimal ATR activation. We show that the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is recruited to viral centres only during infection with adenoviruses lacking the early region E4 and ATR signaling is activated. This suggests a novel requirement for the MRN complex in ATR activation during virus infection, which is independent of Mre11 nuclease activity and recruitment of RPA/ATR/ATRIP/TopBP1. Unlike other damage scenarios, we found that ATM and ATR signaling are not dependent on each other during infection. We identify a region of the viral E4orf3 protein responsible for immobilization of the MRN complex and show that this prevents ATR signaling during adenovirus infection. We propose that immobilization of the MRN damage sensor by E4orf3 protein prevents recognition of viral genomes and blocks detrimental aspects of checkpoint signaling during virus infection.
Project description:In the presence of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), the activation of ATR is achieved by the ability of ATM to phosphorylate TopBP1 on serine 1131, which leads to an enhancement of the interaction between ATR and TopBP1. In Xenopus egg extracts, the Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) complex is additionally required to bridge ATM and TopBP1 together. In this report, we show that CtIP, which is recruited to DSB-containing chromatin, interacts with both TopBP1 and Nbs1 in a damage-dependent manner. An N-terminal region containing the first two BRCT repeats of TopBP1 is essential for the interaction with CtIP. Furthermore, two distinct regions in the N-terminus of CtIP participate in establishing the association between CtIP and TopBP1. The first region includes two adjacent putative ATM/ATR phosphorylation sites on serines 273 and 275. Secondly, binding is diminished when an MRN-binding region spanning residues 25-48 is deleted, indicative of a role for the MRN complex in mediating this interaction. This was further evidenced by a decrease in the interaction between CtIP and TopBP1 in Nbs1-depleted extracts and a reciprocal decrease in the binding of Nbs1 to TopBP1 in the absence of CtIP, suggestive of the formation of a complex containing CtIP, TopBP1, and the MRN complex. When CtIP is immunodepleted from egg extracts, the activation of the response to DSBs is compromised and the levels of ATR, TopBP1, and Nbs1 on damaged chromatin are reduced. Thus, CtIP interacts with TopBP1 in a damage-stimulated, MRN-dependent manner during the activation of ATR in response to DSBs.
Project description:Chromosomes are constantly damaged by exogenous and endogenous factors. To cope with DNA damage, eukaryotic cells are equipped with three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKKs), such as ATM, ATR, and DNA-PK. PIKKs are structurally related to phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (lipid kinase), however possess protein kinase activities. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 and the Ku complex interact with and activate ATM and DNA-PKcs at double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs), respectively. In contrast, ATR responds to various types of DNA lesions by interacting with replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). Several lines of evidence have established a model in which ATR is activated by interacting with ATR activating proteins including TopBP1 and ETAA1 at DNA lesions in humans, yet the interaction of ATR with RPA-covered ssDNA does not result in ATR activation. In budding yeast, the Mec1-Ddc2 complex (Mec1-Ddc2) corresponds to ATR-ATRIP. Similar to ATR, Mec1 activation is accomplished by interactions with Mec1 activating proteins, which are Ddc1, Dpb11 (TopBP1 homolog) and Dna2. However, recent studies provide results supporting the idea that Mec1ATR is also activated by interacting with RPA-covered ssDNA tracts. These observations suggest that all the ATM, ATR, DNA-PK family proteins can be activated immediately upon DNA damage recognition.
Project description:ATR kinase is a critical upstream regulator of the checkpoint response to various forms of DNA damage. Previous studies have shown that ATR is recruited via its binding partner ATR-interacting protein (ATRIP) to replication protein A (RPA)-covered single-stranded DNA (RPA-ssDNA) generated at sites of DNA damage where ATR is then activated by TopBP1 to phosphorylate downstream targets including the Chk1 signal transducing kinase. However, this critical feature of the human ATR-initiated DNA damage checkpoint signaling has not been demonstrated in a defined system. Here we describe an in vitro checkpoint system in which RPA-ssDNA and TopBP1 are essential for phosphorylation of Chk1 by the purified ATR-ATRIP complex. Checkpoint defective RPA mutants fail to activate ATR kinase in this system, supporting the conclusion that this system is a faithful representation of the in vivo reaction. Interestingly, we find that an alternative form of RPA (aRPA), which does not support DNA replication, can substitute for the checkpoint function of RPA in vitro, thus revealing a potential role for aRPA in the activation of ATR kinase. We also find that TopBP1 is recruited to RPA-ssDNA in a manner dependent on ATRIP and that the N terminus of TopBP1 is required for efficient recruitment and activation of ATR kinase.
Project description:ATR is a master regulator of cell response to replication stress. Adequate activation of ATR is essential for preventing genome aberrance induced by replication defect. However, the mechanism underlying ATR activation is not fully understood. Here, we identify that RBMX is an ssDNA binding protein that orchestrates a novel pathway to activate ATR. Using super-resolution STORM, we observe that RBMX and RPA bind to adjacent but nonoverlapping sites on ssDNA in response to replication stress. RBMX then binds to and facilitates positioning of TopBP1, which activates nearby ATR associated with RPA. In addition, ATR activation by ssDNA-RBMX-TopBP1 is independent of ssDNA-dsDNA junction and 9-1-1 complex. ChIP-seq analysis reveals that RBMX/RPA are highly enriched on repetitive DNAs, which are considered as fragile sites with high replication stress. RBMX depletion leads to defective localization of TopBP1 to replication stressed sites and inadequate activation of ATR. Furthermore, cells with deficient RBMX demonstrate replication defect, leading to formation of micronuclei and a high rate of sister-chromatin exchange, indicative of genome instability. Together, the results identify a new ssDNA-RBMX-TopBP1 pathway that is specifically required for activation of ATR on repetitive DNAs. Therefore, RBMX is a key factor to ensure genome stability during replication.
Project description:The protein kinase ATR is activated at sites of DNA double-strand breaks where it plays important roles in promoting DNA end resection and regulating cell cycle progression. TOPBP1 is a multi BRCT repeat containing protein that activates ATR at DSBs. Here we have developed an experimental tool, the DMAX system, to study the biochemical mechanism for TOPBP1-mediated ATR signalling. DMAX combines simple, linear dsDNA molecules with Xenopus egg extracts and results in a physiologically relevant, DSB-induced activation of ATR. We find that DNAs of 5000 nucleotides, at femtomolar concentration, potently activate ATR in this system. By combining immunodepletion and add-back of TOPBP1 point mutants we use DMAX to determine which of TOPBP1's nine BRCT domains are required for recruitment of TOPBP1 to DSBs and which domains are needed for ATR-mediated phosphorylation of CHK1. We find that BRCT1 and BRCT7 are important for recruitment and that BRCT5 functions downstream of recruitment to promote ATR-mediated phosphorylation of CHK1. We also show that BRCT7 plays a second role, independent of recruitment, in promoting ATR signalling. These findings supply a new research tool for, and new insights into, ATR biology.
Project description:ATM and ATR are two redundant checkpoint kinases essential for the stable maintenance of telomeres in eukaryotes. Previous studies have established that MRN (Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1) and ATRIP (ATR Interacting Protein) interact with ATM and ATR, respectively, and recruit their partner kinases to sites of DNA damage. Here, we investigated how Tel1(ATM) and Rad3(ATR) recruitment to telomeres is regulated in fission yeast. Quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays unexpectedly revealed that the MRN complex could also contribute to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres independently of the previously established Nbs1 C-terminal Tel1(ATM) interaction domain. Recruitment of Tel1(ATM) to telomeres in nbs1-c60Delta cells, which lack the C-terminal 60 amino acid Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1, was dependent on Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP), but the kinase domain of Rad3(ATR) was dispensable. Thus, our results establish that the Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) complex contributes to the recruitment of Tel1(ATM) independently of Rad3(ATR) kinase activity, by a mechanism redundant with the Tel1(ATM) interaction domain of Nbs1. Furthermore, we found that the N-terminus of Nbs1 contributes to the recruitment of Rad3(ATR)-Rad26(ATRIP) to telomeres. In response to replication stress, mammalian ATR-ATRIP also contributes to ATM activation by a mechanism that is dependent on the MRN complex but independent of the C-terminal ATM interaction domain of Nbs1. Since telomere protection and DNA damage response mechanisms are very well conserved between fission yeast and mammalian cells, mammalian ATR-ATRIP may also contribute to the recruitment of ATM to telomeres and to sites of DNA damage independently of ATR kinase activity.
Project description:Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) has evolved to disable the cellular DNA damage response kinase, ATR. We have previously shown that HSV-1-infected cells are unable to phosphorylate the ATR substrate Chk1, even under conditions in which replication forks are stalled. Here we report that the HSV-1 single stranded DNA binding protein (ICP8), and the helicase/primase complex (UL8/UL5/UL52) form a nuclear complex in transfected cells that is necessary and sufficient to disable ATR signaling. This complex localizes to sites of DNA damage and colocalizes with ATR/ATRIP and RPA, but under these conditions, the Rad9-Rad1-Hus1 checkpoint clamp (9-1-1) do not. ATR is generally activated by substrates that contain ssDNA adjacent to dsDNA, and previous work from our laboratory has shown that ICP8 and helicase/primase also recognize this substrate. We suggest that these four viral proteins prevent ATR activation by binding to the DNA substrate and obstructing loading of the 9-1-1 checkpoint clamp. Exclusion of 9-1-1 prevents recruitment of TopBP1, the ATR kinase activator, and thus effectively disables ATR signaling. These data provide the first example of viral DNA replication proteins obscuring access to a DNA substrate that would normally trigger a DNA damage response and checkpoint signaling. This unusual mechanism used by HSV suggests that it may be possible to inhibit ATR signaling by preventing recruitment of the 9-1-1 clamp and TopBP1.
Project description:hSSB1 is a newly discovered single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein that is essential for efficient DNA double-strand break signalling through ATM. However, the mechanism by which hSSB1 functions to allow efficient signalling is unknown. Here, we show that hSSB1 is recruited rapidly to sites of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) in all interphase cells (G1, S and G2) independently of, CtIP, MDC1 and the MRN complex (Rad50, Mre11, NBS1). However expansion of hSSB1 from the DSB site requires the function of MRN. Strikingly, silencing of hSSB1 prevents foci formation as well as recruitment of MRN to sites of DSBs and leads to a subsequent defect in resection of DSBs as evident by defective RPA and ssDNA generation. Our data suggests that hSSB1 functions upstream of MRN to promote its recruitment at DSBs and is required for efficient resection of DSBs. These findings, together with previous work establish essential roles of hSSB1 in controlling ATM activation and activity, and subsequent DSB resection and homologous recombination (HR).