Activation of transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) in lung cells by wood smoke particulate material.
ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust, and other combustion-derived particles activate the calcium channel transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), causing irritation and inflammation in the respiratory tract. It was hypothesized that wood smoke particulate and select chemical constituents thereof would also activate TRPA1 in lung cells, potentially explaining the adverse effects of wood and other forms of biomass smoke on the respiratory system. TRPA1 activation was assessed using calcium imaging assays in TRPA1-overexpressing HEK-293 cells, mouse primary trigeminal neurons, and human adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells. Particles from pine and mesquite smoke were less potent agonists of TRPA1 than an equivalent mass concentration of an ethanol extract of diesel exhaust particles; pine particles were comparable in potency to cigarette smoke condensate, and mesquite particles were the least potent. The fine particulate (PM < 2.5 ?m) of wood smoke were the most potent TRPA1 agonists and several chemical constituents of wood smoke particulate, 3,5-ditert-butylphenol, coniferaldehyde, formaldehyde, perinaphthenone, agathic acid, and isocupressic acid, were TRPA1 agonists. Pine particulate activated TRPA1 in mouse trigeminal neurons and A549 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by the TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. TRPA1 activation by wood smoke particles occurred through the electrophile/oxidant-sensing domain (i.e., C621/C641/C665/K710), based on the inhibition of cellular responses when the particles were pretreated with glutathione; a role for the menthol-binding site of TRPA1 (S873/T874) was demonstrated for 3,5-ditert-butylphenol. This study demonstrated that TRPA1 is a molecular sensor for wood smoke particulate and several chemical constituents thereof, in sensory neurons and A549 cells, suggesting that TRPA1 may mediate some of the adverse effects of wood smoke in humans.
Project description:Inhaled irritants activate transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), resulting in cough, bronchoconstriction, and inflammation/edema. TRPA1 is also implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma. Our hypothesis was that particulate materials activate TRPA1 via a mechanism distinct from chemical agonists and that, in a cohort of children with asthma living in a location prone to high levels of air pollution, expression of uniquely sensitive forms of TRPA1 may correlate with reduced asthma control. Variant forms of TRPA1 were constructed by mutating residues in known functional elements and corresponding to single-nucleotide polymorphisms in functional domains. TRPA1 activity was studied in transfected HEK-293 cells using allyl-isothiocynate, a model soluble electrophilic agonist; 3,5-ditert butylphenol, a soluble nonelectrophilic agonist and a component of diesel exhaust particles; and insoluble coal fly ash (CFA) particles. The N-terminal variants R3C and R58T exhibited greater, but not additive, activity with all three agonists. The ankyrin repeat domain-4 single nucleotide polymorphisms E179K and K186N exhibited decreased response to CFA. The predicted N-linked glycosylation site residues N747A and N753A exhibited decreased responses to CFA, which were not attributable to differences in cellular localization. The pore-loop residue R919Q was comparable to wild-type, whereas N954T was inactive to soluble agonists but not CFA. These data identify roles for ankyrin domain-4, cell surface N-linked glycans, and selected pore-loop domain residues in the activation of TRPA1 by insoluble particles. Furthermore, the R3C and R58T polymorphisms correlated with reduced asthma control for some children, which suggest that TRPA1 activity may modulate asthma, particularly among individuals living in locations prone to high levels of air pollution.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Wood combustion emissions have been studied previously either by in vitro or in vivo models using collected particles, yet most studies have neglected gaseous compounds. Furthermore, a more accurate and holistic view of the toxicity of aerosols can be gained with parallel in vitro and in vivo studies using direct exposure methods. Moreover, modern exposure techniques such as air-liquid interface (ALI) exposures enable better assessment of the toxicity of the applied aerosols than, for example, the previous state-of-the-art submerged cell exposure techniques. METHODS:We used three different ALI exposure systems in parallel to study the toxicological effects of spruce and pine combustion emissions in human alveolar epithelial (A549) and murine macrophage (RAW264.7) cell lines. A whole-body mouse inhalation system was also used to expose C57BL/6?J mice to aerosol emissions. Moreover, gaseous and particulate fractions were studied separately in one of the cell exposure systems. After exposure, the cells and animals were measured for various parameters of cytotoxicity, inflammation, genotoxicity, transcriptome and proteome. RESULTS:We found that diluted (1:15) exposure pine combustion emissions (PM1 mass 7.7?±?6.5?mg?m-?3, 41?mg?MJ-?1) contained, on average, more PM and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) than spruce (PM1 mass 4.3?±?5.1?mg?m-?3, 26?mg?MJ-?1) emissions, which instead showed a higher concentration of inorganic metals in the emission aerosol. Both A549 cells and mice exposed to these emissions showed low levels of inflammation but significantly increased genotoxicity. Gaseous emission compounds produced similar genotoxicity and a higher inflammatory response than the corresponding complete combustion emission in A549 cells. Systems biology approaches supported the findings, but we detected differing responses between in vivo and in vitro experiments. CONCLUSIONS:Comprehensive in vitro and in vivo exposure studies with emission characterization and systems biology approaches revealed further information on the effects of combustion aerosol toxicity than could be achieved with either method alone. Interestingly, in vitro and in vivo exposures showed the opposite order of the highest DNA damage. In vitro measurements also indicated that the gaseous fraction of emission aerosols may be more important in causing adverse toxicological effects. Combustion aerosols of different wood species result in mild but aerosol specific in vitro and in vivo effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Residential wood combustion is now recognized as a major particle source in many developed countries, and the number of studies investigating the negative health effects associated with wood smoke exposure is currently increasing. The combustion appliances in use today provide highly variable combustion conditions resulting in large variations in the physicochemical characteristics of the emitted particles. These differences in physicochemical properties are likely to influence the biological effects induced by the wood smoke particles. OUTLINE: The focus of this review is to discuss the present knowledge on physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles from different combustion conditions in relation to wood smoke-induced health effects. In addition, the human wood smoke exposure in developed countries is explored in order to identify the particle characteristics that are relevant for experimental studies of wood smoke-induced health effects. Finally, recent experimental studies regarding wood smoke exposure are discussed with respect to the applied combustion conditions and particle properties. CONCLUSION: Overall, the reviewed literature regarding the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles provides a relatively clear picture of how these properties vary with the combustion conditions, whereas particle emissions from specific classes of combustion appliances are less well characterised. The major gaps in knowledge concern; (i) characterisation of the atmospheric transformations of wood smoke particles, (ii) characterisation of the physicochemical properties of wood smoke particles in ambient and indoor environments, and (iii) identification of the physicochemical properties that influence the biological effects of wood smoke particles.
Project description:Healthy human subjects were exposed to wood smoke particulate matter and filtered air on separate occasions. Alveolar leukocytes (predominantly macrophages) were then obtained and analysed by microarray to assess the impact of wood smoke on transcription in the airway.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Smoke from combustion of biomass fuels is a major risk factor for respiratory disease, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine whether exposure to wood smoke from incomplete combustion would elicit airway inflammation in humans. METHODS:Fourteen healthy subjects underwent controlled exposures on two separate occasions to filtered air and wood smoke from incomplete combustion with PM1 concentration at 314 μg/m(3) for 3 h in a chamber. Bronchoscopy with bronchial wash (BW), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and endobronchial mucosal biopsies was performed after 24 h. Differential cell counts and soluble components were analyzed, with biopsies stained for inflammatory markers using immunohistochemistry. In parallel experiments, the toxicity of the particulate matter (PM) generated during the chamber exposures was investigated in vitro using the RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. RESULTS:Significant reductions in macrophage, neutrophil and lymphocyte numbers were observed in BW (p < 0.01, <0.05, <0.05, respectively) following the wood smoke exposure, with a reduction in lymphocytes numbers in BAL fluid (<0.01. This unexpected cellular response was accompanied by decreased levels of sICAM-1, MPO and MMP-9 (p < 0.05, <0.05 and <0.01). In contrast, significant increases in submucosal and epithelial CD3+ cells, epithelial CD8+ cells and submucosal mast cells (p < 0.01, <0.05, <0.05 and <0.05, respectively), were observed after wood smoke exposure. The in vitro data demonstrated that wood smoke particles generated under these incomplete combustion conditions induced cell death and DNA damage, with only minor inflammatory responses. CONCLUSIONS:Short-term exposure to sooty PAH rich wood smoke did not induce an acute neutrophilic inflammation, a classic hallmark of air pollution exposure in humans. While minor proinflammatory lymphocytic and mast cells effects were observed in the bronchial biopsies, significant reductions in BW and BAL cells and soluble components were noted. This unexpected observation, combined with the in vitro data, suggests that wood smoke particles from incomplete combustion could be potentially cytotoxic. Additional research is required to establish the mechanism of this dramatic reduction in airway leukocytes and to clarify how this acute response contributes to the adverse health effects attributed to wood smoke exposure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT01488500.
Project description:Increased particulate air pollution has been associated with both an increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and adverse changes in cardiac biomarkers. Up to 30% of ambient wintertime fine particles (PM2.5) in Rochester, NY are from wood burning. Our study examined associations between ambient levels of a marker of wood smoke (Delta-C) and other particulate air pollutants and biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation and thrombosis.We measured blood concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), D-dimer, fibrinogen, P-selectin, platelet factor 4 (PF-4), von Willebrand factor (vWF), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) of 135 patients undergoing cardiac catheterization during the winters of 2011-2013. We coupled these data with hourly ambient concentrations of Delta-C, black carbon (BC; marker of traffic pollution), and ultrafine (10-100nm; UFP), accumulation mode (100-500nm; AMP), and fine particles (<2.5µm; PM2.5). Using linear regression models, we estimated the change in each biomarker associated with increased pollutant concentrations at intervals between 1 and 96h preceding blood collection.Each 0.13µg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration in the prior 12h was associated with a 0.91% increase in fibrinogen levels (95% CI=0.23%, 1.59%), but unexpectedly in the prior 48h, each 0.17µg/m3 increase in Delta-C concentration was associated with a 2.75% decrease in MPO levels (95% CI=-5.13%,-0.37%). We did not see associations between Delta-C concentrations and any other biomarkers. Interquartile range (IQR) increases in PM2.5, BC, UFP, and AMP concentrations were generally associated with increased CRP and fibrinogen, but not PF4, D-dimer, vWF, or P-selectin.In a population of cardiac patients, we noted adverse changes in fibrinogen associated with increased concentrations of a marker of wood smoke. Increases in PM2.5, BC, AMP, and UFP concentrations in the previous 96h were also associated with adverse changes in markers of systemic inflammation and coagulation, but not with markers of endothelial cell dysfunction or platelet activation.
Project description:Biochar is being discussed as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility and mitigate climate change. While biochar interactions with soil microbial biota have been frequently studied, interactions with soil mesofauna are understudied. We here present an experiment in which we tested if the collembolan Folsomia candida I) can transport biochar particles, II) if yes, how far the particles are distributed within 10 days, and III) if it shows a preference among biochars made from different feedstocks, i.e. pine wood, pine bark and spelt husks. In general, biochar particles based on pine bark and pine wood were consistently distributed significantly more than those made of spelt husks, but all types were transported more than 4cm within 10 days. Additionally, we provide evidence that biochar particles can become readily attached to the cuticle of collembolans and hence be transported, potentially even over large distances. Our study shows that the soil mesofauna can indeed act as a vector for the transport of biochar particles and show clear preferences depending on the respective feedstock, which would need to be studied in more detail in the future.
Project description:RATIONALE:Exposure to particulates from burning biomass is an increasing global health issue. Burning biomass, including wood smoke, is associated with increased lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether acute exposure to wood smoke modifies nasal inflammatory responses to influenza. METHODS:Healthy young adults (n?=?39) were randomized to a 2-hour controlled chamber exposure to wood smoke, where exposure levels were controlled to particulate number (wood smoke particles [WSP]; 500 ?g/cm3) or filtered air, followed by nasal inoculation with a vaccine dose of live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). Nasal lavage was performed before exposure (Day 0) and on Days 1 and 2 after exposure. Nasal lavage fluid cells were analyzed for inflammatory gene expression profiles, and cell-free fluid was assayed for cytokines. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Only IP-10 protein levels were affected, suppressed, by WSP exposure in aggregate analysis. Subsequent analysis indicated an exposure?×?sex interaction, prompting additional analyses of WSP- and LAIV-induced changes in males and females. Inflammation-related gene expression profiles differed between the sexes, at baseline (males greater than females), after LAIV inoculation (females greater than males), and after WSP exposure (increase in males and decrease in females), demonstrating that WSP- and LAIV-induced changes in antiviral defense responses in the nasal mucosa occur in a sex-specific manner. CONCLUSIONS:WSP exposure resulted in minimal modification of LAIV-induced responses in aggregate analysis. In contrast, analyzing WSP-induced modification of LAIV responses in the sexes separately unmasked sex-specific differences in response to exposure. These data highlight the need for additional studies to understand sex-specific pollutant-induced effects. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02183753).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Household air pollution in low income countries is an important cause of mortality from respiratory infection. We hypothesised that chronic smoke exposure is detrimental to alveolar macrophage function, causing failure of innate immunity. We report the relationship between macrophage function and prior smoke exposure in healthy Malawians. METHODS:Healthy subjects exposed daily to cooking smoke at home volunteered for bronchoalveolar lavage. Alveolar macrophage particulate content was measured as a known correlate of smoke exposure. Phagocytosis and intraphagosomal function (oxidative burst and proteolysis) were measured by a flow cytometric assay. Cytokine responses in macrophages were compared following re-exposure in vitro to wood smoke, before and after glutathione depletion. RESULTS:Volunteers had a range of alveolar macrophage particulate loading. The macrophage capacity for phagosomal oxidative burst was negatively associated with alveolar macrophage particulate content (n = 29, r2 = 0.16, p = 0.033), but phagocytosis per se and proteolytic function were unaffected. High particulate content was associated with lower baseline CXCL8 release (ratio 0.51, CI 0.29-0.89) and lower final concentrations on re-exposure to smoke in vitro (ratio 0.58, CI 0.34-0.97). Glutathione depletion augmented CXCL8 responses by 1.49x (CI 1.02-2.17) compared with wood smoke alone. This response was specific to smoke as macrophages response to LPS were not modulated by glutathione. CONCLUSION:Chronic smoke exposure is associated with reduced human macrophage oxidative burst, and dampened inflammatory cytokine responses. These are critical processes in lung defence against infection and likely to underpin the relationship between air pollution and pneumonia.
Project description:In this study, we investigated the emissions, including odor, from log wood stoves, burning wood types indigenous to mid-European countries such as Austria, Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Switzerland, as well as Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria (Germany) and South Tyrol (Italy). The investigations were performed with a modern, certified, 8 kW, manually fired log wood stove, and the results were compared to emissions from a modern 9 kW pellet stove. The examined wood types were deciduous species: black locust, black poplar, European hornbeam, European beech, pedunculate oak (also known as "common oak"), sessile oak, turkey oak and conifers: Austrian black pine, European larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, silver fir, as well as hardwood briquettes. In addition, "garden biomass" such as pine cones, pine needles and dry leaves were burnt in the log wood stove. The pellet stove was fired with softwood pellets. The composite average emission rates for log wood and briquettes were 2030 mg MJ-1 for CO; 89 mg MJ-1 for NOx, 311 mg MJ-1 for CxHy, 67 mg MJ-1 for particulate matter PM10 and average odor concentration was at 2430 OU m-3. CO, CxHy and PM10 emissions from pellets combustion were lower by factors of 10, 13 and 3, while considering NOx - comparable to the log wood emissions. Odor from pellets combustion was not detectable. CxHy and PM10 emissions from garden biomass (needles and leaves) burning were 10 times higher than for log wood, while CO and NOx rise only slightly. Odor levels ranged from not detectable (pellets) to around 19,000 OU m-3 (dry leaves). The odor concentration correlated with CO, CxHy and PM10. For log wood combustion average odor ranged from 536 OU m-3 for hornbeam to 5217 OU m-3 for fir, indicating a considerable influence of the wood type on odor concentration.