Drug-initiated ring-opening polymerization of O-carboxyanhydrides for the preparation of anticancer drug-poly(O-carboxyanhydride) nanoconjugates.
ABSTRACT: We report a novel synthetic strategy of polymer-drug conjugates for nanoparticulate drug delivery: hydroxyl-containing drug (e.g., camptothecin, paclitaxel, doxorubicin and docetaxel) can initiate controlled polymerization of phenyl O-carboxyanhydride (Phe-OCA) to afford drug-poly(Phe-OCA) conjugated nanoparticles, termed drug-PheLA nanoconjugates (NCs). Our new NCs have well-controlled physicochemical properties, including high drug loading, quantitative drug loading efficiency, controlled particle size with narrow particle size distribution, and sustained drug release profile over days without "burst" release effect as observed in conventional polymer/drug encapsulates. Compared with polylactide NCs, the PheLA NCs have increased noncovalent hydrophobic interchain interactions and thereby result in remarkable stability in human serum with negligible particle aggregation. Such distinctive properties can reduce the premature disassembly of NCs upon dilution in the bloodstream and prolong NCs' in vivo circulation with the enhancement of intratumoral accumulation of NCs, which has a bearing on therapeutic effectiveness.
Project description:A targeted micellar drug delivery system is developed from a biocompatible and biodegradable amphiphilic polyester, poly(Lac-OCA)-b-(poly(Tyr(alkynyl)-OCA)-g-mannose) (PLA-b-(PTA-g-mannose), that is synthesized via controlled ring-opening polymerization of O-carboxyanhydride (OCA) and highly efficient "Click" chemistry. Doxorubicin (DOX), a model lipophilic anticancer drug, can be effectively encapsulated into the micelles, and the mannose moiety allows active targeting of the micelles to cancer cells that specifically express mannose receptors, which thereafter enhances the anticancer efficiency of the drug. Comprised entirely of biodegradable and biocompatible polyesters, this micellar system demonstrates promising potentials for targeted drug delivery and cancer therapy.
Project description:This study is designed to test the hypothesis that docetaxel [Doc] containing oily core nanocapsules [NCs] could be successfully prepared with a high percentage encapsulation efficiency [EE%] and high drug loading. The oily core NCs were generated according to the emulsion solvent diffusion method using neutral Labrafac CC and poly(d, l-lactide) [PLA] as oily core and shell, respectively. The engineered NCs were characterized for particle mean diameter, zeta potential, EE%, drug release kinetics, morphology, crystallinity, and cytotoxicity on the SUM 225 breast cancer cell line by dynamic light scattering, high performance liquid chromatography, electron microscopies, powder X-ray diffraction, and lactate dehydrogenase bioassay. Typically, the formation of Doc-loaded, oily core, polyester-based NCs was evidenced by spherical nanometric particles (115 to 582 nm) with a low polydispersity index (< 0.05), high EE% (65% to 93%), high drug loading (up to 68.3%), and a smooth surface. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that Doc was not present in a crystalline state because it was dissolved within the NCs' oily core and the PLA shell. The drug/polymer interaction has been indeed thermodynamically explained using the Flory-Huggins interaction parameters. Doc release kinetic data over 144 h fitted very well with the Higuchi model (R2 > 0.93), indicating that drug release occurred mainly by controlled diffusion. At the highest drug concentration (5 ?M), the Doc-loaded oily core NCs (as a reservoir nanosystem) enhanced the native drug cytotoxicity. These data suggest that the oily core NCs are promising templates for controlled delivery of poorly water soluble chemotherapeutic agents, such as Doc.
Project description:Introducing various pendant functional groups and building blocks of interest to polypeptides in a highly efficient, controlled manner is crucial to access polypeptide materials with desired structures and functions. In this study, we synthesized ?-(4-vinylbenzyl)-(L)-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (VB-Glu-NCA), which was readily obtained and purified in large quantity. VB-Glu-NCA monomer was subsequently used for the synthesis of polypeptides containing conjugation-amenable, pendant vinyl functional groups. Controlled, living polymerizations of VB-Glu-NCA were achieved by using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) as the initiator, catalytic amounts of 1,5,7-triazabicyclo[4.4.0]dec-5-ene (TBD) as the co-catalyst, and nitrobenzene as the inhibitor of radical-induced side reactions on the vinyl group of VB-Glu-NCA. The resulting poly(?-(4-vinylbenzyl)-(L)-glutamate) (PVBLG) gave rise to polypeptides containing pendant functional groups or moieties through various vinyl chemistries.
Project description:<h4>Background & aims</h4>Obeticholic acid (OCA), a farnesoid X receptor agonist, increases total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of OCA therapy on lipoprotein sub-particles.<h4>Method</h4>This study included 196 patients (99 OCA group and 97 placebo group) who were enrolled in the FLINT trial and had samples available for lipid analysis and liver biopsies at enrollment and end-of-treatment (EOT) at 72?weeks. Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles were evaluated at baseline, 12 and 72?weeks after randomization, and 24?weeks following EOT.<h4>Results</h4>Baseline lipoprotein profiles were similar among OCA and placebo groups. OCA did not affect total VLDL particle concentrations, but OCA vs. placebo treatment was associated with decreased large VLDL particle concentration at 12?weeks (baseline-adjusted mean: 6.8 vs. 8.9?nmol/L; p?=?0.002), mirrored by an increase in less atherogenic, small VLDL particle concentration (33.9 vs. 28.0?nmol/L; p?=?0.02). After 12?weeks, total LDL particle concentration was higher in the OCA group than the placebo group (1,667 vs. 1,329?nmol/L; p?<0.0001), characterized by corresponding increases in both less atherogenic, large-buoyant LDL (475 vs. 308?nmol/L; p??0.001) and more atherogenic small-dense LDL particles (1,015 vs. 872?nmol/L; p?=?0.002). The changes in LDL particle concentrations were similar between treatment groups (OCA and placebo) 24?weeks following EOT due to improvement in the OCA cohort. Compared to placebo, a reduction in total HDL particle concentration, particularly large and medium HDL particles, was noted in the OCA-treated patients, but this resolved after drug discontinuation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>OCA therapy is associated with increases in small VLDL particles, large and small LDL particles, and a reduction in HDL particles at 12?weeks. These lipoprotein concentrations reverted to baseline values 24?weeks after drug discontinuation.<h4>Lay summary</h4>Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis is a chronic liver disease that is associated with an increased risk of developing cirrhosis and cardiovascular disease. Recently, obeticholic acid (OCA), a farnesoid X receptor agonist, improved liver disease but led to an increase in cholesterol. However, the impact of OCA on cholesterol is not well understood. In the present study, we show that OCA therapy is associated with a detrimental increase in lipoprotein levels, which improves after drug discontinuation. ClinicalTrials.gov numbers: NCT01265498.
Project description:Despite notable progress, the fabrication of well-defined polypeptides via controlled ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of ?-amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) using convenient catalysts under mild conditions in a relatively short polymerization time is still challenging. Herein, an easily obtained catalyst system composed of zinc acetate and aniline was explored to mediate the fast ROP of ?-benzyl-l-glutamate-N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) monomer, to produce poly(?-benzyl-l-glutamates) (PBLGs) with controllable molecular weights and narrow dispersity. Considering the excellent cooperative action of zinc acetate and a broad scope of aniline derivatives with different functional groups to control ROP of BLG-NCA, this method may offer a useful platform enabling the rapid generation of end-functionalized PBLG and block copolymers for numerous biomedical applications.
Project description:We report here the integration of ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) and ring-opening polymerization of the amino acid N-carboxyanhydride (NCA) to allow facile synthesis of brush-like polymers containing polypeptide as the brush side chains. ROMP of N-trimethylsilyl norbornenes rendered the preparation of poly(norbornene)s bearing pendant N-TMS groups. With no need to purify the resulting polymers, such macromolecular initiators could subsequently initiate controlled NCA polymerizations. Brush-like poly(norbornene)s with grafted polypeptides or block copolypeptides were readily obtained with controlled molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Because numerous ROMP and NCA monomers are widely available, this novel polymerization technique will allow easy access to numerous brush-like hybrid macromolecules with unprecedented properties and broad applications.
Project description:Drug-containing nanoparticles (NPs) with monodisperse, controlled particle sizes are highly desirable for drug delivery. Accumulating evidence suggests that NPs with sizes less than 50 nm demonstrate superior performance in vitro and in vivo. However, it is difficult to fabricate monodisperse, drug-containing NPs with discrete sizes required for studying and characterizing existing relationships among particle size, biologic processing, and therapeutic functionality. Here, we report a scalable process of fabricating drug-silica conjugated nanoparticles, termed drug-silica nanoconjugates (drug-NCs), which possess monodisperse size distributions and desirable particle sizes as small as 20 nm. We find that 20 nm NCs are superior to their 50 and 200 nm NC analogues by 2-5- and 10-20-fold, respectively, with regard to tumor accumulation and penetration and cellular internalization. These fundamental findings underscore the importance and necessity of further miniaturizing nanomedicine size for optimized drug delivery applications.
Project description:Well-defined molecular brushes bearing polypeptides as side chains were prepared by a "grafting through" synthetic strategy with two-dimensional control over the brush molecular architectures. By integrating N-carboxyanhydride ring-opening polymerizations (NCA ROPs) and ring-opening metathesis polymerizations (ROMPs), desirable segment lengths of polypeptide side chains and polynorbornene brush backbones were independently constructed in controlled manners. The N2 flow accelerated NCA ROP was utilized to prepare polypeptide macromonomers with different lengths initiated from a norbornene-based primary amine, and those macromonomers were then polymerized via ROMP. It was found that a mixture of dichloromethane and an ionic liquid were required as the solvent system to allow for construction of molecular brush polymers having densely-grafted peptide chains emanating from a polynorbornene backbone, poly(norbornene-graft-poly(?-benzyl-l-aspartate)) (P(NB-g-PBLA)). Highly efficient postpolymerization modification was achieved by aminolysis of PBLA side chains for facile installment of functional moieties onto the molecular brushes.
Project description:A facile N2 flow-accelerated N-carboxyanhydride ring opening polymerization (NCA ROP) is demonstrated, herein, with rigorous kinetic studies to evaluate the methodology in detail. By using n-hexylamine as initiator and ?-benzyl-L-glutamate N-carboxyanhydride (BLG-NCA) as monomer, the NCA ROP via a normal amine mechanism (NAM) reached 90% conversion in 2 h under N2 flow at room temperature in a fume hood, much shorter than the time required for the same polymerization conducted in a glove box (14 h). The efficient removal of CO2 from the reaction by N2 flow drove the carbamic acid-amine equilibrium toward the formation of active nucleophilic amino termini and promoted polymerization. The detailed kinetic studies of the polymerization with different feed ratios and N2 flow rates were conducted, demonstrating the living feature of the NCA ROP and the tuning of the polymerization rate by simply changing the flow rate of N2. Maintenance of the reactivity of the amino ?-chain terminus and control during a subsequent polymerization were confirmed by performing chain extension reactions. The N2 flow method provides a new straightforward strategy to synthesize well-defined polypeptides with predictable molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions (PDI < 1.19).
Project description:Resveratrol is a small molecule produced by various plants with a remarkable range of beneficial functions in animals. One of these is stimulating signaling pathways in adipose tissue that protect against obesity. Unfortunately, resveratrol suffers from poor bioavailability that inhibits its accumulation in target tissues, including fat, thus hindering the realization of its therapeutic potential. To address this, we are developing biodegradable microparticles as drug depots for controlled release of resveratrol within fat. In this study, resveratrol was encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles using an oil-in-water emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The oil phase consisted of resveratrol and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) dissolved in a mixture of dichloromethane and ethanol; meanwhile, the aqueous phase contained poly(vinyl alcohol) as the emulsifier. Increasing ethanol's volume ratio increased resveratrol's solubility in the oil phase and particle drug loading. The maximal loading achieved was 65?µg/mg (6.5%) and occurred when the ethanol to dichloromethane ratio was 1:3. Under these conditions, particles exhibited ruffled surfaces, which resulted in variable drug release over the first three days of a six-week release assay. By decreasing resveratrol and ethanol in the oil phase and increasing poly(vinyl alcohol) in the aqueous phase, smooth particles were achieved, but they suffered a 15-25-fold decrease in drug loading depending on size. Small particles exhibited higher drug loading and burst drug release compared to larger particles because of their higher specific surface area. Utilizing mild chemistry, we functionalized poly(vinyl alcohol) with fluorescein isothiocyanate and demonstrated that encapsulation of resveratrol in the particle decreases the amount of fluorescent polymer on the particle surface, suggesting resveratrol displaces the emulsifier during particle formation. Taken together, resveratrol can be encapsulated into poly(lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles, but it accumulates at the particle surface impacting drug loading, surface roughness, and drug release.