Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor.
ABSTRACT: Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.
Project description:Cancer patients often have an activated clotting system and are at increased risk for venous thrombosis. In this study, we analyzed tissue factor (TF) expression in four different human pancreatic tumor cell lines for the purpose of producing derivative tumors in vivo. We found that two of the lines expressed TF and released TF-positive microparticles (MPs) into the culture medium. The majority of TF protein in the culture medium was associated with MPs. Importantly, only TF-positive cell lines activated coagulation in nude mice, and this activation was abolished by an anti-human TF antibody. Of the two TF-positive lines only one produced detectable levels of human MP TF activity in the plasma when grown orthotopically in nude mice. Surprisingly, <5% of human TF protein in plasma from tumor-bearing mice was associated with MPs. Mice with TF-positive tumors and elevated levels of circulating TF-positive MPs had increased thrombosis in a saphenous vein model. In contrast, we observed no difference in thrombus weight between tumor bearing and control mice in an inferior vena cava stenosis model. Our studies suggest that in a xenograft mouse model tumor TF activates coagulation, whereas TF on circulating MPs may trigger venous thrombosis. Overall design: 8 human tumor pancreatic cell lines
Project description:Inflammasome activation and subsequent pyroptosis are critical defense mechanisms against microbes. However, overactivation of inflammasome leads to death of the host. Although recent studies have uncovered the mechanism of pyroptosis following inflammasome activation, how pyroptotic cell death drives pathogenesis, eventually leading to death of the host, is unknown. Here, we identified inflammasome activation as a trigger for blood clotting through pyroptosis. We have shown that canonical inflammasome activation by the conserved type III secretion system (T3SS) rod proteins from Gram-negative bacteria or noncanonical inflammasome activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced systemic blood clotting and massive thrombosis in tissues. Following inflammasome activation, pyroptotic macrophages released tissue factor (TF), an essential initiator of coagulation cascades. Genetic or pharmacological inhibition of TF abolishes inflammasome-mediated blood clotting and protects against death. Our data reveal that blood clotting is the major cause of host death following inflammasome activation and demonstrate that inflammasome bridges inflammation with thrombosis.
Project description:Blood coagulation in vivo is a spatially nonuniform, multistage process: coagulation factors from plasma bind to tissue factor (TF)-expressing cells, become activated, dissociate, and diffuse into plasma to form enzymatic complexes on the membranes of activated platelets. We studied spatial regulation of coagulation using two approaches: 1), an in vitro experimental model of clot formation in a thin layer of plasma activated by a monolayer of TF-expressing cells; and 2), a computer simulation model. Clotting in factor VIII- and factor XI-deficient plasmas was initiated normally, but further clot elongation was impaired in factor VIII- and, at later stages, in factor XI-deficient plasma. The data indicated that clot elongation was regulated by factor Xa formation by intrinsic tenase, whereas factor IXa was formed by extrinsic tenase on activating cells and diffused into plasma, thus sustaining clot growth. Far from the activating cells, additional factor IXa was produced by factor XIa. Exogenously added TF had no effect on the clot growth rate, suggesting that plasma TF does not contribute significantly to the clot propagation process in a reaction-diffusion system without flow. Addition of thrombomodulin at 3-100 nM caused dose-dependent termination of clot elongation with a final clot size of 2-0.2 mm. These results identify roles of specific coagulation pathways at different stages of spatial clot formation (initiation, elongation, and termination) and provide a possible basis for their therapeutic targeting.
Project description:Aims:Sirtuin 3 (Sirt3) is a mitochondrial, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+)-dependent deacetylase that reduces oxidative stress by activation of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2). Oxidative stress enhances arterial thrombosis. This study investigated the effects of genetic Sirt3 deletion on arterial thrombosis in mice in an inflammatory setting and assessed the clinical relevance of these findings in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Methods and results:Using a laser-induced carotid thrombosis model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, in vivo time to thrombotic occlusion in Sirt3-/- mice (n = 6) was reduced by half compared to Sirt3+/+ wild-type (n = 8, P < 0.01) controls. Ex vivo analyses of whole blood using rotational thromboelastometry revealed accelerated clot formation and increased clot stability in Sirt3-/- compared to wild-type blood. rotational thromboelastometry of cell-depleted plasma showed accelerated clotting initiation in Sirt3-/- mice, whereas overall clot formation and firmness remained unaffected. Ex vivo LPS-induced neutrophil extracellular trap formation was increased in Sirt3-/- bone marrow-derived neutrophils. Plasma tissue factor (TF) levels and activity were elevated in Sirt3-/- mice, whereas plasma levels of other coagulation factors and TF expression in arterial walls remained unchanged. SOD2 expression in bone marrow -derived Sirt3-/- neutrophils was reduced. In STEMI patients, transcriptional levels of Sirt3 and its target SOD2 were lower in CD14+ leukocytes compared with healthy donors (n = 10 each, P < 0.01). Conclusions:Sirt3 loss-of-function enhances experimental thrombosis in vivo via an increase of neutrophil extracellular traps and elevation of TF suggesting thrombo-protective effects of endogenous Sirt3. Acute coronary thrombosis in STEMI patients is associated with lower expression levels of SIRT3 and SOD2 in CD14+ leukocytes. Therefore, enhancing SIRT3 activity by pan-sirtuin activating NAD+-boosters may provide a novel therapeutic target to prevent or treat thrombotic arterial occlusion in myocardial infarction or stroke.
Project description:Sex differences in thrombosis are well described, but their underlying mechanism(s) are not completely understood. Coagulation proteins are synthesized in the liver, and liver gene expression is sex specific and depends on sex differences in growth hormone (GH) secretion--males secrete GH in a pulsatile fashion, while females secrete GH continuously. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that sex-specific GH secretion patterns cause sex differences in thrombosis. Male mice were more susceptible to thrombosis than females in the thromboplastin-induced pulmonary embolism model and showed shorter clotting times ex vivo. GH-deficient little (lit) mice were protected from thrombosis, and pulsatile GH given to lit mice restored the male clotting phenotype. Moreover, pulsatile GH administration resulted in a male clotting phenotype in control female mice, while continuous GH caused a female clotting phenotype in control male mice. Expression of the coagulation inhibitors Proc, Serpinc1, Serpind1, and Serpina5 were strongly modulated by sex-specific GH patterns, and GH modulated resistance to activated protein C. These results reveal what we believe to be a novel mechanism whereby sex-specific GH patterns mediate sex differences in thrombosis through coordinated changes in the expression of coagulation inhibitor genes in the liver.
Project description:Epac1 (Exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1) limits fluid loss from the circulation by tightening the endothelial barrier. We show here that Epac1-/- mice, but not Epac2-/- mice, have prolonged bleeding time, suggesting that Epac1 may limit fluid loss also by restraining bleeding. The Epac1-/- mice had deficient in vitro secondary hemostasis. Quantitative comprehensive proteomics analysis revealed that Epac1-/- mouse platelets (thrombocytes) had unbalanced expression of key components of the glycoprotein Ib-IX-V (GPIb-IX-V) complex, with decrease of GP1b? and no change of GP1b?. This complex is critical for platelet adhesion under arterial shear conditions. Furthermore, Epac1-/- mice have reduced levels of plasma coagulation factors and fibrinogen, increased size of circulating platelets, increased megakaryocytes (the GP1b? level was decreased also in Epac1-/- bone marrow) and higher abundance of reticulated platelets. Viscoelastic measurement of clotting function revealed Epac1-/- mice with a dysfunction in the clotting process, which corresponds to reduced plasma levels of coagulation factors like factor XIII and fibrinogen. We propose that the observed platelet phenotype is due to deficient Epac1 activity during megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis, and that the defects in blood clotting for Epac1-/- is connected to secondary hemostasis.
Project description:Blood coagulation is triggered not only by surface tissue factor (TF) density but also by surface TF distribution. We investigated recognition of surface TF distribution patterns during blood coagulation and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. For these investigations, we employed 1), an in vitro reaction-diffusion experimental model of coagulation; and 2), numerical simulations using a mathematical model of coagulation in a three-dimensional space. When TF was uniformly immobilized over the activating surface, the clotting initiation time in normal plasma increased from 4 min to >120 min, with a decrease in TF density from 100 to 0.7 pmol/m(2). In contrast, surface-immobilized fibroblasts initiated clotting within 3-7 min, independently of fibroblast quantity and despite a change in average surface TF density from 0.5 to 130 pmol/m(2). Experiments using factor V-, VII-, and VIII-deficient plasma and computer simulations demonstrated that different responses to these two TF distributions are caused by two positive feedback loops in the blood coagulation network: activation of the TF-VII complex by factor Xa, and activation of factor V by thrombin. This finding suggests a new role for these reactions: to supply sensitivity to local TF density during blood coagulation.
Project description:Replacement therapy with missing factor (F) VIII or IX in haemophilia patients for bleed management and preventative treatment or prophylaxis is standard of care. Restoration of thrombin generation through novel mechanisms has become the focus of innovation to overcome limitations imposed by protein replacement therapy. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) is a multivalent Kunitz-type serine protease inhibitor that regulates tissue factor (TF)-induced coagulation through a FXa-dependent feedback inhibition of the TF.FVIIa complex in plasma and on endothelial surfaces. Concizumab is a monoclonal, humanised antibody, specific for the second Kunitz domain of TFPI that binds and inhibits FXa, abolishing the inhibitory effect of TFPI. Concizumab restored thrombin generation in FVIII and FIX deficient plasmas and decreased blood loss in a rabbit haemophilia model. Phase 1 single and multiple dose escalation studies in haemophilia patients demonstrated a dose dependent decrease in TFPI levels and a pro-coagulant effect with increasing d-dimers and prothrombin fragment 1 + 2. A dose dependent increase in peak thrombin and endogenous thrombin potential was observed with values in the normal range when plasma TFPI levels were nearly undetectable. A few haemophilia patients in the highest dose cohorts with complete inhibition of plasma TFPI showed a decreased fibrinogen concentration with normal levels of anti-thrombin and platelets and no evidence of thrombosis. Pharmacokinetic parameters were influenced by binding to the target (TFPI), demonstrating target mediated drug disposition. A trend towards decreasing bleeding tendency was observed and this preventative effect is being studied in Phase 2 studies with additional data gathered to improve our understanding of the therapeutic window and potential for thrombosis.
Project description:Pentamidine is bis-oxybenzamidine-based antiprotozoal drug. The parenteral use of pentamidine appears to affect the processes of blood coagulation and/or fibrinolysis resulting in rare but potentially life-threatening blood clot formation. Pentamidine was also found to cause disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome. To investigate the potential underlying molecular mechanism(s) of pentamidine's effects on coagulation and fibrinolysis, we studied its effects on clotting times in normal and deficient human plasmas. Using normal plasma, pentamidine isethionate doubled the activated partial thromboplastin time at 27.5 µM, doubled the prothrombin time at 45.7 µM, and weakly doubled the thrombin time at 158.17 µM. Using plasmas deficient of factors VIIa, IXa, XIa, or XIIa, the concentrations to double the activated partial thromboplastin time were similar to that obtained using normal plasma. Pentamidine also inhibited plasmin-mediated clot lysis with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of ~3.6 ?M. Chromogenic substrate hydrolysis assays indicated that pentamidine inhibits factor Xa and plasmin with IC50 values of 10.4 µM and 8.4 µM, respectively. Interestingly, it did not significantly inhibit thrombin, factor XIa, factor XIIIa, neutrophil elastase, or chymotrypsin at the highest concentrations tested. Michaelis-Menten kinetics and molecular modeling studies revealed that pentamidine inhibits factor Xa and plasmin in a competitive fashion. Overall, this study provides quantitative mechanistic insights into the in vitro effects of pentamidine isethionate on coagulation and fibrinolysis via the disruption of the proteolytic activity of factor Xa and plasmin.
Project description:Patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis have a dysregulated coagulation system and are prone to thrombosis. The basis for this hypercoagulable state is not completely understood. Tissue factor (TF) is the primary initiator of coagulation in vivo. Patients with cirrhosis have increased TF activity in white blood cells and circulating microparticles. The aim of our study was to determine the contribution of TF to the hypercoagulable state in a mouse model of chronic liver injury.We measured levels of TF activity in the liver, white blood cells and circulating microparticles, and a marker of activation of coagulation (thrombin-antithrombin complexes (TATc)) in the plasma of mice subjected to bile duct ligation for 12days. We used wild-type mice, mice with a global TF deficiency (low TF mice), and mice deficient for TF in either myeloid cells (TF(flox/flox),LysMCre mice) or in hepatocytes (TF(flox/flox),AlbCre).Wild-type mice with liver injury had increased levels of white blood cell, microparticle TF activity and TATc compared to sham mice. Low TF mice and mice lacking TF in hepatocytes had reduced levels of TF in the liver and in microparticles and exhibited reduced activation of coagulation without a change in liver fibrosis. In contrast, mice lacking TF in myeloid cells had reduced white blood cell TF but no change in microparticle TF activity or TATc.Hepatocyte TF activates coagulation in a mouse model of chronic liver injury. TF may contribute to the hypercoagulable state associated with chronic liver diseases in patients.