Cytotoxic 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones as mitotic arresters and cell migration inhibitors.
ABSTRACT: Based on classical colchicine site ligands and a computational model of the colchicine binding site on beta tubulin, two classes of chalcone derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibition of tubulin assembly and toxicity in human cancer cell lines. Docking studies suggested that the chalcone scaffold could fit the colchicine site on tubulin in an orientation similar to that of the natural product. In particular, a 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl ring adjacent to the carbonyl group appeared to benefit the ligand-tubulin interaction, occupying the same subcavity as the corresponding moiety in colchicine. Consistent with modeling predictions, several 3,4,5-trimethoxychalcones showed improved cytotoxicity to murine acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells compared with a previously described parent compound, and inhibited tubulin assembly in vitro as potently as colchicine. The most potent chalcones inhibited the growth of human leukemia cell lines at nanomolar concentrations, caused microtubule destabilization and mitotic arrest in human cervical cancer cells, and inhibited human breast cancer cell migration in scratch wound and Boyden chamber assays.
Project description:We previously identified 1-(2,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-3-(1-methylindolyl) propenone (IPP51), a new chalcone derivative that is capable of inducing prometaphase arrest and subsequent apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. Here, we demonstrate that IPP51 selectively inhibits proliferation of tumor-derived cells versus normal non-tumor cells. IPP51 interfered with spindle formation and mitotic chromosome alignment. Accumulation of cyclin B1 and mitotic checkpoint proteins Bub1 and BubR1 on chromosomes in IPP51 treated cells indicated the activation of spindle-assembly checkpoint, which is consistent with the mitotic arrest. The antimitotic actions of other chalcones are often associated with microtubule disruption. Indeed, IPP51 inhibited tubulin polymerization in an in vitro assay with purified tubulin. In cells, IPP51 induced an increase in soluble tubulin. Furthermore, IPP51 inhibited in vitro capillary-like tube formation by endothelial cells, indicating that it has anti-angiogenic activity. Molecular docking showed that the indol group of IPP51 can be accommodated in the colchicine binding site of tubulin. This characteristic was confirmed by an in vitro competition assay demonstrating that IPP51 can compete for colchicine binding to soluble tubulin. Finally, in a human bladder xenograft mouse model, IPP51 inhibited tumor growth without signs of toxicity. Altogether, these findings suggest that IPP51 is an attractive new microtubule-targeting agent with potential chemotherapeutic value.
Project description:Microtubule-targeted drugs are essential chemotherapeutic agents for various types of cancer. A series of 3-vinyl-?-lactams (2-azetidinones) were designed, synthesized and evaluated as potential tubulin polymerization inhibitors, and for their antiproliferative effects in breast cancer cells. These compounds showed potent activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with an IC50 value of 8 nM for compound 7s 4-[3-Hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl]-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-3-vinylazetidin-2-one) which was comparable to the activity of Combretastatin A-4. Compound 7s had minimal cytotoxicity against both non-tumorigenic HEK-293T cells and murine mammary epithelial cells. The compounds inhibited the polymerisation of tubulin in vitro with an 8.7-fold reduction in tubulin polymerization at 10 ?M for compound 7s and were shown to interact at the colchicine-binding site on tubulin, resulting in significant G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Immunofluorescence staining of MCF-7 cells confirmed that ?-lactam 7s is targeting tubulin and resulted in mitotic catastrophe. A docking simulation indicated potential binding conformations for the 3-vinyl-?-lactam 7s in the colchicine domain of tubulin. These compounds are promising candidates for development as antiproiferative microtubule-disrupting agents.
Project description:Tubulin is one of the best validated anti-cancer targets, but most anti-tubulin agents have unfavorable therapeutic indexes. Here, we characterized the tubulin-binding activity, the mechanism of action, and the in vivo anti-leukemia efficacy of three 3,4,5-trimethoxy-N-acylhydrazones. We show that all compounds target the colchicine-binding site of tubulin and that none is a substrate of ABC transporters. The crystal structure of the tubulin-bound N-(1'-naphthyl)-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzohydrazide (12) revealed steric hindrance on the T7 loop movement of ?-tubulin, thereby rendering tubulin assembly incompetent. Using dose escalation and short-term repeated dose studies, we further report that this compound class is well tolerated to >100 mg/kg in mice. We finally observed that intraperitoneally administered compound 12 significantly prolonged the overall survival of mice transplanted with both sensitive and multidrug-resistant acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells. Taken together, this work describes promising colchicine-site-targeting tubulin inhibitors featuring favorable therapeutic effects against ALL and multidrug-resistant cells.
Project description:Colchicine binding site inhibitors (CBSIs) hold great potential in developing new generations of antimitotic drugs. Unlike existing tubulin inhibitors such as paclitaxel, they are generally much less susceptible to resistance caused by the overexpression of drug efflux pumps. The 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl (TMP) moiety is a critical component present in many CBSIs, playing an important role in maintaining suitable molecular conformations of CBSIs and contributing to their high binding affinities to tubulin. Previously reported modifications to the TMP moiety in a variety of scaffolds of CBSIs have usually resulted in reduced antiproliferative potency. We previously reported a potent CBSI, VERU-111, that also contains the TMP moiety. Herein, we report the discovery of a VERU-111 analogue 13f that is significantly more potent than VERU-111. The X-ray crystal structure of 13f in complex with tubulin confirms its direct binding to the colchicine site. In addition, 13f exhibited a strong inhibitory effect on tumor growth in vivo.
Project description:Numerous members of the combretastatin and chalcone families of natural products function as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization through a binding interaction at the colchicine site on ?-tubulin. These molecular scaffolds inspired the development of many structurally modified derivatives and analogues as promising anticancer agents. A productive design blueprint that involved molecular hybridization of the pharmacophore moieties of combretastatin A-4 (CA4) and the chalcones led to the discovery of two promising lead molecules referred to as KGP413 and SD400. The corresponding water-soluble phosphate prodrug salts of KGP413 and SD400 selectively damaged tumor-associated vasculature, thus highlighting the potential development of these molecules as vascular disrupting agents (VDAs). These previous studies prompted our current investigation of conformationally restricted chalcones. Herein, we report the synthesis of cyclic chalcones and related analogues that incorporate structural motifs of CA4, and evaluation of their cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines [NCI-H460 (lung), DU-145 (prostate), and SK-OV-3 (ovarian)]. While these molecules proved inactive as inhibitors of tubulin polymerization (IC50 > 20 ?M), eight molecules demonstrated good antiproliferative activity (GI50 < 20 ?M) against all three cancer cell lines, and compounds 2j and 2l demonstrated sub-micromolar cytotoxicity. To the best of our knowledge these molecules represent the most potent (based on GI50) cyclic chalcones known to date, and are promising lead molecules for continued investigation.
Project description:We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.
Project description:Inhibitors that bind to the paclitaxel- or vinblastine-binding sites of tubulin have been part of the pharmacopoeia of anticancer therapy for decades. However, tubulin inhibitors that bind to the colchicine-binding site are not used in clinical cancer therapy, because of their low therapeutic index. To address multidrug resistance to many conventional tubulin-binding agents, numerous efforts have attempted to clinically develop inhibitors that bind the colchicine-binding site. Previously, we have found that millepachine (MIL), a natural chalcone-type small molecule extracted from the plant Millettia pachycarpa, and its two derivatives (MDs) SKLB028 and SKLB050 have potential antitumor activities both in vitro and in vivo However, their cellular targets and mechanisms are unclear. Here, biochemical and cellular experiments revealed that the MDs directly and irreversibly bind β-tubulin. X-ray crystallography of the tubulin-MD structures disclosed that the MDs bind at the tubulin intradimer interface and to the same site as colchicine and that their binding mode is similar to that of colchicine. Of note, MDs inhibited tubulin polymerization and caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest. Comprehensive analysis further revealed that free MIL exhibits an s-cis conformation, whereas MIL in the colchicine-binding site in tubulin adopts an s-trans conformation. Moreover, introducing an α-methyl to MDs to increase the proportion of s-trans conformations augmented MDs' tubulin inhibition activity. Our study uncovers a new class of chalcone-type tubulin inhibitors that bind the colchicine-binding site in β-tubulin and suggests that the s-trans conformation of these compounds may make them more active anticancer agents.
Project description:We purified pseudolaric acid B (PAB) from the root and stem bark of Pseudolarix kaempferi (Lindl.) Gorden. Confirming previous findings, we found that the compound had high nanomolar IC?? antiproliferative effects in several cultured cell lines, causing mitotic arrest and the disappearance of intracellular microtubules. PAB strongly inhibited tubulin assembly (IC??, 1.1 ?M) but weakly inhibited the binding of colchicine to tubulin, as demonstrated by fluorescence and with [³H]colchicine. Kinetic analysis demonstrated that the mechanism of inhibition was competitive, with an apparent K(i) of 12-15 ?M. Indirect studies demonstrated that PAB bound rapidly to tubulin and dissociated more rapidly from tubulin than the colchicine analog 2-methoxy-5-(2',3',4'-trimethoxyphenyl)tropone, whose complex with tubulin is known to have a half-life of 17s at 37 °C. We modeled PAB into the colchicine site of tubulin, using the crystal structure 1SA0 that contains two ??-tubulin heterodimers, both bound to a colchicinoid and to a stathmin fragment. The binding model of PAB revealed common pharmacophoric features between PAB and colchicinoids, not readily apparent from their chemical structures.
Project description:Inhibition of microtubule function using tubulin targeting agents has received growing attention in the last several decades. The indole scaffold has been recognized as an important scaffold in the design of novel compounds acting as antimitotic agents. Indole-based chalcones, in which one of the aryl rings was replaced by an indole, have been explored in the last few years for their anticancer potential in different cancer cell lines. Eighteen novel (3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-indolyl-propenone derivatives with general structure 9 were synthesized and evaluated for their antiproliferative activity against a panel of four different human cancer cell lines. The highest IC50 values were obtained against the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cell line. This series of chalcone derivatives was characterized by the presence of a 2-alkoxycarbonyl indole ring as the second aryl system attached at the carbonyl of the 3-position of the 1-(3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl)-2-propen-1-one framework. The structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the indole-based chalcone derivatives was investigated by varying the position of the methoxy group, by the introduction of different substituents (hydrogen, methyl, ethyl or benzyl) at the N-1 position and by the activity differences between methoxycarbonyl and ethoxycarbonyl moieties at the 2-position of the indole nucleus. The antiproliferative activity data of the novel synthesized compounds revealed that generally N-substituted indole analogues exhibited considerably reduced potency as compared with their parent N-unsubstituted counterparts, demonstrating that the presence of a hydrogen on the indole nitrogen plays a decisive role in increasing antiproliferative activity. The results also revealed that the position of the methoxy group on the indole ring is a critical determinant of biological activity. Among the synthesized derivatives, compound 9e, containing the 2-methoxycarbonyl-6-methoxy-N-1H-indole moiety exhibited the highest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 0.37, 0.16 and 0.17??M against HeLa, HT29 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines, respectively, and with considerably lower activity against HL-60 cells (IC50: 18??M). This derivative also displayed cytotoxic properties (IC50 values ?1??M) in the human myeloid leukemia U-937 cell line overexpressing human Bcl-2 (U-937/Bcl-2) via cell cycle progression arrest at the G2-M phase and induction of apoptosis. The results obtained also demonstrated that the antiproliferative activity of this molecule is related to inhibition of tubulin polymerisation. The presence of a methoxy group at the C5- or C6-position of the indole nucleus, as well as the absence of substituents at the N-1-indole position, contributed to the optimal activity of the indole-propenone-3',4',5'-trimethoxyphenyl scaffold.
Project description:Tubulin, the basic component of microtubules, is present in most eukaryotic cells as multiple gene products, called isotypes. The major tubulin isotypes are highly conserved in terms of structure and drug binding capabilities. Tubulin isotype betaVI, however, is significantly divergent from the other isotypes in sequence, assembly properties, and function. It is the major beta-tubulin isotype of hematopoietic tissue and forms the microtubules of platelet marginal bands. The interaction of the major tubulin isotypes betaI, betaII, betaIII, and betaIotaV with antimicrotubule drugs has been widely studied, but little is known about the drug binding properties of tubulin isotype betaVI. In this investigation, we characterize the activity of various colchicine site ligands with tubulin isolated from Gallus gallus erythrocytes (CeTb), which is approximately 95% betaVI. Colchicine binding is thought to be a universal property of higher eukaryotic tubulin; however, we were unable to detect colchicine binding to CeTb under any experimental conditions. Podophyllotoxin and nocodazole, other colchicine site ligands with divergent structures, were able to inhibit paclitaxel-induced CeTb assembly. Surprisingly, the colchicine isomer allocolchicine also inhibited CeTb assembly and displayed measurable, moderate affinity for CeTb (K(a) = 0.18 x 10(5) M(-1) vs 5.0 x 10(5) M(-1) for bovine brain tubulin). Since allocolchicine and colchicine differ in their C ring structures, the two C ring colchicine analogues were also tested for CeTb binding. Kinetic experiments indicate that thiocolchicine and chlorocolchicine bind to CeTb, but very slowly and with low affinity. Molecular modeling of CeTb identified five divergent amino acid residues within 6 A of the colchicine binding site compared to betaI, betaII, and betaIV; three of these amino acids are also altered in betaIII-tubulin. Interestingly, the altered amino acids are in the vicinity of the A ring region of the colchicine binding site rather than the C ring region. We propose that the amino acid differences in the binding site constrict the A ring binding domain in CeTb, which interferes with the positioning of the trimethoxyphenyl A ring and prevents C ring binding site interactions from efficiently occurring. Allocolchicine is able to accommodate the altered binding mode because of its smaller ring size and more flexible C ring substituents. The sequence of the colchicine binding domain of CeTb isotype betaVI is almost identical to that of its human hematopoietic counterpart. Thus, through analysis of the interactions of ligands with CeTb, it may be possible to discover colchicine site ligands that specifically target tubulin in human hematopoietic cells.