Modified technique of pancreaticogastrostomy for soft pancreas with two continuous hemstitch sutures: a single-center prospective study.
ABSTRACT: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) remains a persistent problem after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD), especially in the presence of a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas. To reduce the risk of POPF, pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is an optional reconstruction technique for surgeons after PD. This study presents a new technique of PG for a soft, nonfibrotic pancreas with double-binding continuous hemstitch sutures and evaluates its safety and reliability. From January 2011 to June 2012, 92 cases of patients with periampullary malignancy with a soft pancreas underwent this technique. A modified technique of PG was performed with two continuous hemstitch sutures placed in the mucosal and seromuscular layers of the posterior gastric wall, respectively. Then the morbidity and mortality was calculated. This technique was applied in 92 patients after PD all with soft pancreas. The median time for the anastomosis was 12 min (range, 8-24). Operative mortality was zero, and morbidity was 16.3 % (n = 15), including hemorrhage (n = 2), biliary fistula (n = 2), pulmonary infection (n = 1), delayed gastric emptying (DGE; n = 5, 5.4 %), abdominal abscess (n = 3, one caused by PF), and POPF (n = 2, 2.2 %). Two patients developed a pancreatic fistula (one type A and one type B) classified according to the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula. The described technique is a simple and safe reconstruction procedure after PD, especially for patients with a soft and fragile pancreas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The mortality following pancreaticoduodenectomy has markedly decreased but remains an important challenge for the complexity of operation and technical skills involved. The present study aimed to clarify the impact of individualized pancreaticoenteric anastomosis and management to postoperative pancreatic fistula. METHODS:Data from 529 consecutive pancreaticoduodenectomies were retrospectively analysed from the Hepatobiliary and Pancreatic Surgery Unit I, Peking Cancer Hospital. The pancreaticoenteric anastomosis was determined based on the pancreatic texture and diameter of the main pancreatic duct. The amylase value of the drainage fluid was dynamically monitored postoperatively on days 3, 5 and 7. A low speed intermittent irrigation was performed in selected patients. Intraoperative and postoperative results were collected and compared between the pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) group and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) group. RESULTS:From 2010 to 2019, 529 consecutive patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Pancreaticogastrostomy was performed in 364 patients; pancreaticojejunostomy was performed in 150 patients respectively. The clinically relevant pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF) was 9.8% and mortality was zero. The soft pancreas, diameter of main pancreatic duct?3?mm, BMI???25, operation time?>?330?min and pancreaticogastrostomy was correlated with postoperative pancreatic fistula significantly. The CR-POPF of PJ was significantly higher than that of PG in soft pancreas patients; the operation time of PJ was shorter than that of PG significantly in hard pancreas patients. Intraoperative blood loss and operation time of PG was less than that of PJ significantly in normal pancreatic duct patients (p?<?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Individualized pancreaticoenteric anastomosis should be determined based on the pancreatic texture and pancreatic duct diameter. The appropriate anastomosis and postoperative management could prevent mortality.
Project description:<h4>Importance</h4>The operative scenarios with the highest postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) risk represent situations in which fistula prevention and mitigation strategies have the strongest potential to affect surgical outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Evidence from studies providing risk stratification is lacking.<h4>Objective</h4>To investigate whether pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) or pancreaticogastrostomy (PG), both with externalized transanastomotic stent, is the best reconstruction method for patients at high risk of POPF after pancreaticoduodenectomy.<h4>Design, setting, and participants</h4>A single-center, phase 3, randomized clinical trial was conducted at the Department of General and Pancreatic Surgery, The Pancreas Institute, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy, from July 12, 2017, through March 15, 2019, among adults undergoing elective pancreaticoduodenectomy and considered at high risk for pancreatic fistula after intraoperative assessment of the fistula risk score, some of whom were randomized to undergo PG or PJ. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis.<h4>Interventions</h4>Intervention consisted of PJ or PG, both with externalized transanastomotic stent and octreotide omission.<h4>Main outcomes and measures</h4>The primary end point was POPF. The secondary end points were Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity, postpancreatectomy hemorrhage, delayed gastric emptying, and average complication burden.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 604 patients were screened for eligibility; 82 were at high risk for POPF (fistula risk score, 7-10), and 72 were randomized undergo PG (n?=?36; 20 men and 16 women; median age, 65 years [interquartile range, 23-82]) or PJ (n?=?36; 26 men and 10 women; median age, 63 years [interquartile range, 35-79]). There was no significant difference in the incidence of POPF between patients who underwent PG and patients who underwent PJ (18 [50.0%] vs 14 [38.9%]; P?=?.48), but for patients who developed a POPF, the mean (SD) average complication burden was lower for those who underwent PJ than for those who underwent PG (0.25 [0.13] vs 0.39 [0.17]; P?=?.04). The rates of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (14 [38.9%] in the PG group vs 9 [25.0%] in the PJ group; P?=?.31) and delayed gastric emptying (16 [44.4%] in the PG group vs 18 [50.0%] in the PJ group; P?=?.81) were similar, but patients who underwent PG presented with a significantly higher incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity than those who underwent PJ (17 [47.2%] vs 8 [22.2%]; P?=?.047).<h4>Conclusions and relevance</h4>Among patients at the highest risk for POPF, those who underwent PG or PJ experienced similar rates of POPF. However, PG was associated with an increased incidence of Clavien-Dindo grade 3 or higher morbidity and with an increased average complication burden for the patients who developed a POPF. For patients at high risk for pancreatic fistula, PJ with the use of externalized stent and octreotide omission should be considered the most appropriate technical strategy.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03212196.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>The postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a major complication after pancreatic head resection whereby the technique of the anastomosis is a very influencing factor. The literature describes a possible protective role of the Blumgart anastomosis.<h4>Methods</h4>Patients after pancreatic head resection with reconstruction through the modified Blumgart anastomosis (a 2 row pancreatic anastomosis through mattress sutures of the parenchyma and duct to mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy, Blumgart-group) were compared with patients after pancreatic head resection and reconstruction through the conventional pancreatojejunostomy (single suture technique of capsule and parenchyma to seromuscularis, PJ-group). The Data were collected retrospectively. Depending on the propensity score matching in a ratio of 1:2 comparison groups were set up. Blumgart-group (n=29) and PJ-group (n=56). The primary end point was the rate of POPF. Secondary goals were duration of operation, length of hospital stay, length of stay on intermediate care units and hospital mortality.<h4>Results</h4>The rate of POPF (biochemical leak, POPF "grade B" and POPF "grade C") was less in the Blumgart-group, but without statistical relevance (p=0.23). Significantly less was the rate of POPF "grade C" in the Blumgart-group (p=0.03). Regarding the duration of hospital stay, length of stay on intermediate care units and hospital mortality, there was no relevant statistical difference between the groups (p=0.1; p=0.4; p=0.7). The duration of the operation was significantly less in the Blumgart-group (p=0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>The modified Blumgart anastomosis technique may have the potential to decrease major postoperative pancreatic fistula.
Project description:Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a common complication following pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). However, risk factors for this complication remain controversial. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 107 patients who underwent PD. POPF was diagnosed in strict accordance with the definition of the 2016 update of pancreatic fistula from the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors for POPF. A total of 19 (17.8%) subjects of pancreatic fistula occurred after PD, including 15 (14.1%) with grade B POPF and 4 (3.7%) with grade C POPF. There were 33 (30.8%) patients with biochemical leak. Risk factors for POPF (grade B and C) were larger area of visceral fat (odds ratio [OR], 1.40; p = 0.040) and pathology other than pancreatic adenocarcinoma or pancreatitis (OR, 12.45; p = 0.017) in the multivariate regression analysis. This result could assist the surgeon to identify patients at a high risk of developing POPF.
Project description:Drainage after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) remains controversial because the risk for uncontrolled postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) must be balanced against the potential morbidity associated with prolonged and possibly unnecessary drainage. This study investigated the utility of the level of serum amylase on the night of surgery [postoperative day (PoD) 0 serum amylase] to predict POPF.A total of 185 patients who underwent PD were studied. Occurrences of POPF were graded using the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula (ISGPF) classification. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis identified a threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase associated with clinically significant POPF (ISGPF Grades B and C) in a test cohort (n = 45). The accuracy of this threshold value was then tested in a validation cohort (n = 140).Overall, 43 (23.2%) patients developed clinically significant POPF. The threshold value of PoD 0 serum amylase for the identification of clinically significant POPF was ? 130 IU/l (P = 0.003). Serum amylase of <130 IU/l had a negative predictive value of 88.8% for clinically significant POPF (P < 0.001). Serum amylase of ? 130 IU/l on PoD 0 and a soft pancreatic parenchyma were independent risk factors for clinically significant POPF.Postoperative day 0 serum amylase of <130 IU/l allows for the early and accurate categorization of patients at least risk for clinically significant POPF and may identify patients suitable for early drain removal.
Project description:Purpose:The International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula's definition of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) has recently been updated. This study aimed to identify risk factors for POPF in patients having pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and to generate a nomogram to predict POPF. Methods:Data on 298 patients who underwent PD from March 2012 to October 2017 was retrospectively reviewed and POPF statuses were redefined. A nomogram was constructed using data from 220 patients and validated using the remaining 78 patients. Independent risk factors for POPF were identified using univariate and multivariate analyses. A predictive nomogram was established based on the independent risk factors and was compared with existing models. Results:Texture of the pancreas, size of the main pancreatic duct, portal vein invasion, and definitive pathology were the identified risk factors. The nomogram had a C-index of 0.793 and was internally validated. The nomogram performed better (C-index of 0.816) than the other most cited models (C-indexes of 0.728 and 0.735) in the validation cohort. In addition, the nomogram can assign patients into low- (less than 10%), intermediate- (10% to 30%), and high-risk (equal or higher than 30%) groups to facilitate personalized management. Conclusion:The nomogram accurately predicted POPF in patients having PD.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Different techniques of pancreatic anastomosis have been described, with inconclusive results in terms of pancreatic fistula reduction. Studies comparing robotic pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) and pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) are scarcely reported.<h4>Methods</h4>The present study analyzes the outcomes of two case-matched groups of patients who underwent PG (<i>n</i> = 20) or PJ (<i>n</i> = 40) after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The primary aim was to compare the rate of post-operative pancreatic fistula.<h4>Results</h4>Operative time (375 vs. 315 min, <i>p</i> = 0.34), estimated blood loss (270 vs. 295 mL, <i>p</i> = 0.44), and rate of clinically relevant post-operative pancreatic fistula (12.5% vs. 10%, <i>p</i> = 0.82) were similar between the two groups. PJ was associated with a higher rate of intra-abdominal collections (7.5% vs. 0%, <i>p</i> = 0.002), but lower post-pancreatectomy hemorrhage (2.5% vs. 10%, <i>p</i> = 0.003). PG was associated with a lower rate of post-operative pancreatic fistula (POPF) (33.3% vs. 50%, <i>p</i> = 0.003) in the high-risk group of patients.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The outcomes of post-operative pancreatic fistula are comparable between the two reconstruction techniques. PG may have a lower incidence of POPF in patients with high-risk of pancreatic fistula.
Project description:Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is a common complication following distal pancreatectomy (DP). However, the risk factors of this complication in patients after DP still remain controversial. The aim of our study is to estimate the association between potential risk factors and POPF. Relevant articles published up to June 21, 2016 were identified via PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and The Cochrane Library. Studies that examined the risk factors of POPF following DP were enrolled. 20 articles (2070 patients) were finally included in this study. The pooled data suggested that patients with soft pancreas, higher Body Mass Index (BMI), blood transfusion, elevated intraoperative blood loss, and longer operative time had a decreased risk for POPF. However, age, gender, malignant pathology, types of stump closure, octreotide therapy, history of diabetes and chronic pancreatitis, splenectomy, multiorgan resection, main duct ligation, preoperative serum albumin levels, PGA felt wrapping, and extended lymphadenectomy could not be regarded as risk factors for POPF. Our analytic data demonstrated that pancreas texture, BMI, blood transfusion, intraoperative blood loss, and operative time were clinical predictor for POPF. This study may assist surgeons to screen patients with high risk of POPF and select appropriate treatment measures.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:This study used a randomized controlled trial (RCT) to evaluate whether mattress suture of pancreatic parenchyma and the seromuscular layer of jejunum (modified Blumgart method) during pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ) decreases the incidence of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). BACKGROUND:Several studies reported that mattress suture of Blumgart anastomosis in PJ could reduce POPF rate. This, however, is the first RCT. METHODS:Between June, 2013 and May, 2017, 224 patients scheduled for PD were enrolled in this study in Wakayama Medical University Hospital. Enrolled patients were randomized to either interrupted suture or modified Blumgart mattress suture. The primary endpoint was the incidence of grade B/C POPF based on the International Study Group on Pancreatic Fistula criteria. This RCT was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01898780). RESULTS:Patients were randomized to either interrupted suture (103 patients) or modified Blumgart mattress suture (107 patients) and were analyzed by intention-to-treat. Grade B/C POPF occurred in 7 patients (6.8%) in the interrupted suture group and 11 (10.3%) in the mattress suture group (P = 0.367). Mortality within 90 days was 0 in both groups. There were no significant differences in all postoperative complications between the interrupted suture group and the modified Blumgart mattress suture group. CONCLUSIONS:Mattress suture of pancreatic parenchyma and the jejunal seromuscular layer during PJ (modified Blumgart technique) did not reduce clinically relevant POPF compared with interrupted suture.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It has been suggested that pancreaticogastrostomy (PG) is a safer reconstruction than pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ), resulting in lower morbidity, including lower pancreatic leak rates and decreased postoperative mortality. We compared PJ and PG after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). METHODS:A randomized clinical trial was designed. It was stopped with 50% accrual. Patients underwent either PG or PJ reconstruction. The primary outcome was the pancreatic fistula rate, and the secondary outcomes were overall morbidity and mortality. We used the Student t, Mann-Whitney U and ?(2) tests for intention to treat analysis. The effect of randomization, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, soft pancreatic texture and use of pancreatic stent on overall complications and fistula rates was calculated using logistic regression. RESULTS:Our trial included 98 patients. The rate of pancreatic fistula formation was 18% in the PJ and 25% in the PG groups (p = 0.40). Postoperative complications occurred in 48% of patients in the PJ and 58% in the PG groups (p = 0.31). There were no significant predictors of overall complications in the multivariate analysis. Only soft pancreatic gland predicted the occurrence of pancreatic fistula (odds ratio 5.89, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION:There was no difference in the rates of pancreatic leak/fistula, overall complications or mortality between patients undergoing PG and and those undergoing PJ after PD.