The pre-mRNA retention and splicing complex controls tRNA maturation by promoting TAN1 expression.
ABSTRACT: The conserved pre-mRNA retention and splicing (RES) complex, which in yeast consists of Bud13p, Snu17p and Pml1p, is thought to promote nuclear retention of unspliced pre-mRNAs and enhance splicing of a subset of transcripts. Here, we find that the absence of Bud13p or Snu17p causes greatly reduced levels of the modified nucleoside N(4)-acetylcytidine (ac(4)C) in tRNA and that a lack of Pml1p reduces ac(4)C levels at elevated temperatures. The ac(4)C nucleoside is normally found at position 12 in the tRNA species specific for serine and leucine. We show that the tRNA modification defect in RES-deficient cells is attributable to inefficient splicing of TAN1 pre-mRNA and the effects of reduced Tan1p levels on formation of ac(4)C. Analyses of cis-acting elements in TAN1 pre-mRNA showed that the intron sequence between the 5' splice site and branchpoint is necessary and sufficient to mediate RES dependency. We also show that in RES-deficient cells, the TAN1 pre-mRNA is targeted for degradation by the cytoplasmic nonsense-mediated mRNA decay pathway, indicating that poor nuclear retention may contribute to the tRNA modification defect. Our results demonstrate that TAN1 pre-mRNA processing has an unprecedented requirement for RES factors and that the complex controls the formation of ac(4)C in tRNA.
Project description:The action of the spliceosome depends on the stepwise cooperative assembly and disassembly of its components. Very strong cooperativity was observed for the RES (Retention and Splicing) hetero-trimeric complex where the affinity from binary to tertiary interactions changes more than 100-fold and affects RNA binding. The RES complex is involved in splicing regulation and retention of not properly spliced pre-mRNA with its three components--Snu17p, Pml1p and Bud13p--giving rise to the two possible intermediate dimeric complexes Pml1p-Snu17p and Bud13p-Snu17p. Here we determined the three-dimensional structure and dynamics of the Pml1p-Snu17p and Bud13p-Snu17p dimers using liquid state NMR. We demonstrate that localized as well as global changes occur along the RES trimer assembly pathway. The stepwise rigidification of the Snu17p structure following the binding of Pml1p and Bud13p provides a basis for the strong cooperative nature of RES complex assembly.
Project description:One of the great challenges to structural biologists lies in explaining the complexities of the spliceosome - a ribosome-sized molecular machine that is assembled in a step-wise manner and is responsible for pre-mRNA splicing. The spliceosome is both fascinating and difficult to work with, because of its dynamic nature. At each discrete step of splicing tens of proteins come and go orchestrating the functional transition through massive structural rearrangements. The retention and splicing complex (RES) is an important splicing factor interacting with pre-mRNA at the onset of the first transesterification reaction. RES is a specific splicing factor for a number of genes and is important for controlling pre-mRNA retention in the nucleus. RES is a 71 kDa heterotrimer composed of the 3 proteins Pml1p, Bud13p and Snu17p. We solved the 3-dimensional structure of the core of the RES complex as well as the 2 dimers, Snu17p-Bud13p and Snu17p-Pml1p. Further biophysical analysis revealed an astounding cooperativity that governs the assembly of this trimeric complex as well as its interaction with pre-mRNA. The more than 100-fold cooperativity originates from the progressive rigidification of Snu17p upon coupled binding-and-folding of protein regions, which are disordered in the unbound state. Our work highlights the role of cooperativity in the spliceosome and poses new questions about the structure and assembly of the spliceosome.
Project description:The retention and splicing (RES) complex is a conserved spliceosome-associated module that was shown to enhance splicing of a subset of transcripts and promote the nuclear retention of unspliced pre-mRNAs in yeast. The heterotrimeric RES complex is organized around the Snu17p protein that binds to both the Bud13p and Pml1p subunits. Snu17p exhibits an RRM domain that resembles a U2AF homology motif (UHM) and Bud13p harbors a Trp residue reminiscent of an UHM-ligand motif (ULM). It has therefore been proposed that the interaction between Snu17p and Bud13p resembles canonical UHM-ULM complexes. Here, we have used biochemical and NMR structural analysis to characterize the structure of the yeast Snu17p-Bud13p complex. Unlike known UHMs that sequester the Trp residue of the ULM ligand in a hydrophobic pocket, Snu17p and Bud13p utilize a large interaction surface formed around the two helices of the Snu17p domain. In total 18 residues of the Bud13p ligand wrap around the Snu17p helical surface in an U-turn-like arrangement. The invariant Trp(232) in Bud13p is located in the center of the turn, and contacts surface residues of Snu17p. The structural data are supported by mutational analysis and indicate that Snu17p provides an extended binding surface with Bud13p that is notably distinct from canonical UHM-ULM interactions. Our data highlight structural diversity in RRM-protein interactions, analogous to the one seen for nucleic acid interactions.
Project description:The heterotrimeric pre-mRNA retention and splicing (RES) complex, consisting of Bud13p, Snu17p and Pml1p, promotes splicing and nuclear retention of a subset of intron-containing pre-mRNAs. Yeast cells deleted for individual RES genes show growth defects that are exacerbated at elevated temperatures. Although the growth phenotypes correlate to the splicing defects in the individual mutants, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here, we show that the temperature sensitive (Ts) growth phenotype of bud13? and snu17? cells is a consequence of inefficient splicing of MED20 pre-mRNA, which codes for a subunit of the Mediator complex; a co-regulator of RNA polymerase II transcription. The MED20 pre-mRNA splicing defect is less pronounced in pml1? cells, explaining why they grow better than the other 2 RES mutants at elevated temperatures. Inactivation of the cytoplasmic nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway in the RES mutants leads to accumulation of MED20 pre-mRNA, indicating that inefficient nuclear retention contributes to the growth defect. Further, the Ts phenotype of bud13? and snu17? cells is partially suppressed by the inactivation of NMD, showing that the growth defects are augmented by the presence of a functional NMD pathway. Collectively, our results demonstrate an important role of the RES complex in maintaining the Med20p levels.
Project description:Pre-mRNA splicing is a critical step of gene expression in eukaryotes. Transcriptome-wide splicing patterns are complex and primarily regulated by a diverse set of recognition elements and associated RNA-binding proteins. The retention and splicing (RES) complex is formed by three different proteins (Bud13p, Pml1p and Snu17p) and is involved in splicing in yeast. However, the importance of the RES complex for vertebrate splicing, the intronic features associated with its activity, and its role in development are unknown. In this study, we have generated loss-of-function mutants for the three components of the RES complex in zebrafish and showed that they are required during early development. The mutants showed a marked neural phenotype with increased cell death in the brain and a decrease in differentiated neurons. Transcriptomic analysis of bud13, snip1 (pml1) and rbmx2 (snu17) mutants revealed a global defect in intron splicing, with strong mis-splicing of a subset of introns. We found these RES-dependent introns were short, rich in GC and flanked by GC depleted exons, all of which are features associated with intron definition. Using these features, we developed and validated a predictive model that classifies RES dependent introns. Altogether, our study uncovers the essential role of the RES complex during vertebrate development and provides new insights into its function during splicing.
Project description:The U2 snRNP promotes prespliceosome assembly through interactions that minimally involve the branchpoint binding protein, Mud2p, and the pre-mRNA. We previously showed that seven proteins copurify with the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) SF3b U2 subcomplex that associates with the pre-mRNA branchpoint region: Rse1p, Hsh155p, Hsh49p, Cus1p, and Rds3p and unidentified subunits p10 and p17. Here proteomic and genetic studies identify Rcp10p as p10 and show that it contributes to SF3b stability and is necessary for normal cellular Cus1p accumulation and for U2 snRNP recruitment in splicing. Remarkably, only the final 53 amino acids of Rcp10p are essential. p17 is shown to be composed of two accessory splicing factors, Bud31p and Ist3p, the latter of which independently associates with the RES complex implicated in the nuclear pre-mRNA retention. A directed two-hybrid screen reveals a network of prospective interactions that includes previously unreported intra-SF3b contacts and SF3b interactions with the RES subunit Bud13p, the Prp5p DExD/H-box protein, Mud2p, and the late-acting nineteen complex. These data establish the concordance of yeast and mammalian SF3b complexes, implicate accessory splicing factors in U2 snRNP function, and support SF3b contribution from early pre-mRNP recognition to late steps in splicing.
Project description:A wide variety of factors are required for the conversion of pre-tRNA molecules into the mature tRNAs that function in translation. To identify factors influencing tRNA biogenesis, we previously performed a screen for strains carrying mutations that induce lethality when combined with a sup61-T47:2C allele, encoding a mutant form of [Formula: see text]. Analyzes of two complementation groups led to the identification of Tan1 as a protein involved in formation of the modified nucleoside N4-acetylcytidine (ac4C) in tRNA and Bud13 as a factor controlling the levels of ac4C by promoting TAN1 pre-mRNA splicing. Here, we describe the remaining complementation groups and show that they include strains with mutations in genes for known tRNA biogenesis factors that modify (DUS2, MOD5 and TRM1), transport (LOS1), or aminoacylate (SES1) [Formula: see text]. Other strains carried mutations in genes for factors involved in rRNA/mRNA synthesis (RPA49, RRN3 and MOT1) or magnesium uptake (ALR1). We show that mutations in not only DUS2, LOS1 and SES1 but also in RPA49, RRN3 and MOT1 cause a reduction in the levels of the altered [Formula: see text]. These results indicate that Rpa49, Rrn3 and Mot1 directly or indirectly influence [Formula: see text] biogenesis.
Project description:We have isolated and microsequenced Snu17p, a novel yeast protein with a predicted molecular mass of 17 kDa that contains an RNA recognition motif. We demonstrate that Snu17p binds specifically to the U2 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein (snRNP) and that it is part of the spliceosome, since the pre-mRNA and the lariat-exon 2 are specifically coprecipitated with Snu17p. Although the SNU17 gene is not essential, its knockout leads to a slow-growth phenotype and to a pre-mRNA splicing defect in vivo. In addition, the first step of splicing is dramatically decreased in extracts prepared from the snu17 deletion (snu17Delta) mutant. This defect is efficiently reversed by the addition of recombinant Snu17p. To investigate the step of spliceosome assembly at which Snu17p acts, we have used nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. In Snu17p-deficient extracts, the spliceosome runs as a single slowly migrating complex. In wild-type extracts, usually at least two distinct complexes are observed: the prespliceosome, or B complex, containing the U2 but not the U1 snRNP, and the catalytically active spliceosome, or A complex, containing the U2, U6, and U5 snRNPs. Northern blot analysis and affinity purification of the snu17Delta spliceosome showed that it contains the U1, U2, U6, U5, and U4 snRNPs. The unexpected stabilization of the U1 snRNP and the lack of dissociation of the U4 snRNP suggest that loss of Snu17p inhibits the progression of spliceosome assembly prior to U1 snRNP release and after [U4/U6.U5] tri-snRNP addition.
Project description:The precise function of the trimeric retention and splicing (RES) complex in pre-mRNA splicing remains unclear. Here we dissected the role of RES during the assembly and activation of yeast spliceosomes. The efficiency of pre-mRNA splicing was significantly lower in the absence of the RES protein Snu17, and the recruitment of its binding partners, Pml1 (pre-mRNA leakage protein 1) and Bud13 (bud site selection protein 13), to the spliceosome was either abolished or substantially reduced. RES was not required for the assembly of spliceosomal B complexes, but its absence hindered efficient Bact complex formation. ?RES spliceosomes were no longer strictly dependent on Prp2 activity for their catalytic activation, suggesting that they are structurally compromised. Addition of Prp2, Spp2, and UTP to affinity-purified ?RES B or a mixture of B/Bact complexes formed on wild-type pre-mRNA led to their disassembly. However, no substantial disassembly was observed with ?RES spliceosomes formed on a truncated pre-mRNA that allows Prp2 binding but blocks its activity. Thus, in the absence of RES, Prp2 appears to bind prematurely, leading to the disassembly of the ?RES B complexes to which it binds. Our data suggest that Prp2 can dismantle B complexes with an aberrant protein composition, suggesting that it may proofread the spliceosome's RNP structure prior to activation.
Project description:Little is known about contacts in the spliceosome between proteins and intron nucleotides surrounding the pre-mRNA branch-site and their dynamics during splicing. We investigated protein-pre-mRNA interactions by UV-induced crosslinking of purified yeast B(act) spliceosomes formed on site-specifically labeled pre-mRNA, and analyzed their changes after conversion to catalytically-activated B* and step 1 C complexes, using a purified splicing system. Contacts between nucleotides upstream and downstream of the branch-site and the U2 SF3a/b proteins Prp9, Prp11, Hsh49, Cus1 and Hsh155 were detected, demonstrating that these interactions are evolutionarily conserved. The RES proteins Pml1 and Bud13 were shown to contact the intron downstream of the branch-site. A comparison of the B(act) crosslinking pattern versus that of B* and C complexes revealed that U2 and RES protein interactions with the intron are dynamic. Upon step 1 catalysis, Cwc25 contacts with the branch-site region, and enhanced crosslinks of Prp8 and Prp45 with nucleotides surrounding the branch-site were observed. Cwc25's step 1 promoting activity was not dependent on its interaction with pre-mRNA, indicating it acts via protein-protein interactions. These studies provide important insights into the spliceosome's protein-pre-mRNA network and reveal novel RNP remodeling events during the catalytic activation of the spliceosome and step 1 of splicing.