Use of G-protein-coupled and -uncoupled CCR5 receptors by CCR5 inhibitor-resistant and -sensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants.
ABSTRACT: Small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors such as vicriviroc (VVC) and maraviroc (MVC) are allosteric modulators that impair HIV-1 entry by stabilizing a CCR5 conformation that the virus recognizes inefficiently. Viruses resistant to these compounds are able to bind the inhibitor-CCR5 complex while also interacting with the free coreceptor. CCR5 also interacts intracellularly with G proteins, as part of its signal transduction functions, and this process alters its conformation. Here we investigated whether the action of VVC against inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant viruses is affected by whether or not CCR5 is coupled to G proteins such as Gαi. Treating CD4(+) T cells with pertussis toxin to uncouple the Gαi subunit from CCR5 increased the potency of VVC against the sensitive viruses and revealed that VVC-resistant viruses use the inhibitor-bound form of Gαi-coupled CCR5 more efficiently than they use uncoupled CCR5. Supportive evidence was obtained by expressing a signaling-deficient CCR5 mutant with an impaired ability to bind to G proteins, as well as two constitutively active mutants that activate G proteins in the absence of external stimuli. The implication of these various studies is that the association of intracellular domains of CCR5 with the signaling machinery affects the conformation of the external and transmembrane domains and how they interact with small-molecule inhibitors of HIV-1 entry.
Project description:We have investigated the mechanism of resistance of a HIV type 1 (HIV-1) R5 primary isolate, D1/85.16, to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VVC). Unlike other viruses resistant to this class of compound, D1/85.16 lacks sequence changes in the V3 region of the gp120 surface glycoprotein. Inspection of env sequences from D1/85.16 compared with those derived from the parental, inhibitor-sensitive virus, CC1/85, revealed a cluster of 3 conservative changes in the fusion peptide (FP) of the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein that tracked with the resistance phenotype. Studies with engineered Env-chimeric and point-substituted viruses confirmed that these 3 FP residues were substantially responsible for VVC resistance without altering coreceptor usage, as assessed in both peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the TZM-bl cell line. VVC resistance is manifested differently in the 2 cell types, and there are assay-dependent complexities to the dose-response curves for the engineered resistant viruses. To explain them, we created a model for resistance and generated theoretical VVC inhibition curves that closely mimic the experimental data for the resistant viruses. The basis for the model is the existence of distinct forms of CCR5, with varying affinities for small molecule CCR5 inhibitors that are presumed to be present in different proportions on different cell types, and are used selectively by resistant HIV-1 variants when ligated with an inhibitor. Together, the experimental results and theoretical model may help understand how HIV-1 uses CCR5 to enter target cells under various conditions.
Project description:HIV-1 develops resistance to CCR5 antagonists such as Maraviroc (MVC) and Vicriviroc (VVC) both in vitro and in vivo, with most changes arising in the gp120 V3 region. Both compounds bind to the same hydrophobic cavity in CCR5 in subtly different ways. Here, we investigated which V3 sequence changes are most associated with MVC and VVC resistance and how they affect the interaction between gp120 and the CCR5 NT. We found that VVC- and MVC-selected amino acid changes map to different V3 locations and involve residues that interact with the CCR5 NT in different ways. Changes in VVC-selected, but not MVC-selected, variants often involve charged residues. Although the overall V3 charge tends not to change, the introduction or removal of charged residues at specific positions affects the local electrostatic potential and could have structural and functional implications. In summary, VVC and MVC trigger the evolution of distinct HIV-1 resistance patterns in V3.
Project description:High-throughput sequencing platforms provide an approach for detecting rare HIV-1 variants and documenting more fully quasispecies diversity. We applied this technology to the V3 loop-coding region of env in samples collected from 4 chronically HIV-infected subjects in whom CCR5 antagonist (vicriviroc [VVC]) therapy failed. Between 25,000-140,000 amplified sequences were obtained per sample. Profound baseline V3 loop sequence heterogeneity existed; predicted CXCR4-using populations were identified in a largely CCR5-using population. The V3 loop forms associated with subsequent virologic failure, either through CXCR4 use or the emergence of high-level VVC resistance, were present as minor variants at 0.8-2.8% of baseline samples. Extreme, rapid shifts in population frequencies toward these forms occurred, and deep sequencing provided a detailed view of the rapid evolutionary impact of VVC selection. Greater V3 diversity was observed post-selection. This previously unreported degree of V3 loop sequence diversity has implications for viral pathogenesis, vaccine design, and the optimal use of HIV-1 CCR5 antagonists.
Project description:Here, we describe the genetic pathways taken by a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolate, D101.12, to become resistant to the small molecule CCR5 inhibitor, vicriviroc (VCV), in vitro. Resistant D101.12 variants contained at least one substitution in the gp120 V3 region (H308P), plus one of two patterns of gp41 sequence changes involving the fusion peptide (FP) and a downstream residue: G514V+V535M or M518V+F519L+V535M. Studies of Env-chimeric and point-substituted viruses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and TZM-bl cells showed that resistance can arise from the cooperative action of gp120 and gp41 changes, while retaining CCR5 usage. Modeling the VCV inhibition data from the two cell types suggests that D101.12 discriminates between high- and low-VCV affinity forms of CCR5 less than D1/85.16, a resistant virus with three FP substitutions.
Project description:HIV CCR5 antagonists select for env gene mutations that enable virus entry via drug-bound coreceptor. To investigate the mechanisms responsible for viral adaptation to drug-bound coreceptor-mediated entry, we studied viral isolates from three participants who developed CCR5 antagonist resistance during treatment with vicriviroc (VCV), an investigational small-molecule CCR5 antagonist. VCV-sensitive and -resistant viruses were isolated from one HIV subtype C- and two subtype B-infected participants; VCV-resistant isolates had mutations in the V3 loop of gp120 and were cross-resistant to TAK-779, an investigational antagonist, and maraviroc (MVC). All three resistant isolates contained a 306P mutation but had variable mutations elsewhere in the V3 stem. We used a virus-cell β-lactamase (BlaM) fusion assay to determine the entry kinetics of recombinant viruses that incorporated full-length VCV-sensitive and -resistant envelopes. VCV-resistant isolates exhibited delayed entry rates in the absence of drug, relative to pretherapy VCV-sensitive isolates. The addition of drug corrected these delays. These findings were generalizable across target cell types with a range of CD4 and CCR5 surface densities and were observed when either population-derived or clonal envelopes were used to construct recombinant viruses. V3 loop mutations alone were sufficient to restore virus entry in the presence of drug, and the accumulation of V3 mutations during VCV therapy led to progressively higher rates of viral entry. We propose that the restoration of pre-CCR5 antagonist therapy HIV entry kinetics drives the selection of V3 loop mutations and may represent a common mechanism that underlies the emergence of CCR5 antagonist resistance.
Project description:Resistance to small-molecule CCR5 inhibitors arises when HIV-1 variants acquire the ability to use inhibitor-bound CCR5 while still recognizing free CCR5. Two isolates, CC101.19 and D1/85.16, became resistant via four substitutions in the gp120 V3 region and three in the gp41 fusion peptide (FP), respectively. The binding characteristics of a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) imply that several antigenic forms of CCR5 are expressed at different levels on the surfaces of U87-CD4-CCR5 cells and primary CD4(+) T cells, in a cell-type-dependent manner. CCR5 binding and HIV-1 infection inhibition experiments suggest that the two CCR5 inhibitor-resistant viruses altered their interactions with CCR5 in different ways. As a result, both mutants became generally more sensitive to inhibition by CCR5 MAbs, and the FP mutant is specifically sensitive to a MAb that stains discrete cell surface clusters of CCR5 that may correspond to lipid rafts. We conclude that some MAbs detect different antigenic forms of CCR5 and that inhibitor-sensitive and -resistant viruses can use these CCR5 forms differently for entry in the presence or absence of CCR5 inhibitors.
Project description:Vicriviroc (VCV) is a chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) antagonist with potent anti-HIV activity that currently is being evaluated in phase III clinical trials. In the present study, donor CCR5 density (CCR5 receptors/CD4 lymphocytes) inversely correlated with VCV antiviral activity (Spearman's correlation test; r = 0.746, P = 0.0034). Low doses of the transplant drug rapamycin (RAPA) reduced CCR5 density and enhanced VCV antiviral activity. In drug interaction studies, the RAPA/VCV combination had considerable antiviral synergy (combination indexes of 0.1-0.04) in both multicycle and single-cycle infection of lymphocytes. The synergy between RAPA and VCV translated into dose reduction indexes of 8- to 41-fold reductions for RAPA and 19- to 658-fold reductions for VCV. RAPA enhanced VCV antiviral activity against both B and non-B clade isolates, potently suppressing clade G viruses with reported reduced sensitivities to VCV and to the licensed CCR5 antagonist maraviroc. Importantly, RAPA reduction of CCR5 density in lymphocytes sensitized VCV-resistant strains to VCV, inhibiting virus production by approximately 90%. We further demonstrated the role of CCR5 density on VCV activity against resistant virus in donor lymphocytes and in cell lines expressing varying CCR5 densities. Together, these results suggest that low doses of RAPA may increase the durability of VCV-containing regimens in patients by enhancing VCV viral suppression, by allowing the use of lower doses of VCV with reduced potential for toxicity, and by controlling emerging VCV-resistant variants.
Project description:Reduced expression of CCR5 on target CD4(+) cells lowers their susceptibility to infection by R5-tropic HIV-1, potentially preventing transmission of infection and delaying disease progression. Binding of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein gp120 with CCR5 is essential for the entry of R5 viruses into target cells. The threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes that enables HIV-1 entry remains poorly estimated. We constructed a mathematical model that mimics Env-mediated cell-cell fusion assays, where target CD4(+)CCR5(+) cells are exposed to effector cells expressing Env in the presence of a coreceptor antagonist and the fraction of target cells fused with effector cells is measured. Our model employs a reaction network-based approach to describe protein interactions that precede viral entry coupled with the ternary complex model to quantify the allosteric interactions of the coreceptor antagonist and predicts the fraction of target cells fused. By fitting model predictions to published data of cell-cell fusion in the presence of the CCR5 antagonist vicriviroc, we estimated the threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes for cell-cell fusion as ?20 µm(-2). Model predictions with this threshold captured data from independent cell-cell fusion assays in the presence of vicriviroc and rapamycin, a drug that modulates CCR5 expression, as well as assays in the presence of maraviroc, another CCR5 antagonist, using sixteen different Env clones derived from transmitted or early founder viruses. Our estimate of the threshold surface density of gp120-CCR5 complexes necessary for HIV-1 entry thus appears robust and may have implications for optimizing treatment with coreceptor antagonists, understanding the non-pathogenic infection of non-human primates, and designing vaccines that suppress the availability of target CD4(+)CCR5(+) cells.
Project description:HIV-1 variants resistant to small molecule CCR5 inhibitors recognize the inhibitor-CCR5 complex, while also interacting with free CCR5. The most common genetic route to resistance involves sequence changes in the gp120 V3 region, a pathway followed when the primary isolate CC1/85 was cultured with the AD101 inhibitor in vitro, creating the CC101.19 resistant variant. However, the D1/86.16 escape mutant contains no V3 changes but has three substitutions in the gp41 fusion peptide. By using CCR5 point-mutants and gp120-targeting agents, we have investigated how infectious clonal viruses derived from the parental and both resistant isolates interact with CCR5. We conclude that the V3 sequence changes in CC101.19 cl.7 create a virus with an increased dependency on interactions with the CCR5 N-terminus. Elements of the CCR5 binding site associated with the V3 region and the CD4-induced (CD4i) epitope cluster in the gp120 bridging sheet are more exposed on the native Env complex of CC101.19 cl.7, which is sensitive to neutralization via these epitopes. However, D1/86.16 cl.23 does not have an increased dependency on the CCR5 N-terminus, and its CCR5 binding site has not become more exposed. How this virus interacts with the inhibitor-CCR5 complex remains to be understood.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Vicriviroc, an investigational CCR5 antagonist, demonstrated short-term safety and antiretroviral activity. METHODS:Phase 2, double-blind, randomized study of vicriviroc in treatment-experienced subjects with CCR5-using HIV-1. Vicriviroc (5, 10, or 15 mg) or placebo was added to a failing regimen with optimization of background antiretroviral medications at day 14. Subjects experiencing virologic failure and subjects completing 48 weeks were offered open-label vicriviroc. RESULTS:One hundred eighteen subjects were randomized. Virologic failure (<1 log10 decline in HIV-1 RNA > or =16 weeks postrandomization) occurred by week 48 in 24 of 28 (86%), 12 of 30 (40%), 8 of 30 (27%), 10 of 30 (33%) of subjects randomized to placebo, 5, 10, and 15 mg, respectively. Overall, 113 subjects received vicriviroc at randomization or after virologic failure, and 52 (46%) achieved HIV-1 RNA <50 copies per milliliter within 24 weeks. Through 3 years, 49% of those achieving suppression did not experience confirmed viral rebound. Dual or mixed-tropic HIV-1 was detected in 33 (29%). Vicriviroc resistance (progressive decrease in maximal percentage inhibition on phenotypic testing) was detected in 6 subjects. Nine subjects discontinued vicriviroc due to adverse events. CONCLUSIONS:Vicriviroc seems safe and demonstrates sustained virologic suppression through 3 years of follow-up. Further trials of vicriviroc will establish its clinical utility for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.