Rapid auxin-induced nitric oxide accumulation and subsequent tyrosine nitration of proteins during adventitious root formation in sunflower hypocotyls.
ABSTRACT: Using NO specific probe (MNIP-Cu), rapid nitric oxide (NO) accumulation as a response to auxin (IAA) treatment has been observed in the protoplasts from the hypocotyls of sunflower seedlings (Helianthus annuus L.). Incubation of protoplasts in presence of NPA (auxin efflux blocker) and PTIO (NO scavenger) leads to significant reduction in NO accumulation, indicating that NO signals represent an early signaling event during auxin-induced response. A surge in NO production has also been demonstrated in whole hypocotyl explants showing adventitious root (AR) development. Evidence of tyrosine nitration of cytosolic proteins as a consequence of NO accumulation has been provided by western blot analysis and immunolocalization in the sections of AR producing hypocotyl segments. Most abundant anti-nitrotyrosine labeling is evident in proteins ranging from 25-80 kDa. Tyrosine nitration of a particular protein (25 kDa) is completely absent in presence of NPA (which suppresses AR formation). Similar lack of tyrosine nitration of this protein is also evident in other conditions which do not allow AR differentiation. Immunofluorescent localization experiments have revealed that non-inductive treatments (such as PTIO) for AR develpoment from hypocotyl segments coincide with symplastic and apoplastic localization of tyrosine nitrated proteins in the xylem elements, in contrast with negligible (and mainly apoplastic) nitration of proteins in the interfascicular cells and phloem elements. Application of NPA does not affect tyrosine nitration of proteins even in the presence of an external source of NO (SNP). Tyrosine nitrated proteins are abundant around the nuclei in the actively dividing cells of the root primordium. Thus, NO-modulated rapid response to IAA treatment through differential distribution of tyrosine nitrated proteins is evident as an inherent aspect of the AR development.
Project description:Adhesion of T. cruzi trypomastigotes to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step in mammalian host cell invasion. We have recently described a significant increase in the tyrosine nitration levels of histones H2A and H4 when trypomastigotes are incubated with components of the ECM. In this work, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-nitro-tyrosine antibody followed by mass spectrometry to identify nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and to detect alterations in nitration levels induced upon parasite incubation with the ECM. Histone H1, H2B, H2A and H3 were detected among the 9 most abundant nitrated DNA binding proteins using this proteomic approach. One nitrated tyrosine residue (Y29) was identified in Histone H2B in the MS/MS spectrum. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the nitration levels of histones H1, H2B, H2A and H4 upon parasite incubation with ECM. Finally, we used ChIP-Seq to map global changes in the DNA binding profile of nitrated proteins. We observed a significant change in the binding pattern of nitrated proteins to DNA after parasite incubation with ECM. This work provides the first global profile of nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and additional evidence for modification in the nitration profile of histones upon parasite incubation with ECM. Our data also indicate that the interaction of the parasite with the ECM induces alterations in chromatin structure, possibly affecting nuclear functions.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Nitration of tyrosine residues in protein is a post-translational modification, which occurs under oxidative stress, and is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases. To understand the role of nitrated proteins in oxidative stress-induced cell death, we identified nitrated proteins and checked correlation of their nitration in glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Nitrated proteins were detected by western blotting using an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody, extracted from matching reference 2-dimensional electrophoresis gels, and identified with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. RESULTS:Glutamate treatment induced apoptosis in HT22 cells, while reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor or neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor blocked glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. Nitration levels of 13 proteins were increased after glutamate stimulation; six of them were involved in regulation of energy production and two were related to apoptosis. The other nitrated proteins were associated with calcium signal modulation, ER dysfunction, or were of unknown function. CONCLUSIONS:The 13 tyrosine-nitrated proteins were detected in these glutamate-treated HT22 cells. Results demonstrated that cell death, ROS accumulation and nNOS expression were related to nitration of protein tyrosine in the glutamate-stimulated cells.
Project description:"Nitroproteomic" is under active development, as 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins constitutes a footprint left by the reactions of nitric oxide-derived oxidants that are usually associated to oxidative stress conditions. Moreover, protein tyrosine nitration can cause structural and functional changes, which may be of pathophysiological relevance for human disease conditions. Biological protein tyrosine nitration is a free radical process involving the intermediacy of tyrosyl radicals; in spite of being a nonenzymatic process, nitration is selectively directed toward a limited subset of tyrosine residues. Precise identification and quantitation of 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins has represented a "tour de force" for researchers. Recent Advances: A small number of proteins are preferential targets of nitration (usually less than 100 proteins per proteome), contrasting with the large number of proteins modified by other post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, acetylation, and, notably, S-nitrosation. Proteomic approaches have revealed key features of tyrosine nitration both in vivo and in vitro, including selectivity, site specificity, and effects in protein structure and function.Identification of 3-nitrotyrosine-containing proteins and mapping nitrated residues is challenging, due to low abundance of this oxidative modification in biological samples and its unfriendly behavior in mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies, that is, MALDI, electrospray ionization, and collision-induced dissociation.The use of (i) classical two-dimensional electrophoresis with immunochemical detection of nitrated proteins followed by protein ID by regular MS/MS in combination with (ii) immuno-enrichment of tyrosine-nitrated peptides and (iii) identification of nitrated peptides by a MIDAS™ experiment is arising as a potent methodology to unambiguously map and quantitate tyrosine-nitrated proteins in vivo. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 313-328.
Project description:Nitration of tyrosine residues has been observed during various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism of tyrosine nitration and the nature of the proteins that become tyrosine nitrated during inflammation remain unclear. Here we show that eosinophils but not other cell types including neutrophils contain nitrotyrosine-positive proteins in specific granules. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the human eosinophil toxins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), major basic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and the respective murine toxins, are post-translationally modified by nitration at tyrosine residues during cell maturation. High resolution affinity-mass spectrometry identified specific single nitration sites at Tyr349 in EPO and Tyr33 in both ECP and EDN. ECP and EDN crystal structures revealed and EPO structure modeling suggested that the nitrated tyrosine residues in the toxins are surface exposed. Studies in EPO(-/-), gp91phox(-/-), and NOS(-/-) mice revealed that tyrosine nitration of these toxins is mediated by EPO in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and minute amounts of NOx. Tyrosine nitration of eosinophil granule toxins occurs during maturation of eosinophils, independent of inflammation. These results provide evidence that post-translational tyrosine nitration is unique to eosinophils.
Project description:Adhesion of T. cruzi trypomastigotes to components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) is an important step in mammalian host cell invasion. We have recently described a significant increase in the tyrosine nitration levels of histones H2A and H4 when trypomastigotes are incubated with components of the ECM. In this work, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody followed by mass spectrometry to identify nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and to detect alterations in nitration levels induced upon parasite incubation with the ECM. Histone H1, H2B, H2A and H3 were detected among the 9 most abundant nitrated DNA binding proteins using this proteomic approach. One nitrated tyrosine residue (Y29) was identified in Histone H2B in the MS/MS spectrum. In addition, we observed a significant increase in the nitration levels of histones H1, H2B, H2A and H4 upon parasite incubation with ECM. Finally, we used ChIP-Seq to map global changes in the DNA binding profile of nitrated proteins. We observed a significant change in the binding pattern of nitrated proteins to DNA after parasite incubation with ECM. This work provides the first global profile of nitrated DNA binding proteins in T. cruzi and additional evidence for modification in the nitration profile of histones upon parasite incubation with ECM. Our data also indicate that the parasite interaction with the ECM induces alterations in chromatin structure, possibly affecting nuclear functions.
Project description:Diabetic retinopathy, a retinal vascular disease, is inhibited in animals treated with aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of inducible nitric-oxide synthase. This treatment also reduces retinal protein nitration, which is greater in diabetic rat retina than nondiabetic retina. As an approach to understanding the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy, we sought the identity of nitrotyrosine-containing proteins in retina from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and in a rat retinal Müller cell line grown in high glucose (25 mM). Anti-nitrotyrosine immunoprecipitation products from rat retina and Müller cells were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Ten nitrated proteins in diabetic rat retina and three nitrated proteins in Müller cells grown in high glucose were identified; three additional nitrotyrosine-containing proteins were tentatively identified from diabetic retina. The identified nitrotyrosine-containing proteins participate in a variety of processes including glucose metabolism, signal transduction, and transcription/translation. Among the nitrated proteins were insulin-responsive glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4), which has been implicated previously in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus; exocyst complex component Exo70, which functions in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake of GLUT-4-containing vesicles; and fibroblast growth factor receptor 2, which influences retinal vascularization via fibroblast growth factor signaling. Nitration of tyrosine phosphorylation sites were identified in five proteins, including GLUT-4, exocyst complex component Exo70, protein-tyrosine phosphatase eta, sensory neuron synuclein, and inositol trisphosphate receptor 3. Quantitation of nitration and phosphorylation at common tyrosine modification sites in GLUT-4 and protein-tyrosine phosphatase eta from diabetic and nondiabetic animals suggests that nitration reduced tyrosine phosphorylation approximately 2X in these proteins from diabetic retina. The present results provide new insights regarding tyrosine nitration and its potential role in the molecular mechanisms of diabetic retinopathy.
Project description:Nitration of tyrosine and other aromatic amino acid residues in proteins occurs in the setting of inflammatory, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular diseases-importantly, this modification has been implicated in the pathogenesis of diverse diseases and the physiological process of aging. To understand the biological consequences of aromatic nitration in both health and disease, it is critical to molecularly identify the proteins that undergo nitration, specify their cognate modification sites and quantify their extent of nitration. To date, unbiased identification of nitrated proteins has often involved painstaking 2D-gel electrophoresis followed by Western Blotting with an anti-nitrotyrosine antibody for detection. Apart from being relatively slow and laborious, this method suffers from limited coverage, the potential for false-positive identifications, and failure to reveal specific amino acid modification sites. To overcome these shortcomings, we have developed a solid-phase, chemical-capture approach for unbiased and high-throughput discovery of nitrotyrosine and nitrotryptophan sites in proteins. Utilizing this method, we have successfully identified several endogenously nitrated proteins in rat brain and a total of 244 nitrated peptides from 145 proteins following in vitro exposure of rat brain homogenates to the nitrating agent peroxynitrite (1 mM). As expected, Tyr residues constituted the great majority of peroxynitrite-mediated protein nitration sites; however, we were surprised to discover several brain proteins that contain nitrated Trp residues. By incorporating a stable-isotope labeling step, this new Aromatic Nitration Site IDentification (ANSID) method was also adapted for relative quantification of nitration site abundances in proteins. Application of the ANSID method offers great potential to advance our understanding of the role of protein nitration in disease pathogenesis and normal physiology.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase-derived NO and its derivative, peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), suppresses oxygen consumption by nitration of mitochondrial proteins after reperfusion. However, very few nitrated proteins are identified to date. In this paper, ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in mouse heart by ligation and release of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Western blotting showed that tyrosine nitration was higher in I/R hearts. Nitrated proteins were identified by capillary-liquid chromatography-nanospray tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 23 proteins were identified as being nitrated after I/R and 10 of them were from mitochondria. The nitrated mitochondrial proteins included 4 subunits from the oxidative phosphorylation system (the 24 and the 30 kDa subunits of complex I, the Rieske ISP of complex III, and the alpha subunit of ATP synthase), five enzymes in the matrix, and voltage-dependent anion channel. In purified complex I treated with ONOO(-), 3-NT was identified locating at the residue of Y247 of the 30 kDa subunit and the residues of Y47, Y53 of the 49 kDa subunit. In conclusion, I/R induced protein nitration and mitochondrial proteins were the major targets. Selective nitration of proteins from the oxidative phosphorylation system at the beginning of reperfusion may contribute to the suppression of oxygen consumption.
Project description:Protein tyrosine nitration is a post-translational modification mediated by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) that is associated with nitro-oxidative damage. No information about this process is available in relation to higher plants during development and senescence. Using pea plants at different developmental stages (ranging from 8 to 71 days), tyrosine nitration in the main organs (roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits) was analysed using immunological and proteomic approaches. In the roots of 71-day-old senescent plants, nitroproteome analysis enabled the identification a total of 16 nitrotyrosine-immunopositive proteins. Among the proteins identified, NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH), an enzyme involved in the carbon and nitrogen metabolism, redox regulation, and responses to oxidative stress, was selected to evaluate the effect of nitration. NADP-ICDH activity fell by 75% during senescence. Analysis showed that peroxynitrite inhibits recombinant cytosolic NADP-ICDH activity through a process of nitration. Of the 12 tyrosines present in this enzyme, mass spectrometric analysis of nitrated recombinant cytosolic NADP-ICDH enabled this study to identify the Tyr392 as exclusively nitrated by peroxynitrite. The data as a whole reveal that protein tyrosine nitration is a nitric oxide-derived PTM prevalent throughout root development and intensifies during senescence.
Project description:Tyrosine nitration has served as a major biomarker for oxidative stress and is present in high abundance in over 50 disease pathologies in humans. While data mounts on specific disease pathways from specific sites of tyrosine nitration, the role of these modifications is still largely unclear. Strategies for installing site-specific tyrosine nitration in target proteins in eukaryotic cells, through routes not dependent on oxidative stress, would provide a powerful method to address the consequences of tyrosine nitration. Developed here is a Methanosarcina barkeri aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair that efficiently incorporates nitrotyrosine site-specifically into proteins in mammalian cells. We demonstrate the utility of this approach to produce nitrated proteins identified in disease conditions by producing site-specific nitroTyr-containing manganese superoxide dismutase and 14-3-3 proteins in eukaryotic cells.