Metabolic imaging of bilateral anterior capsulotomy in refractory obsessive compulsive disorder: an FDG PET study.
ABSTRACT: The therapeutic benefits of bilateral capsulotomy for the treatment of refractory obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) are probably attributed to interruption of the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuitry. We evaluated resting brain metabolism and treatment response in OCD patients using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. [(18)F]-fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET was performed in eight OCD patients precapsulotomy and postcapsulotomy. We determined metabolic differences between preoperative images in patients and those in eight age-matched healthy volunteers, and postoperative changes and clinical correlations in the patients. The OCD patients showed widespread metabolic increases in normalized glucose metabolism in the bilateral orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and bilateral pons/cerebellum, and metabolic decreases bilaterally in the precentral and lingual gyri. Bilateral capsulotomy resulted in significant metabolic decreases bilaterally in the prefrontal cortical regions, especially in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the medial dorsal thalamus and caudate nucleus. In contrast, metabolism increased bilaterally in the precentral and lingual gyri. Clinical improvement in patients correlated with metabolic changes in the bilateral dorsal ACC and in the right middle occipital gyrus after capsulotomy. This study underscores the importance of the internal capsule in modulating ventral prefrontal and dorsal anterior cingulate neuronal activity in the neurosurgical management of OCD patients.
Project description:Abnormal functional connectivity (FC) within discrete brain networks is involved in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) with inconsistent results. In the present study, we investigated the FC patterns of 40 drug-naive patients with OCD and 38 healthy controls (HCs) through an unbiased voxel-wise global brain FC (GFC) analysis at rest. Compared with HCs, patients with OCD showed decreased GFC within the default mode network (DMN) (i.e., left posterior cingulate cortex/lingual gyrus) and sensorimotor network (i.e., left precentral gyrus/postcentral gyrus) and increased GFC within the executive control network (ECN) (i.e., left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex and left inferior parietal lobule). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses further indicated that the altered GFC values within the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network may be used as neuroimaging markers to differentiate patients with OCD from HCs. These findings indicated the aberrant FC patterns of the DMN, ECN, and sensorimotor network associated with the pathophysiology of OCD and provided new insights into the changes in brain organization function in OCD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Error processing and inhibitory control enable the adjustment of behaviors to meet task demands. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies report brain activation abnormalities in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during both processes. However, conclusions are limited by inconsistencies in the literature and small sample sizes. Therefore, the aim here was to perform a meta-analysis of the existing literature using unthresholded statistical maps from previous studies. METHODS:A voxelwise seed-based d mapping meta-analysis was performed using t-maps from studies comparing patients with OCD and healthy control subjects (HCs) during error processing and inhibitory control. For the error processing analysis, 239 patients with OCD (120 male; 79 medicated) and 229 HCs (129 male) were included, while the inhibitory control analysis included 245 patients with OCD (120 male; 91 medicated) and 239 HCs (135 male). RESULTS:Patients with OCD, relative to HCs, showed longer inhibitory control reaction time (standardized mean difference = 0.20, p = .03, 95% confidence interval = 0.016, 0.393) and more inhibitory control errors (standardized mean difference = 0.22, p = .02, 95% confidence interval = 0.039, 0.399). In the brain, patients showed hyperactivation in the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, and pre-supplementary motor area as well as right anterior insula/frontal operculum and anterior lateral prefrontal cortex during error processing but showed hypoactivation during inhibitory control in the rostral and ventral anterior cingulate cortices and bilateral thalamus/caudate, as well as the right anterior insula/frontal operculum, supramarginal gyrus, and medial orbitofrontal cortex (all seed-based d mapping z value >2, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS:A hyperactive error processing mechanism in conjunction with impairments in implementing inhibitory control may underlie deficits in stopping unwanted compulsive behaviors in the disorder.
Project description:Numerous voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies on gray matter (GM) of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and Parkinson's disease (PD) have been conducted separately. Identifying the different neuroanatomical changes in GM resulting from PSP and PD through meta-analysis will aid the differential diagnosis of PSP and PD. In this study, a systematic review of VBM studies of patients with PSP and PD relative to healthy control (HC) in the Embase and PubMed databases from January 1995 to April 2013 was conducted. The anatomical distribution of the coordinates of GM differences was meta-analyzed using anatomical likelihood estimation. Separate maps of GM changes were constructed and subtraction meta-analysis was performed to explore the differences in GM abnormalities between PSP and PD. Nine PSP studies and 24 PD studies were included. GM reductions were present in the bilateral thalamus, basal ganglia, midbrain, insular cortex and inferior frontal gyrus, and left precentral gyrus and anterior cingulate gyrus in PSP. Atrophy of GM was concentrated in the bilateral middle and inferior frontal gyrus, precuneus, left precentral gyrus, middle temporal gyrus, right superior parietal lobule, and right cuneus in PD. Subtraction meta-analysis indicated that GM volume was lesser in the bilateral midbrain, thalamus, and insula in PSP compared with that in PD. Our meta-analysis indicated that PSP and PD shared a similar distribution of neuroanatomical changes in the frontal lobe, including inferior frontal gyrus and precentral gyrus, and that atrophy of the midbrain, thalamus, and insula are neuroanatomical markers for differentiating PSP from PD.
Project description:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is accompanied by atypical brain structure. This study first presents the alterations in the cortical surface of patients with MDD using multidimensional structural patterns that reflect different neurodevelopment. Sixteen first-episode, untreated patients with MDD and 16 matched healthy controls underwent a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. The cortical maps of thickness, surface area, and gyrification were examined using the surface-based morphometry (SBM) approach. Increase of cortical thickness was observed in the right posterior cingulate region and the parietal cortex involving the bilateral inferior, left superior parietal and right paracentral regions, while decreased thickness was noted in the parietal cortex including bilateral pars opercularis and left precentral region, as well as the left rostral-middle frontal regions in patients with MDD. Likewise, increased or decreased surface area was found in five sub-regions of the cingulate gyrus, parietal and frontal cortices (e.g., bilateral inferior parietal and superior frontal regions). In addition, MDD patients exhibited a significant hypergyrification in the right precentral and supramarginal region. This integrated structural assessment of cortical surface suggests that MDD patients have cortical alterations of the frontal, parietal and cingulate regions, indicating a vulnerability to MDD during earlier neurodevelopmental process.
Project description:Background Walking while performing another task (eg, talking) is challenging for many stroke survivors, yet its neural basis are not fully understood. Objective To investigate prefrontal cortex activation and its relationship to gait measures while walking under single-task (ST) and dual-task (DT) conditions (ie, walking while simultaneously performing a cognitive task) in stroke survivors. Methods We acquired near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) data from the prefrontal cortex during treadmill walking in ST and DT conditions in chronic stroke survivors and healthy controls. We also acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and NIRS during simulated walking under these conditions. Results NIRS revealed increased oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in DT-walking compared with ST-walking for both groups. For simulated walking, NIRS showed a significant effect of group and group × task, being greater on both occasions, in stroke survivors. A greater increase in brain activation observed from ST to DT walking/ simulated walking was related to a greater change in motor performance in stroke survivors. fMRI revealed increased activity during DT relative to ST conditions in stroke patients in areas including the inferior temporal gyri, superior frontal gyri and cingulate gyri bilaterally, and the right precentral gyrus. The DT-related increase in fMRI activity correlated with DT-related change in behavior in stroke participants in the bilateral inferior temporal gyrus, left cingulate gyrus, and left frontal pole. Conclusion Our results provide novel evidence that enhanced brain activity changes relate to dual task motor decrements.
Project description:Arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion MRI is a relatively novel technique that can allow for quantitative measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using magnetically labeled arterial blood water as an endogenous tracer. Available data on resting CBF in schizophrenia primarily come from invasive and expensive nuclear medicine techniques that are often limited to small samples and yield mixed results. The noninvasive nature of ASL offers promise for larger-scale studies. The utility of this approach was examined in 24 healthy controls and 30 patients with schizophrenia. Differences between groups in quantitative CBF were assessed, as were relationships between CBF and psychiatric symptoms. Group comparisons demonstrated greater CBF for controls in several regions including bilateral precuneus and middle frontal gyrus. Patients showed increased CBF in left putamen/superior corona radiata and right middle temporal gyrus. For patients, greater severity of negative symptoms was associated with reduced CBF in bilateral superior temporal gyrus, cingulate gyrus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Increased severity of positive symptoms was related to both higher CBF in cingulate gyrus and superior frontal gyrus and decreased CBF in precentral gyrus/middle frontal gyrus. These findings support the feasibility and utility of implementing ASL in schizophrenia research and expand upon previous results.
Project description:Grey matter (GM) atrophy occurs early in primary progressive MS (PPMS), but it is unknown whether its progression involves different brain regions at different rates, as is seen in other neurodegenerative diseases. We aimed to investigate the temporal and regional evolution of GM volume loss over 5years and its relationship with disability progression in early PPMS. We studied 36 patients with PPMS within five years from onset and 19 age and gender-matched healthy controls with clinical and imaging assessments at study entry and yearly for 3years and then at 5years. Patients were scored on the expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and MS Functional Composite (MSFC) at each time-point. An unbiased longitudinal voxel-based morphometry approach, based on high-dimensional spatial alignment within-subject, was applied to the serial imaging data. The rate of local (voxel-wise) volume change per year was compared between groups and its relationship with clinical outcomes was assessed. Patients deteriorated significantly during the five years follow-up. Patients showed a greater decline of GM volume (p<0.05, FWE-corrected) bilaterally in the cingulate cortex, thalamus, putamen, precentral gyrus, insula and cerebellum when compared to healthy controls over five years, although the rate of volume loss varied across the brain, and was the fastest in the cingulate cortex. Significant (p<0.05, FWE-corrected) volume loss was detected in the left insula, left precuneus, and right cingulate cortex in patients at three years, as compared to baseline, whilst the bilateral putamen and the left superior temporal gyrus showed volume loss at five years. In patients, there was a relationship between a higher rate of volume loss in the bilateral cingulate cortex and greater clinical disability, as measured by the MSFC, at five years (Pearson's r=0.49, p=0.003). Longitudinal VBM demonstrated that the progression of GM atrophy in PPMS occurs at different rates in different regions across the brain. The involvement of the cingulate cortex occurs early in the disease course, continues at a steady rate throughout the follow-up period and is associated with patient outcome. These findings provide new insights into the characteristics of GM atrophy across the brain in MS, and have potential consequences for the selection of brain atrophy as an outcome measure in neuroprotective clinical trials.
Project description:Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load. Performance and brain activation were compared between groups. Only ADHD patients were impaired in performance. Group by sustained attention load interaction effects showed that OCD patients had disorder-specific middle anterior cingulate underactivation relative to controls and ADHD patients, while ADHD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex/dorsal inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). ADHD and OCD patients shared left insula/ventral IFG underactivation and increased activation in posterior default mode network relative to controls, but had disorder-specific overactivation in anterior default mode regions, in dorsal anterior cingulate for ADHD and in anterior ventromedial prefrontal cortex for OCD. In sum, ADHD and OCD patients showed mostly disorder-specific patterns of brain abnormalities in both task positive salience/ventral attention networks with lateral frontal deficits in ADHD and middle ACC deficits in OCD, as well as in their deactivation patterns in medial frontal DMN regions. The findings suggest that attention performance in the two disorders is underpinned by disorder-specific activation patterns.
Project description:To summarize and meta-analyze studies on changes in grey matter (GM) in patients with migraine. We aimed to determine whether there are concordant structural changes in the foci, whether structural changes are concordant with functional changes, and provide further understanding of the anatomy and biology of migraine.We searched PubMed and Embase for relevant articles published between January 1985 and November 2015, and examined the references within relevant primary articles. Following exclusion of unsuitable studies, meta-analysis were performed using activation likelihood estimation (ALE).Eight clinical studies were analyzed for structural changes, containing a total of 390 subjects (191 patients and 199 controls). Five functional studies were enrolled, containing 93 patients and 96 controls. ALE showed that the migraineurs had concordant decreases in the GM volume (GMV) in the bilateral inferior frontal gyri, the right precentral gyrus, the left middle frontal gyrus and the left cingulate gyrus. GMV decreases in right claustrum, left cingulated gyrus, right anterior cingulate, amygdala and left parahippocampal gyrus are related to estimated frequency of headache attack. Activation was found in the somatosensory, cingulate, limbic lobe, basal ganglia and midbrain in migraine patients.GM changes in migraineurs may indicate the mechanism of pain processing and associated symptoms. Changes in the frontal gyrus may predispose a person to pain conditions. The limbic regions may be accumulated damage due to the repetitive occurrence of pain-related processes. Increased activation in precentral gyrus and cingulate opposed to GMV decrease might suggest increased effort duo to disorganization of these areas and/or the use of compensatory strategies involving pain processing in migraine. Knowledge of these structural and functional changes may be useful for monitoring disease progression as well as for therapeutic interventions.
Project description:Background: Neuroimaging studies have shown that the high synchrony of spontaneous neural activity in the homotopic regions between hemispheres is an important functional structural feature of normal human brains, and this feature is abnormal in the patients with various mental disorders. However, little is known about this feature in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This study aimed to further analyze the underlying neural mechanisms of OCD and to explore whether clinical characteristics are correlated with the alerted homotopic connectivity in patients with OCD. Methods: Using voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC) during resting state, we compared 46 OCD patients and 46 healthy controls (HCs) matched for age, gender, and education level. A partial correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between altered VMHC and clinical characteristics in patients with OCD. Results: Patients with OCD showed lower VMHC than HCs in fusiform gyrus/inferior occipital gyrus, lingual gyrus, postcentral gyrus/precentral gyrus, putamen, and orbital frontal gyrus. A significant positive correlation was observed between altered VMHC in the angular gyrus/middle occipital gyrus and illness duration in patients. Conclusions: Interhemispheric functional imbalance may be an essential aspect of the pathophysiological mechanism of OCD, which is reflected not only in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop but also elsewhere in the brain.