Augmentation of therapeutic responses in melanoma by inhibition of IRAK-1,-4.
ABSTRACT: Toll-like receptors (TLR) are expressed by a variety of cancers, including melanoma, but their functional contributions in cancer cells are uncertain. To approach this question, we evaluated the effects of stimulating or inhibiting the TLR/IL-1 receptor-associated kinases IRAK-1 and IRAK-4 in melanoma cells where their functions are largely unexplored. TLRs and TLR-related proteins were variably expressed in melanoma cell lines, with 42% expressing activated phospho-IRAK-1 constitutively and 85% expressing high levels of phospho-IRAK-4 in the absence of TLR stimulation. Immunohistochemical evaluation of melanoma tumor biopsies (n = 242) revealed two distinct patient populations, one that expressed p-IRAK-4 levels similar to normal skin (55%) and one with significantly higher levels than normal skin (45%). Levels of p-IRAK-4 levels did not correlate with clinical stage, gender, or age, but attenuated IRAK-1,-4 signaling with pharmacologic inhibitors or siRNA-enhanced cell death in vitro in combination with vinblastine. Moreover, in a xenograft mouse model of melanoma, the combined pharmacologic treatment delayed tumor growth and prolonged survival compared with subjects receiving single agent therapy. We propose p-IRAK-4 as a novel inflammation and prosurvival marker in melanoma with the potential to serve as a therapeutic target to enhance chemotherapeutic responses.
Project description:Melanoma represents the most serious type of skin cancer. Although recent years have seen advances using targeted and immunotherapies, most patients remain at high risk for tumor recurrence. Here we show that IRAK-M, a negative regulator of MyD88 signaling, is deficient or low in melanoma and expression levels correlate with patient survival. Inducing IRAK-M expression using genetic approaches or epigenetic modifiers initiates apoptosis by prompting its interaction with TRAF6 via IRAK-M's C-terminal domain. This complex recruits and degrades calpastatin which stimulates calpain activity and triggers caspase-3-dependent but caspase-8,-9-independent apoptosis. Using a drug screen, we identified compounds that induced IRAK-M expression. Administration of IRAK-M-inducing drugs reduced tumor growth in mice but was ineffective against IRAK-M knock-down tumors. These results uncover a previously uncharacterized apoptosis pathway, emphasize IRAK-M as a potential therapeutic target and suggest that the anticancer activity of certain drugs could do so through their ability to induce IRAK-M expression.
Project description:IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAKs) participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction. MALP-2 is a TLR2 ligand, and stimulation of macrophages with MALP-2 activates expression of various genes including proinflammatory cytokines. We used microarrays to examine influence of IRAK-2 or IRAK-1/IRAK-2 deficiency in MALP-2-inducible gene expression. Keywords: Time course after MALP-2 stimulation Overall design: Peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, IRAK-2-/- and IRAK-1/IRAK-2 mice were stimulated with MALP-2 for 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours, followed by RNA extraction. Then hybridization on affymetrix microarrays was performed.
Project description:Innate immune signalling has an essential role in inflammation, and the dysregulation of signalling components of this pathway is increasingly being recognised as an important mediator in cancer initiation and progression. In some malignancies, dysregulation of inflammatory toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL1R) signalling is typified by increased NF-?B activity, and it occurs through somatic mutations, chromosomal deletions, and/or transcriptional deregulation. Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family members are mediators of TLR/IL1R superfamily signalling, and mounting evidence implicates these kinases as viable cancer targets. Although there have been previous efforts aimed at the development of IRAK kinase inhibitors, this is currently an area of renewed interest for cancer drug development.
Project description:IL-1R-associated kinases (IRAKs) participate in Toll-like receptor (TLR) signal transduction. MALP-2 is a TLR2 ligand, and stimulation of macrophages with MALP-2 activates expression of various genes including proinflammatory cytokines. We used microarrays to examine influence of IRAK-2 or IRAK-1/IRAK-2 deficiency in MALP-2-inducible gene expression. Experiment Overall Design: Peritoneal macrophages from wild-type, IRAK-2-/- and IRAK-1/IRAK-2 mice were stimulated with MALP-2 for 0, 2, 4, and 8 hours, followed by RNA extraction. Then hybridization on affymetrix microarrays was performed.
Project description:Human interleukin (IL) 1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) deficiency is a recently discovered primary immunodeficiency that impairs Toll/IL-1R immunity, except for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3- and TLR4-interferon (IFN)-alpha/beta pathways. The clinical and immunological phenotype remains largely unknown. We diagnosed up to 28 patients with IRAK-4 deficiency, tested blood TLR responses for individual leukocyte subsets, and TLR responses for multiple cytokines. The patients' peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) did not induce the 11 non-IFN cytokines tested upon activation with TLR agonists other than the nonspecific TLR3 agonist poly(I:C). The patients' individual cell subsets from both myeloid (granulocytes, monocytes, monocyte-derived dendritic cells [MDDCs], myeloid DCs [MDCs], and plasmacytoid DCs) and lymphoid (B, T, and NK cells) lineages did not respond to the TLR agonists that stimulated control cells, with the exception of residual responses to poly(I:C) and lipopolysaccharide in MDCs and MDDCs. Most patients (22 out of 28; 79%) suffered from invasive pneumococcal disease, which was often recurrent (13 out of 22; 59%). Other infections were rare, with the exception of severe staphylococcal disease (9 out of 28; 32%). Almost half of the patients died (12 out of 28; 43%). No death and no invasive infection occurred in patients older than 8 and 14 yr, respectively. The IRAK-4-dependent TLRs and IL-1Rs are therefore vital for childhood immunity to pyogenic bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae. Conversely, IRAK-4-dependent human TLRs appear to play a redundant role in protective immunity to most infections, at most limited to childhood immunity to some pyogenic bacteria.
Project description:Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) was reported to be essential for the Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling leading to the activation of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). However, the importance of kinase activity of IRAK family members is unclear. In this study, we investigated the functional role of IRAK-4 activity in vivo by generating mice carrying a knockin mutation (KK213AA) that abrogates its kinase activity. IRAK-4(KN/KN) mice were highly resistant to TLR-induced shock response. The cytokine production in response to TLR ligands was severely impaired in IRAK-4(KN/KN) as well as IRAK-4(-/-) macrophages. The IRAK-4 activity was essential for the activation of signaling pathways leading to mitogen-activated protein kinases. TLR-induced IRAK-4/IRAK-1-dependent and -independent pathways were involved in early induction of NF-kappaB-regulated genes in response to TLR ligands such as tumor necrosis factor alpha and IkappaBzeta. In contrast to a previous paper (Suzuki, N., S. Suzuki, D.G. Millar, M. Unno, H. Hara, T. Calzascia, S. Yamasaki, T. Yokosuka, N.J. Chen, A.R. Elford, et al. 2006. Science. 311:1927-1932), the TCR signaling was not impaired in IRAK-4(-/-) and IRAK-4(KN/KN) mice. Thus, the kinase activity of IRAK-4 is essential for the regulation of TLR-mediated innate immune responses.
Project description:Most members of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) and interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R) families transduce signals via a canonical pathway involving the MyD88 adapter and the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) complex. This complex contains four molecules, including at least two (IRAK-1 and IRAK-4) active kinases. In mice and humans, deficiencies of IRAK-4 or MyD88 abolish most TLR (except for TLR3 and some TLR4) and IL-1R signaling in both leukocytes and fibroblasts. TLR and IL-1R responses are weak but not abolished in mice lacking IRAK-1, whereas the role of IRAK-1 in humans remains unclear. We describe here a boy with X-linked MECP2 deficiency-related syndrome due to a large de novo Xq28 chromosomal deletion encompassing both MECP2 and IRAK1 Like many boys with MECP2 null mutations, this child died very early, at the age of 7 mo. Unlike most IRAK-4- or MyD88-deficient patients, he did not suffer from invasive bacterial diseases during his short life. The IRAK-1 protein was completely absent from the patient's fibroblasts, which responded very poorly to all TLR2/6 (PAM<sub>2</sub>CSK<sub>4</sub>, LTA, FSL-1), TLR1/2 (PAM<sub>3</sub>CSK<sub>4</sub>), and TLR4 (LPS, MPLA) agonists tested but had almost unimpaired responses to IL-1?. By contrast, the patient's peripheral blood mononuclear cells responded normally to all TLR1/2, TLR2/6, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR8 (R848) agonists tested, and to IL-1?. The death of this child precluded long-term evaluations of the clinical consequences of inherited IRAK-1 deficiency. However, these findings suggest that human IRAK-1 is essential downstream from TLRs but not IL-1Rs in fibroblasts, whereas it plays a redundant role downstream from both TLRs and IL-1Rs in leukocytes.
Project description:Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) are key components in the signal transduction pathways utilized by interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), interleukin-18 receptor (IL-18R), and Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Out of four members in the mammalian IRAK family, IRAK-4 is considered to be the "master IRAK", the only family member indispensable for IL-1R/TLR signaling. In humans, mutations resulting in IRAK-4 deficiency have been linked to susceptibility to bacterial infections, especially recurrent pyogenic bacterial infections. Furthermore, knock-in experiments by several groups have clearly demonstrated that IRAK-4 requires its kinase activity for its function. Given the critical role of IRAK-4 in inflammatory processes, modulation of IRAK-4 kinase activity presents an attractive therapeutic approach for the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases. The recent success in the determination of the 3-dimensional structure of the IRAK-4 kinase domain in complex with inhibitors has facilitated the understanding of the mechanistic role of IRAK-4 in immunity and inflammation as well as the development of specific IRAK-4 kinase inhibitors. In this article, we review the biological function of IRAK-4, the structural characteristics of the kinase domain, and the development of small molecule inhibitors targeting the kinase activity. We also review the key pharmacophores required for several classes of inhibitors as well as important features for optimal protein/inhibitor interactions. Lastly, we summarize how these insights can be translated into strategies to develop potent IRAK-4 inhibitors with desired properties as new anti-inflammatory therapeutic agents.
Project description:Five TLRs are thought to play an important role in antiviral immunity, sensing viral products and inducing IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda. Surprisingly, patients with a defect of IRAK-4, a critical kinase downstream from TLRs, are resistant to common viruses. We show here that IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda induction via TLR-7, TLR-8, and TLR-9 was abolished in IRAK-4-deficient blood cells. In contrast, IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda were induced normally by TLR-3 and TLR-4 agonists. Moreover, IFN-beta and -lambda were normally induced by TLR-3 agonists and viruses in IRAK-4-deficient fibroblasts. We further show that IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda production in response to 9 of 11 viruses tested was normal or weakly affected in IRAK-4-deficient blood cells. Thus, IRAK-4-deficient patients may control viral infections by TLR-3- and TLR-4-dependent and/or TLR-independent production of IFNs. The TLR-7-, TLR-8-, and TLR-9-dependent induction of IFN-alpha/beta and -lambda is strictly IRAK-4 dependent and paradoxically redundant for protective immunity to most viruses in humans.
Project description:Bacterial infections following rhinovirus (RV), a common cold virus, are well documented, but pathogenic mechanisms are poorly understood. We developed animal and cell culture models to examine the effects of RV on subsequent infection with non-typeable Hemophilus influenzae (NTHi). We focused on NTHI-induced neutrophil chemoattractants expression that is essential for bacterial clearance. Mice infected with RV1B were superinfected with NTHi and lung bacterial density, chemokines and neutrophil counts determined. Human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) or mouse alveolar macrophages (MH-S) were infected with RV and challenged with NHTi, TLR2 or TLR5 agonists. Chemokine levels were measured by ELISA and expression of IRAK-1, a component of MyD88-dependent TLR signaling, assessed by immunoblotting. While sham-infected mice cleared all NTHi from the lungs, RV-infected mice showed bacteria up to 72 h post-infection. However, animals in RV/NTHi cleared bacteria by day 7. Delayed bacterial clearance in RV/NTHi animals was associated with suppressed chemokine levels and neutrophil recruitment. RV-infected BEAS-2B and MH-S cells showed attenuated chemokine production after challenge with either NTHi or TLR agonists. Attenuated chemokine responses were associated with IRAK-1 protein degradation. Inhibition of RV-induced IRAK-1 degradation restored NTHi-stimulated IL-8 expression. Knockdown of TLR2, but not other MyD88-dependent TLRs, also restored IRAK-1, suggesting that TLR2 is required for RV-induced IRAK-1 degradation.In conclusion, we demonstrate for the first time that RV infection delays bacterial clearance in vivo and suppresses NTHi-stimulated chemokine responses via degradation of IRAK-1. Based on these observations, we speculate that modulation of TLR-dependent innate immune responses by RV may predispose the host to secondary bacterial infection, particularly in patients with underlying chronic respiratory disorders.