The influence of T cell Ig mucin-3 signaling on central nervous system autoimmune disease is determined by the effector function of the pathogenic T cells.
ABSTRACT: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the CNS mediated by self-reactive, myelin-specific T cells. Both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. MS is studied using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model mediated by myelin-specific T cells. T cell Ig mucin-3 (Tim-3) is a cell surface receptor expressed on CD4(+) IFN-?-secreting Th1 cells, and triggering Tim-3 signaling ameliorated EAE by inducing death in pathogenic Th1 cells in vivo. This suggested that enhancing Tim-3 signaling might be beneficial in patients with MS. However, Tim-3 is also expressed on activated CD8(+) T cells, microglia, and dendritic cells, and the combined effect of manipulating Tim-3 signaling on these cell types during CNS autoimmunity is unknown. Furthermore, CD4(+) IL-17-secreting Th17 cells also play a role in MS, but do not express high levels of Tim-3. We investigated Tim-3 signaling in EAE models that include myelin-specific Th17, Th1, and CD8(+) T cells. We found that preventing Tim-3 signaling in CD4(+) T cells altered the inflammatory pattern in the CNS due to differential effects on Th1 versus Th17 cells. In contrast, preventing Tim-3 signaling during CD8(+) T cell-mediated EAE exacerbated disease. We also analyzed the importance of Tim-3 signaling in EAE in innate immune cells. Tim-3 signaling in dendritic cells and microglia did not affect the manifestation of EAE in these models. These results indicate that the therapeutic efficacy of targeting Tim-3 in EAE is dependent on the nature of the effector T cells contributing to the disease.
Project description:In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), myelin-specific T cells are activated in the periphery and differentiate in T helper (Th) 1 and Th17 effector cells, which cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to reach the central nervous system (CNS), where they induce neuroinflammation. Here, we explored the role of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and ICAM-2 in the activation of naïve myelin-specific T cells and in the subsequent migration of differentiated encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells across the BBB in vitro and in vivo. While on antigen-presenting cells ICAM-1, but not ICAM-2 was required for the activation of naïve CD4+ T cells, endothelial ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 mediated both Th1 and Th17 cell migration across the BBB. ICAM-1/-2-deficient mice developed ameliorated typical and atypical EAE transferred by encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. Our study underscores important yet cell-specific contributions for ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 in EAE pathogenesis.
Project description:Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been identified as a putative environmental trigger of multiple sclerosis (MS), yet EBV's role in MS remains elusive. We utilized murine gamma herpesvirus 68 (?HV-68), the murine homolog to EBV, to examine how infection by a virus like EBV could enhance CNS autoimmunity. Mice latently infected with ?HV-68 developed more severe EAE including heightened paralysis and mortality. Similar to MS, ?HV-68EAE mice developed lesions composed of CD4 and CD8 T cells, macrophages and loss of myelin in the brain and spinal cord. Further, T cells from the CNS of ?HV-68 EAE mice were primarily Th1, producing heightened levels of IFN-? and T-bet accompanied by IL-17 suppression, whereas a Th17 response was observed in uninfected EAE mice. Clearly, ?HV-68 latency polarizes the adaptive immune response, directs a heightened CNS pathology following EAE induction reminiscent of human MS and portrays a novel mechanism by which EBV likely influences MS and other autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Vitamin D exerts multiple immunomodulatory functions and has been implicated in the etiology and treatment of several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). We have previously reported that in juvenile/adolescent rats, vitamin D supplementation protects from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of MS. Here we demonstrate that this protective effect associates with decreased proliferation of CD4+ T cells and lower frequency of pathogenic T helper (Th) 17 cells. Using transcriptome, methylome, and pathway analyses in CD4+ T cells, we show that vitamin D affects multiple signaling and metabolic pathways critical for T-cell activation and differentiation into Th1 and Th17 subsets in vivo. Namely, Jak/Stat, Erk/Mapk, and Pi3K/Akt/mTor signaling pathway genes were down-regulated upon vitamin D supplementation. The protective effect associated with epigenetic mechanisms, such as (i) changed levels of enzymes involved in establishment and maintenance of epigenetic marks, i.e., DNA methylation and histone modifications; (ii) genome-wide reduction of DNA methylation, and (iii) up-regulation of noncoding RNAs, including microRNAs, with concomitant down-regulation of their protein-coding target RNAs involved in T-cell activation and differentiation. We further demonstrate that treatment of myelin-specific T cells with vitamin D reduces frequency of Th1 and Th17 cells, down-regulates genes in key signaling pathways and epigenetic machinery, and impairs their ability to transfer EAE. Finally, orthologs of nearly 50% of candidate MS risk genes and 40% of signature genes of myelin-reactive T cells in MS changed their expression in vivo in EAE upon supplementation, supporting the hypothesis that vitamin D may modulate risk for developing MS.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>There is consensus that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) can be mediated by myelin specific T cells of Th1 as well as of Th17 phenotype, but the contribution of either subset to the pathogenic process has remained controversial. In this report, we compare functional differences and pathogenic potential of "monoclonal" T cell lines that recognize myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) with the same transgenic TCR but are distinguished by an IFN-? producing Th1-like and IL-17 producing Th17-like cytokine signature.<h4>Methods and findings</h4>CD4+ T cell lines were derived from the transgenic mouse strain 2D2, which expresses a TCR recognizing MOG peptide 35-55 in the context of I-A(b). Adoptive transfer of Th1 cells into lymphopenic (Rag2?/?) recipients, predominantly induced "classic" paralytic EAE, whereas Th17 cells mediated "atypical" ataxic EAE in approximately 50% of the recipient animals. Combination of Th1 and Th17 cells potentiated the encephalitogenicity inducing classical EAE exclusively. Th1 and Th17 mediated EAE lesions differed in their composition but not in their localization within the CNS. While Th1 lesions contained IFN-?, but no IL-17 producing T cells, the T cells in Th17 lesions showed plasticity, substantially converting to IFN-? producing Th1-like cells. Th1 and Th17 cells differed drastically by their lytic potential. Th1 but not Th17 cells lysed autoantigen presenting astrocytes and fibroblasts in vitro in a contact-dependent manner. In contrast, Th17 cells acquired cytotoxic potential only after antigenic stimulation and conversion to IFN-? producing Th1 phenotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our data demonstrate that both Th1 and Th17 lineages possess the ability to induce CNS autoimmunity but can function with complementary as well as differential pathogenic mechanisms. We propose that Th17-like cells producing IL-17 are required for the generation of atypical EAE whereas IFN-? producing Th1 cells induce classical EAE.
Project description:CD4(+) T-helper (Th) cells reactive against myelin antigens mediate the mouse model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). It is currently debated whether encephalitogenic Th cells are heterogeneous or arise from a single lineage. In the current study, we challenge the dogma that stimulation with the monokine IL-23 is universally required for the acquisition of pathogenic properties by myelin-reactive T cells. We show that IL-12-modulated Th1 cells readily produce IFN-? and GM-CSF in the CNS of mice and induce a severe form of EAE via an IL-23-independent pathway. Th1-mediated EAE is characterized by monocyte-rich CNS infiltrates, elicits a strong proinflammatory cytokine response in the CNS, and is partially CCR2 dependent. Conversely, IL-23-modulated, stable Th17 cells induce EAE with a relatively mild course via an IL-12-independent pathway. These data provide definitive evidence that autoimmune disease can be driven by distinct CD4(+) T-helper-cell subsets and polarizing factors.
Project description:Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disease that is characterized by immune-mediated destruction of CNS myelin. Current MS therapies aim to block peripheral immune cells from entering the CNS. Although these treatments limit new inflammatory activity in the CNS, no treatment effectively prevents long-term disease progression and disability accumulation in MS patients. One explanation for this paradox is that current therapies are ineffective at targeting immune responses already present in the CNS. To this end, we sought to understand the metabolic properties of T cells that mediate ongoing inflammation in the demyelinating CNS. Using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice, a well-studied model of MS, we showed that the CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that invade the EAE CNS are highly glycolytic. Elevated glycolytic rates in T cells isolated from the EAE CNS correlate with upregulated expression of glycolytic machinery and is essential for inflammatory responses to myelin. Surprisingly, we found that an inhibitor of GAPDH, 3-bromopyruvic acid (3-BrPa), blocks IFN-?, but not IL-17A, production in immune cells isolated from the EAE CNS. Indeed, in vitro studies confirmed that the production of IFN-? by differentiated Th1 cells is more sensitive to 3-BrPa than is the production of IL-17A by Th17 cells. Finally, in transfer models of EAE, 3-BrPa robustly attenuates the encephalitogenic potential of EAE-driving immune cells. To our knowledge, these data are among the first to demonstrate the metabolic properties of T cells in the demyelinating CNS in vivo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Orexins (hypocretins, Hcrt) A and B are GPCR-binding hypothalamic neuropeptides known to regulate sleep/wake states and feeding behavior. A few studies have shown that orexin A exhibits anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, suggesting that it might provide therapeutic effects in inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis (MS). In MS, encephalitogenic Th1 and Th17 cells trigger an inflammatory response in the CNS destroying the myelin sheath. Here, we investigated the effects of peripheral orexin A administration to mice undergoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a widely used model of MS. METHODS:Mice were subcutaneously immunized with myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)35-55 in CFA. Mice were treated intraperitoneally for five consecutive days with either PBS or 300 μg of orexin A starting at a moderate EAE score. Molecular, cellular, and histological analysis were performed by real-time PCR, ELISA, flow cytometry, and immunofluorescence. RESULTS:Orexin A strongly ameliorated ongoing EAE, limiting the infiltration of pathogenic CD4+ T lymphocytes, and diminishing chemokine (MCP-1/CCL2 and IP-10/CXCL10) and cytokine (IFN-γ (Th1), IL-17 (Th17), TNF-α, IL-10, and TGF-β) expressions in the CNS. Moreover, orexin A treatment was neuroprotective, decreasing demyelination, astrogliosis, and microglial activation. Despite its strong local therapeutic effects, orexin A did not impair peripheral draining lymph node cell proliferation and Th1/Th17 cytokine production in response to MOG35-55 in vitro. CONCLUSIONS:Peripherally-administered orexin A ameliorated EAE by reducing CNS neuroinflammation. These results suggest that orexins may represent new therapeutic candidates that should be further investigated for MS treatment.
Project description:Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a rodent model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a debilitating autoimmune disease of the CNS, for which only limited therapeutic interventions are available. Because MS is mediated in part by autoreactive T cells, particularly Th17 and Th1 cells, in the current study, we tested whether inhibitors of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3), previously reported to reduce Th17 cell generation, also alter Th1 cell production or alleviate EAE. GSK3 inhibitors were found to impede the production of Th1 cells by reducing STAT1 activation. Molecularly reducing the expression of either of the two GSK3 isoforms demonstrated that Th17 cell production was sensitive to reduced levels of GSK3? and Th1 cell production was inhibited in GSK3?-deficient cells. Administration of the selective GSK3 inhibitors TDZD-8, VP2.51, VP0.7, or L803-mts significantly reduced the clinical symptoms of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55-induced EAE in mice, nearly eliminating the chronic progressive phase, and reduced the number of Th17 and Th1 cells in the spinal cord. Administration of TDZD-8 or L803-mts after the initial disease episode alleviated clinical symptoms in a relapsing-remitting model of proteolipid protein139-151-induced EAE. Furthermore, deletion of GSK3? specifically in T cells was sufficient to alleviate myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein35-55-induced EAE. These results demonstrate the isoform-selective effects of GSK3 on T cell generation and the therapeutic effects of GSK3 inhibitors in EAE, as well as showing that GSK3 inhibition in T cells is sufficient to reduce the severity of EAE, suggesting that GSK3 may be a feasible target for developing new therapeutic interventions for MS.
Project description:IL-17-producing CD4(+) T (Th17) cells, along with IFN-?-expressing Th1 cells, represent two major pathogenic T cell subsets in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The cytokines and transcription factors involved in the development and effector functions of Th1 and Th17 cells have been largely characterized. Among them, IL-23 is essential for the generation of stable and encephalitogenic Th17 cells and for the development of EAE. The IL-7/IL-7R signaling axis participates in cell survival, and perturbation of this pathway has been associated with enhanced susceptibility to MS. A link between IL-23-driven pathogenic T cells and IL-7/IL-7R signaling has previously been proposed, but has not been formally addressed. In the current study, we showed that Th17 cells from mice with EAE express high levels of IL-7R? compared with Th1 cells. Using mice that constitutively express IL-7R? on T cells, we determined that sustained IL-7R expression in IL-23R-deficient mice could not drive pathogenic T cells and the development of EAE. IL-7 inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells, but promoted IFN-? and GM-CSF secretion in vitro. In vivo IL-7/anti-IL-7 mAb complexes selectively expanded and enhanced the proliferation of CXCR3-expressing Th1 cells, but did not impact Th17 cells and EAE development in wild-type and IL-23R-deficient mice. Importantly, high IL-7 expression was detected in the CNS during EAE and could drive the plasticity of Th17 cells to IFN-?-producing T cells. Together, these data address the contribution of IL-23/IL-23R and IL-7/IL-7R signaling in Th17 and Th1 cell dynamics during CNS autoimmunity.
Project description:Clinical studies indicate that anti-CD20 B-cell depletion may be an effective multiple sclerosis (MS) therapy. We investigated mechanisms of anti-CD20-mediated immune modulation using 2 paradigms of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).Murine EAE was induced by recombinant myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (rMOG), a model in which B cells are considered to contribute pathogenically, or MOG peptide (p)35-55, which does not require B cells.In EAE induced by rMOG, B cells became activated and, when serving as antigen-presenting cells (APCs), promoted differentiation of proinflammatory MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. B-cell depletion prevented or reversed established rMOG-induced EAE, which was associated with less central nervous system (CNS) inflammation, elimination of meningeal B cells, and reduction of MOG-specific Th1 and Th17 cells. In contrast, in MOG p35-55-induced EAE, B cells did not become activated or efficiently polarize proinflammatory MOG-specific T cells, similar to naive B cells. In this setting, anti-CD20 treatment exacerbated EAE, and did not impede development of Th1 or Th17 cells. Irrespective of the EAE model used, B-cell depletion reduced the frequency of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), and increased the proinflammatory polarizing capacity of remaining myeloid APCs.Our study highlights distinct roles for B cells in CNS autoimmunity. Clinical benefit from anti-CD20 treatment may relate to inhibition of proinflammatory B cell APC function. In certain clinical settings, however, elimination of unactivated B cells, which participate in regulation of T cells and other APC, may be undesirable. Differences in immune responses to MOG protein and peptide may be important considerations when choosing an EAE model for testing novel B cell-targeting agents for MS.