ABSTRACT: Hamstring muscle injuries are common in athletes and mostly consist of sprains at the myotendinous junction, which often respond well to conservative treatment. Proximal hamstring avulsion injuries, though less common, can be severely debilitating. This injury is often seen in water skiers but has been described in many other sports and in middle-aged patients. Complete avulsions in young and active individuals do not respond well to conservative treatment and may require surgical repair. In contrast, many partial tears may be treated nonoperatively. However, when symptoms continue despite a trial of extensive therapy, surgery may be warranted. Traditional surgery for proximal hamstring repair is performed with the patient in the prone position with an incision made longitudinally or along the gluteal fold, followed by identification of the torn tendons and fixation to the ischial tuberosity. We describe a novel surgical technique for endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsion injuries.
Project description:Hamstring strains account for 25% to 30% of all muscle strains and are an exceedingly common injury in the athletic population. Although proximal hamstring avulsion injuries occur less commonly than strains at the myotendinous junction, they are more severe and debilitating. Proximal hamstring avulsions do not respond well to conservative treatment and are more likely to require surgical intervention. Surgical repair of proximal hamstring avulsions is indicated when the injury fails to respond to conservative treatment, in cases of osseous avulsion with retraction, and in cases of tearing of all 3 hamstring tendons. Endoscopic repair of proximal hamstring avulsions is a promising technique to repair these injuries while reducing morbidity. We describe our technique for endoscopic proximal hamstring repair, which uses a double-row suture bridge construct to reattach the tendons to the ischial tuberosity.
Project description:Hamstring injuries commonly occur at the musculotendinous junction; however, they can occur as proximal avulsion injuries. A lack of recognition can lead to proximal hamstring injuries being frequently misdiagnosed, resulting in delayed treatment. Chronic proximal hamstring tears are often retracted and scarred to the surrounding soft tissues. Owing to the poor quality of tissue at the torn ends of the tendon, an augmented reconstruction using an allograft may be required. In cases with poor visualization of the ischial tuberosity and proximal hamstring footprint, an Achilles tendon allograft can be secured directly to the tuberosity with suture anchors. However, visualization of the footprint can be optimized using an arthroscope. This report describes a technique for endoscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction using an Achilles allograft with both knotless and knotted suture anchors for chronic complete avulsions of the proximal hamstring.
Project description:Proximal hamstring tendon ruptures are rare in children and adolescents. The typical pediatric hamstring injury pattern involves an apophyseal avulsion fracture. We present the case of a 14-year-old male with a widely displaced ischial avulsion fracture and a bony fragment that was too small to allow for bony fixation. The patient presented with left-buttock pain and ecchymosis, as well as tenderness at the ischial tuberosity, following an injury sustained while running 2 weeks prior. Imaging demonstrated an avulsion of the proximal hamstrings with a 4-mm bony fragment, too small to allow for repair. The patient underwent primary repair using two 3-mm suture anchors. The bony fragment was not excised but incorporated into the repair. Although most proximal hamstring injuries in children and adolescents are treated non-operatively, operative treatment may confer a small but clinically important difference in rates of healing and return to play in adolescent athletes. This case demonstrates successful treatment of a proximal hamstring rupture with suture anchor fixation, which may be considered for pediatric and adolescent displaced avulsion fractures when the bony fragment is too small to allow for bony fixation.
Project description:Chronic hamstring origin avulsions and ischial tunnel syndrome are common causes of posterior hip pain. Although physical therapy has shown benefits in some cases, recent evidence has reported better outcomes with surgical treatment in appropriately selected patients. The full-open approach has been the classic procedure to address this problem. However, the complications related to extensive tissue exposure and the proximity of the incision to the perianal zone have led to the description of full-endoscopic techniques. Achieving an accurate hamstring repair could be technically demanding with a full-endoscopic procedure. Accurate reattachment is crucial in hamstring repair because of the functional demand of the muscles crossing of 2 major joints (hip and knee). This surgical note describes a mixed technique including a mini-open approach, neuromonitoring, and dry endoscopic-assisted repair of the hamstring origin as an alternative for treating patients with chronic hamstring avulsions and ischial tunnel syndrome that remain symptomatic despite nonoperative treatment.
Project description:Proximal hamstring tendon avulsions are a relatively rare type of hamstring injury associated with persistent morbidity, including pain, weakness, and functional limitations. Open or endoscopic surgical repair is the standard treatment for complete tendon avulsions or partial tears that remain symptomatic despite conservative management in relatively young, healthy, and active patients. However, complications known to occur include retearing of the hamstring, infection, nerve injury, inability to return to work or sport, subjective persistent weakness, and subjective persistent pain. In the case of persistent pain where the repair is partially retorn, a careful history, physical examination, and scrutiny of radiologic studies can help guide management. We describe a technique for using revision endoscopy and augmentation with a bovine bioinductive patch in a case of chronic persistently painful partial retear after a proximal hamstring repair.
Project description:Proximal hamstring tears are among the most common sports-related injuries. These injuries often occur as strains or partial tears at the proximal muscle belly or the musculotendinous junction, with avulsion injuries of the proximal attachment occurring less frequently. Regardless of the mechanism, they produce functional impairment and negatively affect an athlete's performance. Various classifications for these injuries are reported in the literature. Early surgical treatment is recommended for patients with either a 2-tendon tear/avulsion with more than 2 cm retraction or those with complete 3-tendon tears. Surgery can be performed in the chronic phase but it is technically demanding because of scar formation and tendon retraction. This Technical Note describes a biomechanically validated surgical technique for repair of the proximal hamstring tears.
Project description:Proximal hamstring injuries are common, and open surgical repair with suture anchors has been the gold standard when surgical intervention is warranted. Endoscopic techniques offer the opportunity of surgical repair with smaller incisions to limit complications and expedite rehabilitation. The purpose of this technique guide is to describe a modified endoscopic technique that allows a safe and anatomic repair of proximal hamstring injuries. The patient is positioned prone with the feet at the head of the bed, table in reverse Trendelenburg, and knees flexed to 90°. Four portals are used, 3 in horizontal alignment within the gluteal fold and 1 directly superior to the ischial tuberosity. The sciatic nerve is identified, dissected, and mobilized away from the operative field. Retraction sutures help retract the gluteus maximus and further protect the sciatic nerve. Dissection is within the interval between the conjoint and semimembranosus tendons. The tendons are freed and mobilized, the ischial tuberosity is decorticated, and an anatomic repair is performed via 4 suture anchors, 2 at each tendon footprint. Advancements in arthroscopy have permitted adequate visualization and exposure of the hamstring footprint, thus allowing for an anatomic repair with increased protection of the sciatic nerve and decreased resources and cost.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hamstring tears are well recognised in the sporting population. Little is known about these injuries in the general population. PURPOSE:Evaluating the rates, patterns and risk factors of non-sporting hamstring tears, compared to sporting related hamstring tears. DATA SOURCES:MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1989-2015). STUDY SELECTION:Studies reporting patients with a grade 2 or 3 hamstring muscle tear, identified clinically, confirmed by MRI imaging or direct visualisation during surgical exploration. DATA SYNTHESIS:144 sets of linked data were extracted for analysis. Most injuries were in males (81.3%), where mean age at injury was lower (30.2, 95% CI 29.1-31.3) than in females (35.4, 95% CI 32.4-38.4) p = 0.06. Key differences were found in the proportion of non-sporting injuries in patients under and over the age 40 (p = 0.001). The proportion of non-sporting injuries was significantly higher in females compared to males (25.9% female non-sporting injuries, versus 8.5% male; p = 0.02). Avulsions were more frequently reported in non-sporting activities (70.5%). The proportion of such injuries was notably higher in females, though this failed to meet significance (p = 0.124). Grouped by age category a bimodal distribution was noted, with the proportion of avulsions greater in younger (age <15) and older patients (age > 40) (p = 0.008). 86.8% of patients returned to pre-injury activity levels with a similar frequency across all study variables; age, activity (sporting vs non-sporting) and injury type (avulsion vs tear). CONCLUSION:This review highlights a proportion of adults suffering grade 2 or 3 hamstring injuries from activities other than the classic sports trauma. The majority of these non-sporting injuries were avulsion injuries that clustered in older female and skeletally immature patients suggesting a potential link to bone mineral density.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Subscapularis tendon avulsions of the lesser tuberosity are relatively rare and often missed acutely and their characteristic appearance is frequently not recognized or is misinterpreted for an osteochondroma or a neoplastic process. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES:This report reviews our experience with six adolescents who had subscapularis tendon avulsions of the lesser tuberosity. METHODS:Six male adolescents (12-15 years) presented with shoulder pain following history of trauma during amateur sport. Clinical notes including range of motion, strength tests, and pain assessment were reviewed along with imaging studies pre- and post treatment. Treatment consisted of either surgical or conservative measures. RESULTS:Two of the six patients had a large avulsion that simulated an exostosis of the proximal humerus that was misdiagnosed as an osteochondroma at two different outside institutions. All six cases were diagnosed with subscapularis tendon avulsion of the lesser tuberosity following clinical and imaging evaluation at our institution. Five of the patients underwent surgical repair and fixation of the tendon and the lesser tuberosity with suture anchors. One patient was treated conservatively. All patients had a good outcome with recovery of full shoulder strength and motion upon follow-up. CONCLUSION:Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion of lesser tuberosity avulsions in adolescents who present with loss of internal rotation and anterior shoulder pain following traumatic injuries. In addition, an osseous fragment or exostosis along the inferomedial humeral head should suggest a subscapularis tendon avulsion and also should not be confused with an osteochondroma or a neoplastic process.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:The treatment of proximal hamstring avulsions is controversial. While several trials have investigated the outcome for patients treated surgically, there is today no prospective trial comparing operative treatment with non-operative treatment. This protocol describes the design for the proximal hamstring avulsion clinical trial (PHACT)-the first randomised controlled trial of operative versus non-operative treatment for proximal hamstring avulsions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:PHACT is a multicentre randomised controlled trial conducted across Sweden, Norway and Finland. Eligible patients (60 participants/treatment arm) with a proximal hamstring avulsion of at least two of three tendons will be randomised to either operative or non-operative treatment. Participants allocated to surgery will undergo reinsertion of the tendons with suture anchors. The rehabilitation programme will be the same for both treatment groups. When patient or surgeon equipoise for treatment alternatives cannot be reached and randomisation therefore is not possible, patients will be invited to participate in a parallel observational non-randomised cohort. The primary outcome will be the patient-reported outcome measure Perth hamstring assessment tool at 24 months. Secondary outcomes include the Lower Extremity Functional Score, physical performance and muscle strength tests, patient satisfaction and MR imaging. Data analysis will be blinded and intention-to-treat analysis will be preformed. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval has been granted by the Ethical Committee of Uppsala University (DNR: 2017-170) and by the Norwegian ethical board (REC: 2017/1911). The study will be conducted in agreement with the Helsinki declaration. The findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT03311997.