Secondary genomic rearrangements involving immunoglobulin or MYC loci show similar prevalences in hyperdiploid and nonhyperdiploid myeloma tumors.
ABSTRACT: The pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) is thought to involve at least two pathways, which generate hyperdiploid (HRD) or nonhyperdiploid (NHRD) tumors, respectively. Apart from chromosome content, the two pathways are distinguished by five primary immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) rearrangements (4p16, FGFR3, and MMSET; 6p21, CCND3; 11q13, CCND1; 16q23, MAF; 20q12, MAFB) that are present mainly in NHRD tumors. To determine the prevalence and structures of IGH, immunoglobulin (IG) light chain, and MYC genomic rearrangements in MM, we have done comprehensive metaphase fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses on 48 advanced MM tumors and 47 MM cell lines. As expected, the prevalence of the five primary IGH rearrangements was nearly 70% in NHRD tumors, but only 12% in HRD tumors. However, IGH rearrangements not involving one of the five primary partners, and IG light chain rearrangements, have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In addition, MYC rearrangements, which are thought to be late progression events that sometimes do not involve an IG heavy or light chain locus, also have a similar prevalence in HRD and NHRD tumors. In contrast to the primary IGH rearrangements, which usually are simple balanced translocations, these other IG rearrangements usually have complex structures, as previously described for MYC rearrangements in MM. We conclude that IG light chain and MYC rearrangements, as well as secondary IGH rearrangements, make similar contributions to the progression of both HRD and NHRD MM tumors.
Project description:Translocations involving c-myc and an Ig locus have been reported rarely in human multiple myeloma (MM). Using specific fluorescence in situ hybridization probes, we show complex karyotypic abnormalities of the c-myc or L-myc locus in 19 of 20 MM cell lines and approximately 50% of advanced primary MM tumors. These abnormalities include unusual and complex translocations and insertions that often juxtapose myc with an IgH or IgL locus. For two advanced primary MM tumors, some tumor cells contain a karyotypic abnormality of the c-myc locus, whereas other tumor cells do not, indicating that this karyotypic abnormality of c-myc occurs as a late event. All informative MM cell lines show monoallelic expression of c-myc. For Burkitt's lymphoma and mouse plasmacytoma tumors, balanced translocation that juxtaposes c-myc with one of the Ig loci is an early, invariant event that is mediated by B cell-specific DNA modification mechanisms. By contrast, for MM, dysregulation of c-myc apparently is caused principally by complex genomic rearrangements that occur during late stages of MM progression and do not involve B cell-specific DNA modification mechanisms.
Project description:IL-7 is an important cytokine for lymphocyte differentiation. Similar to what occurs in vivo, human CD19? cells developing in human/murine xenogeneic cultures show differential expression of the IL-7 receptor ? (IL-7R?) chain (CD127). We now describe the relationship between CD127 expression/signaling and Ig gene rearrangement. In the present study, < 10% of CD19?CD127? and CD19?CD127? populations had complete VDJ(H) rearrangements. IGH locus conformation measurements by 3D FISH revealed that CD127? and CD127? cells were less contracted than pediatric BM pro-B cells that actively rearrange the IGH locus. Complete IGH rearrangements in CD127? and CD127? cells had smaller CDR3 lengths and fewer N-nucleotide insertions than pediatric BM B-lineage cells. Despite the paucity of VDJ(H) rearrangements, microarray analysis indicated that CD127? cells resembled large pre-B cells, which is consistent with their low level of Ig light-chain rearrangements. Unexpectedly, CD127? cells showed extensive Ig light-chain rearrangements in the absence of IGH rearrangements and resembled small pre-B cells. Neutralization of IL-7 in xenogeneic cultures led to an increase in Ig light-chain rearrangements in CD127? cells, but no change in complete IGH rearrangements. We conclude that IL-7-mediated suppression of premature Ig light-chain rearrangement is the most definitive function yet described for IL-7 in human B-cell development.
Project description:Genomic rearrangements in the MYC locus occur in ?12% of lymphomas with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) morphology and are associated with inferior outcome. Previous studies exploring MYC rearrangements have primarily used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to characterize break-apart status but have rarely examined breakpoint location, and in some cases have not examined partner identity. We performed targeted sequencing of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, and the immunoglobulin (IG) loci in 112 tumors with DLBCL morphology harboring MYC rearrangement. We characterized the location of the MYC rearrangement at base pair resolution and identified the partner in 88 cases. We observed a cluster of breakpoints upstream of the MYC coding region and in intron 1 (the "genic cluster"). Genic cluster rearrangements were enriched for translocations involving IGH (80%), whereas nongenic rearrangements occurred mostly downstream of the MYC gene with a variety of partners, including IGL and IGK Other recurrent partners included BCL6, ZCCHC7, and RFTN1, which has not previously been described as a MYC partner. We compared 2 commercially available FISH break-apart assays for the MYC locus and observed discordant results in 32% of cases examined, including some with MYC-IGL and MYC-IGK rearrangements. In cases of high-grade B-cell lymphoma with MYC and BCL2 and/or BCL6 rearrangement (HGBL-DH), so-called "double-hit" lymphomas, the majority of MYC rearrangements had non-IG partners (65%), with breakpoints outside the genic cluster (72%). In patients with de novo HGBL-DH of DLBCL morphology, MYC-IG rearrangements showed a trend toward inferior time to progression and overall survival compared with MYC-non-IG rearrangements. Our data reveal clinically relevant architecture of MYC rearrangements in lymphomas with DLBCL morphology.
Project description:B-lymphocyte development is dictated by the protein products of functionally rearranged Ig heavy (H) and light (L) chain genes. Ig rearrangement begins in pro-B cells at the IgH locus. If pro-B cells generate a productive allele, they assemble a pre-B cell receptor complex, which signals their differentiation into pre-B cells and their clonal expansion. Pre-B cell receptor signals are also thought to contribute to allelic exclusion by preventing further IgH rearrangements. Here we show in two independent mouse models that the accumulation of a stabilized ?H mRNA that does not encode ?H chain protein specifically impairs pro-B cell differentiation and reduces the frequency of rearranged IgH genes in a dose-dependent manner. Because noncoding IgH mRNA is usually rapidly degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay machinery, we propose that the difference in mRNA stability allows pro-B cells to distinguish between productive and nonproductive Ig gene rearrangements and that ?H mRNA may thus contribute to efficient H chain allelic exclusion.
Project description:One of the hallmarks of B lymphoid malignancies is a B cell clone characterized by a unique footprint of clonal immunoglobulin (IG) gene rearrangements that serves as a diagnostic marker for clonality assessment. The EuroClonality/BIOMED-2 assay is currently the gold standard for analyzing IG heavy chain (IGH) and κ light chain (IGK) gene rearrangements of suspected B cell lymphomas. Here, the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group presents a multicentre technical feasibility study of a novel approach involving next-generation sequencing (NGS) of IGH and IGK loci rearrangements that is highly suitable for detecting IG gene rearrangements in frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens. By employing gene-specific primers for IGH and IGK amplifying smaller amplicon sizes in combination with deep sequencing technology, this NGS-based IG clonality analysis showed robust performance, even in DNA samples of suboptimal DNA integrity, and a high clinical sensitivity for the detection of clonal rearrangements. Bioinformatics analyses of the high-throughput sequencing data with ARResT/Interrogate, a platform developed within the EuroClonality-NGS Working Group, allowed accurate identification of clonotypes in both polyclonal cell populations and monoclonal lymphoproliferative disorders. This multicentre feasibility study is an important step towards implementation of NGS-based clonality assessment in clinical practice, which will eventually improve lymphoma diagnostics.
Project description:MYC locus rearrangements-often complex combinations of translocations, insertions, deletions and inversions-in multiple myeloma (MM) were thought to be a late progression event, which often did not involve immunoglobulin genes. Yet, germinal center activation of MYC expression has been reported to cause progression to MM in an MGUS (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance)-prone mouse strain. Although previously detected in 16% of MM, we find MYC rearrangements in nearly 50% of MM, including smoldering MM, and they are heterogeneous in some cases. Rearrangements reposition MYC near a limited number of genes associated with conventional enhancers, but mostly with super-enhancers (e.g., IGH, IGL, IGK, NSMCE2, TXNDC5, FAM46C, FOXO3, IGJ, PRDM1). MYC rearrangements are associated with a significant increase of MYC expression that is monoallelic, but MM tumors lacking a rearrangement have biallelic MYC expression at significantly higher levels than in MGUS. We also have shown that germinal center activation of MYC does not cause MM in a mouse strain that rarely develops spontaneous MGUS. It appears that increased MYC expression at the MGUS/MM transition usually is biallelic, but sometimes can be monoallelic if there is an MYC rearrangement. Our data suggest that MYC rearrangements, regardless of when they occur during MM pathogenesis, provide one event that contributes to tumor autonomy.
Project description:Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) is an aggressive lymphoma characterized by a terminally differentiated B-cell phenotype that usually occurs in the immunocompromised or elderly patients. Although the clinical and pathologic characteristics of these tumors have been defined, the genetic alterations involved in their pathogenesis are not well known. In this study, we have investigated the chromosomal alterations of MYC, BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, PAX5, and IGH loci using fluorescence in situ hybridization in 42 PBL and 3 extracavitary primary effusion lymphomas. MYC rearrangements were identified in 20 of 41 (49%) PBL and the immunoglobulin (IG) genes were the partners in most tumors. MYC rearrangements were more common in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive (14 of 19, 74%) than EBV-negative (9 of 21, 43%) tumors (P<0.05). No rearrangements of BCL2, BCL6, MALT1, or PAX5 were detected in any PBL but gains of these loci were observed in 31% to 41% of the cases examined. Twelve of the 40 PBL in which 3 or more loci could be investigated had multiple simultaneous gains in 3 or more loci. No differences in the survival of the patients according to MYC were observed but the 4 patients with the longest survival (>50?mo) had no or low number of gains (<3). No rearrangements of any of these loci were seen in the primary effusion lymphomas. In conclusion, PBL are genetically characterized by frequent IG/MYC translocations and gains in multiple chromosomal loci. The oncogenic activation of MYC in these lymphomas may be an important pathogenetic element associated with EBV infection.
Project description:Myc-deregulating T(12;15) chromosomal translocations are the hallmark cytogenetic abnormalities of murine plasmacytomas (PCTs). In most PCTs, the immunoglobulin heavy chain (Igh) locus is broken between the E? enhancer and the 3' regulatory region (3'RR), making the latter the major candidate for orchestrating Myc deregulation. To elucidate the role of the Igh3'RR in tumorigenesis, we induced PCTs in Bcl-xL-transgenic mice deficient for the major Igh3'RR enhancer elements, hs3b and hs4 (hs3b-4-/-). Contrary to previous observations using a mouse lymphoma model, which showed no tumors with peripheral B-cell phenotype in hs3b-4-/- mice, these animals developed T(12;15)-positive PCTs, although with a lower incidence than hs3b-4+/+ (wild-type, WT) controls. In heterozygous hs3b-4+/- mice there was no allelic bias in targeting Igh for T(12;15). Molecular analyses of Igh/Myc junctions revealed dominance of S? region breakpoints versus the prevalence of S? or S? in WT controls. Myc expression and Ig secretion in hs3b-4-/- PCTs did not differ from WT controls. We also evaluated the effect of a complete Igh3'RR deletion on Myc expression in the context of an established Igh/Myc translocation in ARS/Igh11-transgenic PCT cell lines. Cre-mediated deletion of the Igh3'RR resulted in gradual reduction of Myc expression, loss of proliferative activity and increased cell death, confirming the necessity of the Igh3'RR for Myc deregulation by T(12;15).
Project description:BCL6 translocations are common in B-cell lymphomas and frequently have chromosomal breaks in immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) switch regions, suggesting that they occur during class-switch recombination. We analyze 120 BCL6 translocation breakpoints clustered in a 2156-bp segment of BCL6 intron 1, including 62 breakpoints (52%) joined to IgH, 12 (10%) joined to Ig light chains, and 46 (38%) joined to non-Ig partners. The BCL6 breaks in Ig-BCL6 translocations prefer known activation-induced cytosine deaminase (AID) hotspots such as WGCW and WRC (W = A/T, R = A/G), whereas BCL6 breaks in non-Ig rearrangements occur at CpG/CGC sites in addition to WGCW. Unlike previously identified CpG breaks in pro-B/pre-B-cell translocations, the BCL6 breaks do not show evidence of recombination activating gene or terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase activity. Both WGCW/WRC and CpG/CGC breaks at BCL6 are most likely initiated by AID in germinal center B-cells, and their differential use suggests subtle mechanistic differences between Ig-BCL6 and non-Ig-BCL6 rearrangements.
Project description:Translocations involving an MYC gene (c >> N >>L) are very late tumor progression events and provide a paradigm for secondary translocations in multiple myeloma. Using a combination of fluorescent in situ hybridization and comparative genomic hybridization arrays (aCGH), we have identified rearrangements of an MYC gene in 40 of 43 independent myeloma cell lines. A majority of MYC translocations involve an Ig locus (IgH > Iglambda >> Igkappa), but the breakpoints only infrequently occur near or within switch regions or V(D)J sequences. Surprisingly, about 40% of MYC translocations do not involve an Ig locus. The MYC translocations mostly are nonreciprocal translocations or insertions, often with the involvement of three chromosomes and sometimes with associated duplication, amplification, inversion, and other associated chromosomal abnormalities. High-density aCGH analyses should facilitate the cloning of MYC breakpoints, enabling the determination of their structures and perhaps elucidating how rearrangements not involving an Ig gene cause dysregulation of an MYC gene.