Role of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure in innate immune tolerance.
ABSTRACT: Macrophages play a key role in host defense against microbes, in part, through phagocytosis. Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) is a scavenger receptor on the cell surface of macrophages that mediates opsonin-independent phagocytosis. The goal of our study is to investigate the role of MARCO in LPS or lipotechoic acid-induced macrophage tolerance. Although it has been established that expression of MARCO and phagocytosis is increased in tolerant macrophages, the transcriptional regulation and biological role of MARCO in tolerant macrophages have not been investigated. In this study, we confirm that tolerized mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) selectively increase expression of MARCO (both transcript and cell surface receptor) and increase phagocytosis. We found that H3K4me3 dynamic modification of a promoter site of MARCO was increased in tolerized BMDM. Blocking methylation by treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine resulted in reduced H3K4me3 binding in the promoter of MARCO, decreased expression of MARCO, and impaired phagocytosis in tolerized BMDM. However, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine had no effect on the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance. In aggregate, we found that histone methylation was critical to MARCO expression and phagocytosis in tolerized macrophages, but did not affect the inflammatory component of innate immune tolerance.
Project description:Tolerance is a long-recognized property of macrophages that leads to an altered response to repeated or chronic exposure to endotoxin. The physiological role of tolerance is to limit the potential damage to host tissue that may otherwise result from prolonged production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Tolerance is induced by all toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands tested to date, however, tolerance induced by the TLR4 ligand lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is by far the best studied. LPS tolerance involves a global transcriptional shift from a pro-inflammatory response toward one characterized by the expression of anti-inflammatory and pro-resolution factors. Although largely reversible, LPS-tolerance leads to a hybrid macrophage activation state that is pro-inflammatory in nature, but possesses distinct regulatory anti-inflammatory features. Remarkably, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of tolerance induced by different TLR ligands has not previously been reported. Here, we describe the transcriptomic profiles of mouse macrophages tolerized with ligands for TLR2, TLR3, TLR4 and TLR 9. While we identified TLR-specific transcriptional profiles in macrophages tolerized with each ligand, tolerance induced by TLR4 represented an archetype pattern, such that each gene tolerized by any of the TLRs tested was also found to be tolerized by TLR4. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are not universally suppressed in all tolerant cells, but distinct patterns of cytokine expression distinguished TLR-specific tolerance. Analysis of gene regulatory regions revealed specific DNA sequence motifs associated with distinct states of TLR tolerance, implicating previously identified as well as novel transcriptional regulators of tolerance in macrophages. These data provide a basis for the future exploitation of TLR-specific tolerant states to achieve therapeutic re-programming of the innate immune response.
Project description:Sepsis-associated immunosuppression (SAIS) is regarded as one of main causes for the death of septic patients at the late stage because of the decreased innate immunity with a more opportunistic infection. LPS-tolerized macrophages, which are re-challenged by LPS after prior exposure to LPS, are regarded as the common model of hypo-responsiveness for SAIS. However, the molecular mechanisms of endotoxin tolerance and SAIS remain to be fully elucidated. In addition, negative regulation of the Toll-like receptor (TLR)-triggered innate inflammatory response needs further investigation. Here we show that expression of immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was highly up-regulated in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of septic patients and in LPS-tolerized mouse macrophages. IRG1 significantly suppressed TLR-triggered production of proinflammatory cytokines TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-? in LPS-tolerized macrophages, with the elevated expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and A20. Moreover, ROS enhanced A20 expression by increasing the H3K4me3 modification of histone on the A20 promoter domain, and supplement of the ROS abrogated the IRG1 knockdown function in breaking endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression. Our results demonstrate that inducible IRG1 promotes endotoxin tolerance by increasing A20 expression through ROS, indicating a new molecular mechanism regulating hypoinflammation of sepsis and endotoxin tolerance.
Project description:Most of the genes were self-tolerized by Pam3CSK4 and MDP but there was no or minimal cross-tolerization. The transcriptome induced via Nod2 stimulation is greatly expanded in TLR2-tolerant macrophages. Keywords: self and cross tolerance by MDP or Pam3CSK4 Overall design: Genes induced by Pam3CSK4 or MDP were selected based on a three-fold increase over expression levels in unstimulated macrophages. Tolerized genes are defined as genes downregulated more than 2-fold in tolerant macrophages stimulated with Pam3CSK4 or MDP.
Project description:An important mechanism by which IFN-? primes macrophages for enhanced innate immune responses is abrogation of feedback inhibitory pathways. Accordingly, IFN-? abrogates endotoxin tolerance, a major negative feedback loop that silences expression of inflammatory cytokine genes in macrophages previously exposed to endotoxin/Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Mechanisms by which IFN-? inhibits endotoxin tolerance have not been elucidated. Here, we show that pretreatment with IFN-? prevented tolerization of primary human monocytes and restored TLR4-mediated induction of various proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-6 and TNF?. Surprisingly, IFN-? did not alter proximal TLR4 signaling defects in tolerized monocytes. Instead, IFN-? blocked tolerance-associated down-regulation of IL6 and TNF transcription, RNA polymerase II recruitment, and NF-?B and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? transcription factor binding to the IL6 and TNF promoters in tolerized monocytes. The mechanism by which IFN-? restored IL6 expression was by facilitating TLR4-induced recruitment of chromatin remodeling machinery to the IL6 promoter and promoting IL6 locus accessibility in tolerized monocytes. Our results suggest that IFN-? overcomes endotoxin tolerance by facilitating TLR-induced chromatin remodeling to allow expression of proinflammatory genes. These results identify a mechanism by which IFN-? promotes activation of macrophages and highlight the importance of chromatin remodeling and transcriptional control in the regulation of inflammatory cytokine production in tolerant and activated macrophages.
Project description:Progressive generation of total joint implant-derived wear particles is one of the major risk factors in development of peri-prosthetic osteolysis especially in the aging society. It is commonly accepted that macrophages predominantly drive the inflammatory response to wear debris particles. Among various surface receptors that activate the macrophages to phagocytize particles, it is believed that the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the scavenger macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) play key roles in recognition of wear debris particles. However, a strong body of evidence indicates an age-dependent diminished function of human TLRs. Thus, we hypothesized that the MARCO receptor may be more engaged than TLRs in the phagocytosis of wear debris particles which in turn up-regulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines from aged macrophages. We demonstrated that peritoneal macrophages isolated from aged mice show elevated expression of MARCO receptor compared to that from young mice. In contrast the expression of TLR4 was significantly decreased on the surface of aged macrophages. Furthermore, using anti-MARCO and anti-TLR4 neutralizing mAbs, we demonstrated the age-dependent pathogenic role of MARCO, but not TLR4, receptor in promoting poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cement particles phagocytosis by macrophages leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines migration inhibitory factor and tumour necrosis factor in vitro. These data also suggest that the approach to neutralize MARCO may lead to the development of therapeutic regimen for the prevention of particle-induced osteolysis in aged patients.
Project description:Streptococcus mutans is associated with the initiation and progression of human dental caries and is occasionally isolated from the blood of patients with bacteremia and infective endocarditis. For the pathogen to survive in the infected host, surface lipoproteins of S. mutans are likely to play important roles in interactions with the innate immune system. To clarify the role that a putative lipoprotein, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase (PpiA), of S. mutans plays in the macrophage response, we investigated the response of THP-1-derived macrophages to S. mutans challenge. The deletion of the gene encoding Lgt eliminated PpiA on the cell surface of S. mutans, which implies that PpiA is a lipoprotein that is lipid anchored in the cell membrane by Lgt. Human and murine peritoneal macrophages both showed higher phagocytic activities for the ppiA and lgt mutants than the wild type, which indicates that the presence of PpiA reduces S. mutans phagocytosis. In addition, infection with S. mutans markedly induced mRNAs of macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A) in human macrophages. In particular, transcriptional and translational levels of MARCO in human macrophages infected with the ppiA mutant were higher than those in macrophages infected with the wild type. Phagocytosis of S. mutans by human macrophages markedly decreased after treatment with anti-MARCO IgG. These results demonstrate that the S. mutans lipoprotein PpiA contributes to suppression of MARCO-mediated phagocytosis of this bacterium by macrophages.
Project description:Macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) has an important role in the phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis). We hypothesized that MARCO polymorphisms are associated with phagocytosis, tuberculosis (TB) disease susceptibility and presentation, and infecting lineage. We used a human cellular model to examine how MARCO genotype mediates the immune response; a case-control study to investigate tuberculosis host genetic susceptibility; and a host-pathogen genetic analysis to study host-pathogen interactions. Two MARCO heterozygous (AG) genotypes (single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs2278589 and rs6751745) were associated with impaired phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate-cord factor and ?-glucan-coated beads in macrophages. The heterozygous genotypes of rs2278589 and rs6751745 were also associated with increased risk of pulmonary TB (PTB; rs2278589, P=0.001, odds ratio (OR)=1.6; rs6751745, P=0.009, OR=1.4), and with severe chest X-ray abnormalities (P=0.007, OR=1.6). These two genotypes were also associated with the Beijing lineage (rs2278589, P=0.001, OR=1.7; rs6751745, P=0.01, OR=1.5). Together, these results suggest that MARCO polymorphisms may regulate phagocytosis of M. tuberculosis and susceptibility and severity of PTB. They also suggest MARCO genotype and Beijing strains may interact to increase the risk of PTB.
Project description:Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have innate immune dysfunction in the lung largely due to defective macrophage phagocytosis. This deficiency results in periodic bacterial infections that cause acute exacerbations of COPD, a major source of morbidity and mortality. Recent studies indicate that a decrease in Nrf2 (nuclear erythroid-related factor 2) signaling in patients with COPD may hamper their ability to defend against oxidative stress, although the role of Nrf2 in COPD exacerbations has not been determined. Here, we test whether activation of Nrf2 by the phytochemical sulforaphane restores phagocytosis of clinical isolates of nontypeable Haemophilus influenza (NTHI) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) by alveolar macrophages from patients with COPD. Sulforaphane treatment restored bacteria recognition and phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages from COPD patients. Furthermore, sulforaphane treatment enhanced pulmonary bacterial clearance by alveolar macrophages and reduced inflammation in wild-type mice but not in Nrf2-deficient mice exposed to cigarette smoke for 6 months. Gene expression and promoter analysis revealed that Nrf2 increased phagocytic ability of macrophages by direct transcriptional up-regulation of the scavenger receptor MARCO. Disruption of Nrf2 or MARCO abrogated sulforaphane-mediated bacterial phagocytosis by COPD alveolar macrophages. Our findings demonstrate the importance of Nrf2 and its downstream target MARCO in improving antibacterial defenses and provide a rationale for targeting this pathway, via pharmacological agents such as sulforaphane, to prevent exacerbations of COPD caused by bacterial infection.
Project description:Downregulation of the alveolar macrophage (AM) receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) leads to susceptibility to postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine whether immunomodulation of MARCO could improve host defense and resistance to secondary bacterial pneumonia. RNAseq analysis identified a striking increase in MARCO expression between days 9 and 11 after influenza infection and indicated important roles for Akt and Nrf2 in MARCO recovery. In vitro, primary human AM-like monocyte-derived macrophages (AM-MDMs) and THP-1 macrophages were treated with IFN? to model influenza effects. Activators of Nrf2 (sulforaphane) or Akt (SC79) caused increased MARCO expression and a MARCO-dependent improvement in phagocytosis in IFN?-treated cells and improved survival in mice with postinfluenza pneumococcal pneumonia. Transcription factor analysis also indicated a role for transcription factor E-box (TFEB) in MARCO recovery. Overexpression of TFEB in THP-1 cells led to marked increases in MARCO. The ability of Akt activation to increase MARCO expression in IFN?-treated AM-MDMs was abrogated in TFEB-knockdown cells, indicating Akt increases MARCO expression through TFEB. Increasing MARCO expression by targeting Nrf2 signaling or the Akt-TFEB-MARCO pathway are promising strategies to improve bacterial clearance and survival in postinfluenza bacterial pneumonia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Inadequate clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages is one of the reasons for the breakdown of self-tolerance. Class A scavenger receptors, macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO) and scavenger receptor A (SR-A), which are expressed on macrophages, play important roles in the uptake of apoptotic cells. A previous study reported the presence of the anti-MARCO antibody in lupus-prone mice and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of anti-class A scavenger receptor antibodies in patients with various autoimmune diseases, in particular SLE, and the functional implication of those autoantibodies in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. METHODS: Purified recombinant scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) polypeptide (ligand-binding domain of MARCO) and recombinant SR-A were used as antigens. By using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the anti-SRCR and anti-SR-A antibodies were detected in the sera of untreated patients with SLE (n = 65), rheumatoid arthritis (n = 65), primary Sjögren syndrome (n = 25), and healthy blood donors (n = 85). The effect of IgG purified from SLE patients or healthy controls on the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages was measured by the flow cytometry assay. RESULTS: Anti-SRCR antibodies were present in patients with SLE (18.5%) and rheumatoid arthritis (3.1%), but not in those with primary Sjögren syndrome. Anti-SR-A antibodies were present in patients with SLE (33.8%), rheumatoid arthritis (13.8%), and primary Sjögren syndrome (12.0%). IgG from SLE patients positive for anti-SRCR or anti-SR-A antibodies showed a higher inhibition rate on binding of apoptotic cells to macrophages than IgG from healthy controls (both P < 0.05). IgG from SLE patients positive for both anti-SRCR and anti-SR-A antibodies showed a significantly higher inhibition rate on ingestion of apoptotic by macrophages than IgG from healthy controls (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that autoantibodies to class A scavenger receptors might contribute to the breakdown of self-tolerance by impairing the clearance of apoptotic debris and play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune disease, especially in SLE.