Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. RESULTS: Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14(T), were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14(T), which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14(T) was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T), Haliea rubra DSM 19751(T) and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344(T). All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. CONCLUSIONS: Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant species. An affiliation of the characterized bacteriochlorophyll a-containing strains to different genera was indicated by significant phenotypic differences and pufLM nucleotide sequence identity values below 82%. The revealed high genotypic and phenotypic diversity of closely related strains within this phylogenetic group reflects a rapid evolution and frequent niche separation in the OM60/NOR5 clade, which is possibly driven by the necessities of an adaptation to oligotrophic marine habitats.
Project description:Core sets of sox genes were detected in several genome sequenced members of the environmental important OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria. However, emendation of media with thiosulfate did not result in stimulation of growth in two of these strains and cultures of Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192(T) did not oxidize thiosulfate to sulfate in concentrations of one mmol L(-1) or above. On the other hand, a significant production of sulfate was detected upon growth with the organic sulfur compounds, cysteine and glutathione. It was found that degradation of glutathione resulted in the formation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate in the closely related sox-negative strain Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344(T). It is proposed that the Sox multienzyme complex in Congregibacter litoralis and related members of the OM60/NOR5 clade is adapted to the oxidation of submillimolar amounts of thiosulfate and nonfunctional at higher concentrations of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds. Pelagic bacteria thriving in the oxic zones of marine environments may rarely encounter amounts of thiosulfate, which would allow its utilization as electron donor for lithoautotrophic or mixotrophic growth. Consequently, in evolution the Sox multienzyme complex in some of these bacteria may have been optimized for the effective utilization of trace amounts of thiosulfate generated from the degradation of organic sulfur compounds.
Project description:Strain IMCC3088, cultivated from the Yellow Sea, is a novel isolate belonging to the OM60/NOR5 clade and is closely related to clone OM241, Congregibacter litoralis, and strain HTCC2080. Here, the genome sequence of strain IMCC3088 is presented, showing the absence of photosynthetic gene clusters and the presence of proteorhodopsin.
Project description:Members of the gammaproteobacterial clade NOR5/OM60 regularly form an abundant part, up to 11%, of the bacterioplankton community in coastal systems during the summer months. Here, we report the nearly complete genome sequence of one cultured representative, Congregibacter litoralis strain KT71, isolated from North Sea surface water. Unexpectedly, a complete photosynthesis superoperon, including genes for accessory pigments, was discovered. It has a high sequence similarity to BAC clones from Monterey Bay [Beja O, Suzuki MT, Heidelberg JF, Nelson WC, Preston CM, et al. (2002) Nature 415:630-633], which also share a nearly identical gene arrangement. Although cultures of KT71 show no obvious pigmentation, bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin-like carotenoids could be detected by HPLC analysis in cell extracts. The presence of two potential BLUF (blue light using flavin adenine dinucleotide sensors), one of which was found adjacent to the photosynthesis operon in the genome, indicates a light- and redox-dependent regulation of gene expression. Like other aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs (AAnPs), KT71 is able to grow neither anaerobically nor photoautotrophically. Cultivation experiments and genomic evidence show that KT71 needs organic substrates like carboxylic acids, oligopeptides, or fatty acids for growth. The strain grows optimally under microaerobic conditions and actively places itself in a zone of approximately 10% oxygen saturation. The genome analysis of C. litoralis strain KT71 identifies the gammaproteobacterial marine AAnPs, postulated based on BAC sequences, as members of the NOR5/OM60 clade. KT71 enables future experiments investigating the importance of this group of gammaproteobacterial AAnPs in coastal environments.
Project description:Chloroflexus aurantiacus is a facultative autotrophic green nonsulfur bacterium that grows phototrophically in thermal springs and forms microbial mats with cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria produce glycolate during the day (photorespiration) and excrete fermentation products at night. C. aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle for autotrophic carbon fixation. This pathway was thought to be also suited for the coassimilation of various organic substrates such as glycolate, acetate, propionate, 3-hydroxypropionate, lactate, butyrate, or succinate. To test this possibility, we added these compounds at a 5 mM concentration to autotrophically pregrown cells. Although the provided amounts of H(2) and CO(2) allowed continuing photoautotrophic growth, cells immediately consumed most substrates at rates equaling the rate of autotrophic carbon fixation. Using [(14)C]acetate, half of the labeled organic carbon was incorporated into cell mass. Our data suggest that C. aurantiacus uses the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle, together with the glyoxylate cycle, to channel organic substrates into the central carbon metabolism. Enzyme activities of the 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle were marginally affected when cells were grown heterotrophically with such organic substrates. The 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle in Chloroflexi is unique and was likely fostered in an environment in which traces of organic compounds can be coassimilated. Other bacteria living under oligotrophic conditions acquired genes of a rudimentary 3-hydroxypropionate bi-cycle, possibly for the same purpose. Examples are Chloroherpeton thalassium, Erythrobacter sp. strain NAP-1, Nitrococcus mobilis, and marine gammaproteobacteria of the OM60/NOR5 clade such as Congregibacter litoralis.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria.
Project description:Genome organization, plasmid content and localization of the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis reaction center were studied by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in marine phototrophic Alphaproteobacteria. Both anaerobic phototrophs (Rhodobacter veldkampii and Rhodobacter sphaeroides) and strictly aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs from the Roseobacter-Sulfitobacter-Silicibacter clade (Roseivivax halodurans, Roseobacter litoralis, Staleya guttiformis, Roseovarius tolerans, and five new strains isolated from dinoflagellate cultures) were investigated. The complete genome size was estimated for R. litoralis DSM6996(T) to be 4,704 kb, including three linear plasmids. All strains contained extrachromosomal elements of various conformations (linear or circular) and lengths (between 4.35 and 368 kb). In strain DFL-12, a member of a putative new genus isolated from a culture of the toxic dinoflagellate Prorocentrum lima, seven linear plasmids were found, together comprising 860 kb of genetic information. Hybridization with probes against the pufLM genes of the photosynthesis gene cluster after Southern transfer of the genomic DNAs showed these genes to be located on a linear plasmid of 91 kb in R. litoralis and on a linear plasmid of 120 kb in S. guttiformis, theoretically allowing their horizontal transfer. In all other strains, the pufLM genes were detected on the bacterial chromosome. The large number and significant size of the linear plasmids found especially in isolates from dinoflagellates might account for the metabolic versatility and presumed symbiotic association with eukaryotic hosts in these bacteria.
Project description:Strain HIMB55 is a phylogenetically unique member of the OM60/NOR5 clade of the Gammaproteobacteria isolated from coastal seawater of Kaneohe Bay on the northeastern shore of Oahu, Hawaii, by extinction culturing in seawater-based oligotrophic medium. Here we present the genome sequence of strain HIMB55, including genes for bacteriochlorophyll-based phototrophy.
Project description:BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that in some marine environments aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-producing bacteria represent a significant part of the microbial population. The interaction of photosynthesis and carbon metabolism in these interesting bacteria is still largely unknown and requires further investigation in order to estimate their contribution to the marine carbon cycle. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the structure, composition and regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in the obligately aerobic marine gammaproteobacterium KT71(T). Photoheterotrophically grown cells were characterized by a poorly developed lamellar intracytoplasmic membrane system, a type 1 light-harvesting antenna complex and a photosynthetic reaction center associated with a tetraheme cytochrome c. The only photosynthetic pigments produced were bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin. Under semiaerobic conditions KT71(T) cells expressing a photosynthetic apparatus showed a light-dependent increase of growth yield in the range of 1.3-2.5 fold. The expression level of the photosynthetic apparatus depended largely on the utilized substrate, the intermediary carbon metabolism and oxygen tension. In addition, pigment synthesis was strongly influenced by light, with blue light exerting the most significant effect, implicating that proteins containing a BLUF domain may be involved in regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus. Several phenotypic traits in KT71(T) could be identified that correlated with the assumed redox state of growing cells and thus could be used to monitor the cellular redox state under various incubation conditions. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a hypothetical model that explains the regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus in strain KT71(T) we propose that the expression of photosynthesis genes depends on the cellular redox state and is maximal under conditions that allow a balanced membrane redox state. So far, bacteria capable of an obligately aerobic, photosynthetic metabolism constitute a unique phenotype within the class Gammaproteobacteria, so that it is justified to propose a new genus and species, Congregibacter litoralis gen. nov, sp. nov., represented by the type strain KT71(T) ( = DSM 17192(T) = NBRC 104960(T)).
Project description:A novel strain Vibrio aphrogenes sp. nov. strain CA-1004T isolated from the surface of seaweed collected on the coast of Mie Prefecture in 1994  was characterized using polyphasic taxonomy including multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and a genome based comparison. Both phylogenetic analyses on the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequences and MLSA based on eight protein-coding genes (gapA, gyrB, ftsZ, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA, and topA) showed the strain could be placed in the Rumoiensis clade in the genus Vibrio. Sequence similarities of the 16S rRNA gene and the multilocus genes against the Rumoiensis clade members, V. rumoiensis, V. algivorus, V. casei, and V. litoralis, were low enough to propose V. aphrogenes sp. nov. strain CA-1004T as a separate species. The experimental DNA-DNA hybridization data also revealed that the strain CA-1004T was separate from four known Rumoiensis clade species. The G+C content of the V. aphrogenes strain was determined as 42.1% based on the genome sequence. Major traits of the strain were non-motile, halophilic, fermentative, alginolytic, and gas production. A total of 27 traits (motility, growth temperature range, amylase, alginase and lipase productions, and assimilation of 19 carbon compounds) distinguished the strain from the other species in the Rumoiensis clade. The name V. aphrogenes sp. nov. is proposed for this species in the Rumoiensis clade, with CA-1004T as the type strain (JCM 31643T = DSM 103759T).
Project description:The marine Roseobacter clade comprises several genera of marine bacteria related to the uncultured SAR83 cluster, the second most abundant marine picoplankton lineage. Cultivated representatives of this clade are physiologically heterogeneous, and only some have the capability for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis, a process of potentially great ecological importance in the world's oceans. In an attempt to correlate phylogeny with ecology, we investigated the diversity of Roseobacter clade strains from various marine habitats (water samples, biofilms, laminariae, diatoms, and dinoflagellate cultures) by using the 16S rRNA gene as a phylogenetic marker gene. The potential for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis was determined on the genetic level by PCR amplification and sequencing of the pufLM genes of the bacterial photosynthesis reaction center and on the physiological level by detection of bacteriochlorophyll (Bchl) a. A collection of ca. 1,000 marine isolates was screened for members of the marine Roseobacter clade by 16S rRNA gene-directed multiplex PCR and sequencing. The 42 Roseobacter clade isolates found tended to form habitat-specific subclusters. The pufLM genes were detected in two groups of strains from dinoflagellate cultures but in none of the other Roseobacter clade isolates. Strains within the first group (the DFL-12 cluster) also synthesized Bchl a. Strains within the second group (the DFL-35 cluster) formed a new species of Roseovarius and did not produce Bchl a under the conditions investigated here, thus demonstrating the importance of genetic methods for screening of cultivation-dependent metabolic traits. The pufL genes of the dinoflagellate isolates were phylogenetically closely related to pufL genes from Betaproteobacteria, confirming similar previous observations which have been interpreted as indications of gene transfer events.