Human milk metagenome: a functional capacity analysis.
ABSTRACT: Human milk contains a diverse population of bacteria that likely influences colonization of the infant gastrointestinal tract. Recent studies, however, have been limited to characterization of this microbial community by 16S rRNA analysis. In the present study, a metagenomic approach using Illumina sequencing of a pooled milk sample (ten donors) was employed to determine the genera of bacteria and the types of bacterial open reading frames in human milk that may influence bacterial establishment and stability in this primal food matrix. The human milk metagenome was also compared to that of breast-fed and formula-fed infants' feces (n?=?5, each) and mothers' feces (n?=?3) at the phylum level and at a functional level using open reading frame abundance. Additionally, immune-modulatory bacterial-DNA motifs were also searched for within human milk.The bacterial community in human milk contained over 360 prokaryotic genera, with sequences aligning predominantly to the phyla of Proteobacteria (65%) and Firmicutes (34%), and the genera of Pseudomonas (61.1%), Staphylococcus (33.4%) and Streptococcus (0.5%). From assembled human milk-derived contigs, 30,128 open reading frames were annotated and assigned to functional categories. When compared to the metagenome of infants' and mothers' feces, the human milk metagenome was less diverse at the phylum level, and contained more open reading frames associated with nitrogen metabolism, membrane transport and stress response (P?
Project description:Human breastmilk components, the microbiota and immune modulatory proteins have vital roles in infant gut and immune development. In a population of breastfeeding women (n = 78) of different ethnicities (Asian, M?ori and Pacific Island, New Zealand European) and their infants living in the Manawatu-Wanganui region of New Zealand, we examined the microbiota and immune modulatory proteins in the breast milk, and the fecal microbiota of mothers and infants. Breast milk and fecal samples were collected over a one-week period during the six to eight weeks postpartum. Breast milk microbiota differed between the ethnic groups. However, these differences had no influence on the infant's gut microbiota composition. Based on the body mass index (BMI) classifications, the mother's breast milk and fecal microbiota compositions were similar between normal, overweight and obese individuals, and their infant's fecal microbiota composition also did not differ. The relative abundance of bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum was higher in feces of infants born through vaginal delivery. However, the bacterial abundance of this phylum in the mother's breast milk or feces was similar between women who delivered vaginally or by cesarean section. Several immune modulatory proteins including cytokines, growth factors, and immunoglobulin differed between the BMI and ethnicity groups. Transforming growth factor beta 1 and 2 (TGF?1, TGF?2) were present in higher concentrations in the milk from overweight mothers compared to those of normal weight. The TGF?1 and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) concentrations were significantly higher in the breast milk from M?ori and Pacific Island women compared with women from Asian and NZ European ethnicities. This study explores the relationship between ethnicity, body mass index, mode of baby delivery and the microbiota of infants and their mothers and their potential impact on infant health.
Project description:This study tested the hypothesis that the fecal bacterial genera of breast-fed (BF) and formula-fed (FF) infants differ and that human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) modulate the microbiota of BF infants.Fecal samples were obtained from BF (n = 16) or FF (n = 6) infants at 3-month postpartum. Human milk samples were collected on the same day when feces were collected. The microbiota was assessed by pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes. HMOs were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-chip time-of-flight mass spectrometry.The overall microbiota of BF differed from that of FF (P = 0.005). Compared with FF, BF had higher relative abundances of Bacteroides, lower proportions of Clostridium XVIII, Lachnospiraceae incertae sedis, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, and Veillonella (P < 0.05). Bifidobacterium predominated in both BF and FF infants, with no difference in abundance between the 2 groups. The most abundant HMOs were lacto-N-tetraose + lacto-N-neotetraose (LNT + LNnT, 22.6%), followed by 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL, 14.5%) and lacto-N-fucopentaose I (LNFP I, 9.5%). Partial least squares regression of HMO and microbiota showed several infant fecal bacterial genera could be predicted by their mothers' HMO profiles, and the important HMOs for the prediction of bacterial genera were identified by variable importance in the projection scores.These results strengthen the established relation between HMO and the infant microbiota and identify statistical means whereby infant bacterial genera can be predicted by milk HMO. Future studies are needed to validate these findings and determine whether the supplementation of formula with defined HMO could selectively modify the gut microbiota.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Soils polluted with animal charcoal from skin and hide cottage industries harbour extremely toxic and carcinogenic hydrocarbon pollutants and thus require a bio-based eco-friendly strategy for their depuration. The effects of carbon-free mineral medium (CFMM) amendment on hydrocarbon degradation and microbial community structure and function in an animal charcoal-polluted soil was monitored for 6 weeks in field moist microcosms consisting of CFMM-treated soil (FN4) and an untreated control (FN1). Hydrocarbon degradation was monitored using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID), and changes in microbial community structure were monitored using Kraken, while functional annotation of putative open reading frames (ORFs) was done using KEGG KofamKOALA and NCBI's conserved domain database (CDD). RESULTS:Gas chromatographic analysis of hydrocarbon fractions revealed the removal of 84.02% and 82.38% aliphatic and 70.09% and 70.14% aromatic fractions in FN4 and FN1 microcosms in 42?days. Shotgun metagenomic analysis of the two metagenomes revealed a remarkable shift in the microbial community structure. In the FN4 metagenome, 92.97% of the population belong to the phylum Firmicutes and its dominant representative genera Anoxybacillus (64.58%), Bacillus (21.47%) and Solibacillus (2.39%). In untreated FN1 metagenome, the phyla Proteobacteria (56.12%), Actinobacteria (23.79%) and Firmicutes (11.20%), and the genera Xanthobacter (9.73%), Rhizobium (7.49%) and Corynebacterium (7.35%), were preponderant. Functional annotation of putative ORFs from the two metagenomes revealed the detection of degradation genes for aromatic hydrocarbons, benzoate, xylene, chlorocyclohexane/chlorobenzene, toluene and several others in FN1 metagenome. In the FN4 metagenome, only seven hydrocarbon degradation genes were detected. CONCLUSION:This study revealed that though CFMM amendment slightly increases the rate of hydrocarbon degradation, it negatively impacts the structural and functional properties of the animal charcoal-polluted soil. It also revealed that intrinsic bioremediation of the polluted soil could be enhanced via addition of water and aeration.
Project description:The screening of a gene library of the milk-clotting strain Myxococcus xanthus 422 constructed in Escherichia coli allowed the description of eight positive clones containing 26 open reading frames. Only three of them (cltA, cltB, and cltC) encoded proteins that exhibited intracellular milk-clotting ability in E. coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Pichia pastoris expression systems.
Project description:Human breast milk is recognized as one of multiple important sources of commensal bacteria for infant gut. Previous studies searched for the bacterial strains shared between breast milk and infant feces by isolating bacteria and performing strain-level bacterial genotyping, but only limited number of milk bacteria were identified to colonize infant gut, including bacteria from Bifidobacterium, Staphylococcus, Lactobacillus, and Escherichia/Shigella. Here, to identify the breast milk bacteria capable of colonizing gut without the interference of bacteria of origins other than the milk or the necessity to analyze infant feces, normal chow-fed germ-free mice were orally inoculated with the breast milk collected from a mother 2 days after vaginal delivery. According to 16S rRNA gene-based denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis and Illumina sequencing, bacteria at >1% abundance in the milk inoculum were only Streptococcus (56.0%) and Staphylococcus (37.4%), but in the feces of recipient mice were Streptococcus (80.3 ± 2.3%), Corynebacterium (10.0 ± 2.6 %), Staphylococcus (7.6 ± 1.6%), and Propionibacterium (2.1 ± 0.5%) that were previously shown as dominant bacterial genera in the meconium of C-section-delivered human babies; the abundance of anaerobic gut-associated bacteria, Faecalibacterium, Prevotella, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Bacteroides, was 0.01-1% in the milk inoculum and 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces; the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. was below the detection limit of Illumina sequencing in the milk but at 0.003-0.01% in mouse feces. The human breast milk microbiota-associated mouse model may be used to identify additional breast milk bacteria that potentially colonize infant gut.
Project description:Fur seal feces-associated circular DNA virus (FSfaCV) is a novel virus isolated from the fecal matter of New Zealand fur seals. FSfaCV has two main open reading frames in its 2,925-nucleotide (nt) genome. The replication-associated protein (Rep) of FSfaCV has similarity to Rep-like sequences in the Giardia intestinalis genome.
Project description:Background: Microbial communities in human milk and those in feces from breastfed infants vary within and across populations. However, few researchers have conducted cross-cultural comparisons between populations, and little is known about whether certain "core" taxa occur normally within or between populations and whether variation in milk microbiome is related to variation in infant fecal microbiome. The purpose of this study was to describe microbiomes of milk produced by relatively healthy women living at diverse international sites and compare these to the fecal microbiomes of their relatively healthy infants. Methods: We analyzed milk (n = 394) and infant feces (n = 377) collected from mother/infant dyads living in 11 international sites (2 each in Ethiopia, The Gambia, and the US; 1 each in Ghana, Kenya, Peru, Spain, and Sweden). The V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced to characterize and compare microbial communities within and among cohorts. Results: Core genera in feces were Streptococcus, Escherichia/Shigella, and Veillonella, and in milk were Streptococcus and Staphylococcus, although substantial variability existed within and across cohorts. For instance, relative abundance of Lactobacillus was highest in feces from rural Ethiopia and The Gambia, and lowest in feces from Peru, Spain, Sweden, and the US; Rhizobium was relatively more abundant in milk produced by women in rural Ethiopia than all other cohorts. Bacterial diversity also varied among cohorts. For example, Shannon diversity was higher in feces from Kenya than Ghana and US-California, and higher in rural Ethiopian than Ghana, Peru, Spain, Sweden, and US-California. There were limited associations between individual genera in milk and feces, but community-level analyses suggest strong, positive associations between the complex communities in these sample types. Conclusions: Our data provide additional evidence of within- and among-population differences in milk and infant fecal bacterial community membership and diversity and support for a relationship between the bacterial communities in milk and those of the recipient infant's feces. Additional research is needed to understand environmental, behavioral, and genetic factors driving this variation and association, as well as its significance for acute and chronic maternal and infant health.
Project description:Porcine stool-associated circular virus 5 (PoSCV5) was detected in the feces of a pig with diarrhea. The complete 3,062-nucleotide genome contains two bidirectionally transcribed open reading frames (ORFs). Phylogenetic analysis of the deduced replication initiator protein (Rep) places PoSCV5 alone on a deep branch among the small circular Rep-encoding single-stranded DNA viruses.