Lactic acid fermentation as a tool to enhance the functional features of Echinacea spp.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Extracts and products (roots and/or aerial parts) from Echinacea ssp. represent a profitable market sector for herbal medicines thanks to different functional features. Alkamides and polyacetylenes, phenols like caffeic acid and its derivatives, polysaccharides and glycoproteins are the main bioactive compounds of Echinacea spp. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to enhance the antimicrobial, antioxidant and immune-modulatory features of E. purpurea with the prospect of its application as functional food, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. RESULTS: Echinacea purpurea suspension (5%, wt/vol) in distilled water, containing 0.4% (wt/vol) yeast extract, was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum POM1, 1MR20 or C2, previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum, was used as the control to investigate functional features. Echinacea suspension fermented with Lb. plantarum C2 exhibited a marked antimicrobial activity towards Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Compared to control, the water-soluble extract from Echinacea suspension fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum 1MR20 showed twice time higher radical scavenging activity on DPPH. Almost the same was found for the inhibition of oleic acid peroxidation. The methanol extract from Echinacea suspension had inherent antioxidant features but the activity of extract from the sample fermented with strain 1MR20 was the highest. The antioxidant activities were confirmed on Balb 3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Lactobacillus plantarum C2 and 1MR20 were used in association to ferment Echinacea suspension, and the water-soluble extract was subjected to ultra-filtration and purification through RP-FPLC. The antioxidant activity was distributed in a large number of fractions and proportional to the peptide concentration. The antimicrobial activity was detected only in one fraction, further subjected to nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS. A mixture of eight peptides was identified, corresponding to fragments of plantaricins PlnH or PlnG. Treatments with fermented Echinacea suspension exerted immune-modulatory effects on Caco-2 cells. The fermentation with Lb. plantarum 1MR20 or with the association between strains C2 and 1MR20 had the highest effect on the expression of TNF-? gene. CONCLUSIONS: E. purpurea subjected to lactic acid fermentation could be suitable for novel applications as functional food dietary supplements or pharmaceutical preparations.
Project description:The present study examined the effect of Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation on the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of apple juice. Apple juice was fermented and examined of its antioxidant activity using chemical models and cellular antioxidant assay. Furthermore, the chemical composition of fermented apple juice was characterized by LC-MS/MS. Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation showed an increase in DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity as well as cellular antioxidant activity of apple juice. However, fermentation decreased the total phenolic and flavonoid content. Subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis of the phenolic profile indicated that the content of 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid (5-CQA), quercetin, and phloretin with strong antioxidant activity was increased significantly after fermentation. The modified phenolic composition may contribute to the increased antioxidant activity of fermented apple juice. Our findings showed that Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14917 fermentation may be an efficient way to enhance the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and to protect cells from oxidative stress.
Project description:Microorganisms can be used for enhancing flavors or metabolizing functional compounds. The fermented-food-derived bacterial strains comprising Bacillus velezensis, Bacillus licheniformis, and Lactobacillus reuteri mixed with Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum were used to ferment goji berry (Lycium barbarum L.) juice in this study. The fermentation abilities and antioxidant capacities of different mixtures of multiple strains in goji juice were compared. The results showed that the lactic acid contents increased 9.24-16.69 times from 25.30 ± 0.71 mg/100 mL in goji juice fermented using the SLV (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Bacillus velezensis), SZP (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Bacillus licheniformis), and SZVP (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus velezensis, and Bacillus licheniformis) mixtures, and the protein contents increased 1.31-2.11 times from 39.23 ± 0.67 mg/100 mL. In addition, their contents of volatile compounds increased with positive effects on aroma in the fermented juices. Conversion of the free and bound forms of phenolic acids and flavonoids in juice was influenced by fermentation, and the antioxidant capacity improved significantly. Fermentation enhanced the contents of lactic acid, proteins, volatile compounds, and phenols. The antioxidant capacity was strongly correlated with the phenolic composition.
Project description:Cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica L.) is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world. In the last decades, the interest towards vegetative crop increased, and cladodes are exploited for nutraceutical and health-promoting properties. This study aimed at investigating the capacity of selected lactic acid bacteria to increase the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of cactus cladodes pulp, with the perspective of producing a functional ingredient, dietary supplement or pharmaceutical preparation. Preliminarily, the antioxidant activity was determined through in vitro assays. Further, it was confirmed through ex vivo analysis on intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells, and the profile of flavonoids was characterized. Cactus cladode pulp was fermented with lactic acid bacteria, which were previously selected from plant materials. Chemically acidified suspension, without bacterial inoculum and incubated under the same conditions, was used as the control. Lactobacillus plantarum CIL6, POM1 and 1MR20, Lactobacillus brevis POM2 and POM4, Lactobacillus rossiae 2LC8 and Pediococcus pentosaceus CILSWE5 were the best growing strains. Fermentation of cladode pulp with L. brevis POM2 and POM4 allowed the highest concentration of ?-amino butyric acid. Lactic acid fermentation had preservative effects (P<0.05) on the levels of vitamin C and carotenoids. Two flavonoid derivatives (kaemferol and isorhamnetin) were identified in the ethyl acetate extracts, which were considered to be the major compounds responsible for the increased radical scavenging activity. After inducing oxidative stress by IL-1?, the increased antioxidant activity (P<0.05) of fermented cladode pulp was confirmed using Caco-2/TC7 cells. Fermented cladode pulp had also immune-modulatory effects towards Caco-2 cells. Compared to the control, fermented cladode pulp exhibited a significantly (P<0.05) higher inhibition of IL-8, TNF? and prostaglandins PGE2 synthesis. The highest functional effect was found using ethyl acetate extracts. In conclusion, fermentation, especially with L. plantarum strains and L. brevis POM4, enhanced the antioxidant and immune-modulation features of cladode pulp.
Project description:This study aimed to evaluate the safety (hemolysis and enzyme activity), probiotic properties (gastrointestinal tract tolerance, adhesion, hydrophobicity, and auto-aggregation), and functional characteristics (antimicrobial, antioxidant, and ?-galactosidase activities) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), isolated from kimchi, in order to select a multifunctional LAB strain for starter culture in fermented food. The five isolated strains included Lactobacillus plantarum WiKim83, L. plantarum WiKim84, Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim85, P. pentosaceus WiKim86, and L. plantarum WiKim87, as identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis; they were confirmed to be nonhemolytic and not able to produce ?-glucuronidase, a carcinogenic enzyme. Probiotic properties of the five LAB strains were evaluated relative to those of commercial Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, and results revealed probiotic potential of three strains (L. plantarum WiKim83, L. plantarum WiKim84, and L. plantarum WiKim87) to be superior. L. plantarum WiKim84 showed high antimicrobial activity against pathogens, and L. plantarum WiKim83 exhibited the highest antioxidant and ?-galactosidase activities. Based on the probiotic and functional properties, the main characteristics of each strain were highlighted and two of them, L. plantarum WiKim83 and L. plantarum WiKim87, were selected as the most potent by principal component analysis. These strains showed antimicrobial, ?-galactosidase, and antioxidant activities, which recommend their suitability as starter culture in various fermented foods.
Project description:Background:Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT), an ancient Chinese herbal decoction containing Astragali Radix and Angelicae Sinensis Radix at a ratio of 5:?1, is prescribed for menopausal women. Flavonoids and its flavonoid glycosides are considered as the major active ingredients within the herbal decoction; however, their amount is not controllable during the preparation. Besides, the aglycons within DBT are believed to have better gut absorption and pharmacological efficacy. Methods:The herbal extract of DBT was fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum. The amounts of flavonoid glucosides and its aglycones in the fermented product were analyzed by using UPLC-MS/MS. In addition, in vitro assays were employed to evaluate the efficacy of the fermented DBT in regulating the activities of ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase, as well as their antioxidant capacity (DPPH and T-AOC assays) and anti-glycation property (BSA-methylglyoxal, BSA-fructose, and arginine-methylglyoxal models). Results:The fermentation of DBT with L. plantarum drove a completed conversion of calycosin-7-O-?-D-glucoside and ononin to calycosin and formononetin, respectively. The chemical transformation could be probably mediated by ?-glycosidase within the fermented product. Several in vitro assays corresponding to anti-diabetic functions were compared between parental DBT against its fermented product, which included the activities against ?-glucosidase, ?-amylase and lipase, as well as anti-oxidation and anti-glycation. The fermented DBT showed increased activities in inhibiting ?-glycosidase, suppressing DPPH radical-scavenging and anti-glycation, as compared to the original herbal product. Conclusion:These results suggested that DBT being fermented with the probiotic L. plantarum could pave a new direction for fermentation of herbal extract, as to strengthen its pharmacological properties in providing health benefits.
Project description:Objective. To investigate the safety (risk) and efficacy (benefit) of Echinacea purpurea extract in the prevention of common cold episodes in a large population over a 4-month period. Methods. 755 healthy subjects were allocated to receive either an alcohol extract from freshly harvested E. purpurea (95% herba and 5% root) or placebo. Participants were required to record adverse events and to rate cold-related issues in a diary throughout the investigation period. Nasal secretions were sampled at acute colds and screened for viruses. Results. A total of 293 adverse events occurred with Echinacea and 306 with placebo treatment. Nine and 10% of participants experienced adverse events, which were at least possibly related to the study drug (adverse drug reactions). Thus, the safety of Echinacea was noninferior to placebo. Echinacea reduced the total number of cold episodes, cumulated episode days within the group, and pain-killer medicated episodes. Echinacea inhibited virally confirmed colds and especially prevented enveloped virus infections (P < 0.05). Echinacea showed maximal effects on recurrent infections, and preventive effects increased with therapy compliance and adherence to the protocol. Conclusions. Compliant prophylactic intake of E. purpurea over a 4-month period appeared to provide a positive risk to benefit ratio.
Project description:In the era of increased antibiotic resistance and ever-stricter control on antibiotic use, it is urgent to develop green, safe, and non-residue alternatives to antibiotics applied to the poultry industry. To this end, we supplied the potential Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) fermented Astragalus in the diet of laying hens, with a final addition of 3‰. Its effects have been assessed on laying performance, egg quality, antioxidant and immunological status, and intestinal microbiota, and are compared to the control group, to the Astragalus group containing 3‰ unfermented Astragalus, and to the L. plantarum group containing 2% L. plantarum [5?×?108 colony-forming unit (CFU) per milliliter (mL)]. During the second half of the experimental period (15 to 28 days), the egg production rate was considerably higher in the fermented Astragalus group than that in the other groups, with the fermented Astragalus group having the lowest feed conversion ratio. No significant difference (P?>?0.05) was noted among treatments on egg quality. Fermented Astragalus-treated hens exhibited significantly increased catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in serum, and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Furthermore, fermented Astragalus supplementation resulted in a significant increase in ileal microbiota abundance relative to control. In conclusion, feeding laying hens with L. plantarum fermented Astragalus has beneficial effects on production, antioxidant potential, immunity, and ileal microbiota. L. plantarum fermented Astragalus is expected to be a novel feed additive used in poultry production.
Project description:Probiotic lactic acid bacteria are health promoters and have been traditionally consumed without the knowledge that they have beneficial properties. These bacteria mainly involve in secreting antimicrobials, enhance immune-modulatory effects, and preserve the intestinal epithelial barrier by competitively inhibiting the pathogenic organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro probiotic properties of Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. argentoratensis, and Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum isolated from fermented Uttapam batter. The isolates produced bacteriocins that were effective against several pathogens. All the isolates exhibited tolerance to bile, gastric, and intestinal conditions. Beneficial properties like cholesterol assimilation and production of enzymes such as ?-galactosidase, phytase and bile hydrolase varied among the isolates. Four isolates from each sub-species effectively adhered to Caco-2 cells and prevented pathogen adhesion. Using these strains, the soy milk was fermented, which exhibited higher antioxidant activity, 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and decreased phytate content when compared to unfermented soy milk. Thus, these probiotic isolates can be successfully used for formulation of functional foods that thereby help to improvise human health.
Project description:Botanical dietary supplements (BDS) are used around the world for many purported therapeutic properties. The selection of an authentic product and it's phytochemical characterization is critical to generate robust safety data. Because botanicals are complex mixtures with variable quality, identification of a representative product for testing has been challenging. Echinacea is used for its purported immune stimulant properties and was listed as the 2nd top-selling BDS in 2018. However, there are limited safety data for Echinacea. Hence, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) has selected Echinacea for safety testing using rodent models. Here, we describe selection and comprehensive characterization of an Echinacea purpurea root extract to be used in the NTP testing program. Using non-targeted chemical analyses combined with chemometric analysis, a potential unfinished product (i.e., an extract that serves as source material for finished products) of Echinacea purpurea was selected. The product was then authenticated using chemical and DNA techniques and characterized, including the phytochemical composition. Among numerous constituents identified, caftaric acid, chicoric acid, chlorogenic acid and dodeca-2(E),4(E),8(Z),10(E/Z)-tetraenoic acid isobutylamide made up a small fraction of the extract. Based on these analyses, an approach is proposed for test article selection for Echinacea research which can be adapted to other botanicals.
Project description:Echinacea preparations, which are used for the prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections, account for 10% of the dietary supplement market in the U.S., with sales totaling more than $100 million annually. In an attempt to shed light on Echinacea's mechanism of action, we evaluated the effects of a 75% ethanolic root extract of Echinacea purpurea, prepared in accord with industry methods, on cytokine and chemokine production from RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. We found that the extract displayed dual activities; the extract could itself stimulate production of the cytokine TNF-?, and also suppress production of TNF-? in response to stimulation with exogenous LPS. Liquid:liquid partitioning followed by normal-phase flash chromatography resulted in separation of the stimulatory and inhibitory activities into different fractions, confirming the complex nature of this extract. We also studied the role of alkylamides in the suppressive activity of this E. purpurea extract. Our fractionation method concentrated the alkylamides into a single fraction, which suppressed production of TNF-?, CCL3, and CCL5; however fractions that did not contain detectable alkylamides also displayed similar suppressive effects. Alkylamides, therefore, likely contribute to the suppressive activity of the extract but are not solely responsible for that activity. From the fractions without detectable alkylamides, we purified xanthienopyran, a compound not previously known to be a constituent of the Echinacea genus. Xanthienopyran suppressed production of TNF-? suggesting that it may contribute to the suppressive activity of the crude ethanolic extract. Finally, we show that ethanolic extracts prepared from E. purpurea plants grown under sterile conditions and from sterilized seeds, do not contain LPS and do not stimulate macrophage production of TNF-?, supporting the hypothesis that the macrophage-stimulating activity in E. purpurea extracts can originate from endophytic bacteria. Together, our findings indicate that ethanolic E. purpurea extracts contain multiple constituents that differentially regulate cytokine production by macrophages.