The road most travelled: the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries in England.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Both road safety campaigns and epidemiological research into social differences in road traffic injury risk often assume that road traffic injuries occur close to home. While previous work has examined distance from home to site of collision for child pedestrians in local areas, less is known about the geographic distribution of road traffic injuries from other modes. This study explores the distribution of the distance between home residence and collision site (crash distance) by mode of transport, geographic area, and social characteristics in England. METHODS: Using 10 years of road casualty data collected by the police, we examined the distribution of crash distance by age, sex, injury severity, area deprivation, urban/rural status, year, day of week, and, in London only, ethnic group. RESULTS: 54% of pedestrians, 39% of cyclists, 17% of powered two-wheeler riders and 16% of car occupants were injured within 1 km of home. 82% of pedestrians, 83% of cyclists, 54% of powered two-wheeler and 53% of car occupants were injured within 5 km of home. We found some social and geographic differences in crash distance: for all transport modes injuries tended to occur closer to home in more deprived or urban areas; younger and older pedestrians and cyclists were also injured closer to home. Crash distance appears to have increased over time for pedestrian, cyclist and car occupant injuries, but has decreased over time for powered two-wheeler injuries. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries from all travel modes tend to occur quite close to home, supporting assumptions made in epidemiological and road safety education literature. However, the trend for increasing crash distance and the social differences identified may have methodological implications for future epidemiological studies on social differences in injury risk.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Perceived as a minor transportation mode mainly for recreation, cycling and its related safety issues have not been treated as a citywide concern in Hong Kong and have thus received inadequate research efforts. Our study aimed to illuminate the safety challenges faced by cyclists in Hong Kong. METHODS:We examined the police crash records from 1998 to 2017 and developed a Bayesian Poisson state space model to evaluate the longitudinal change in traffic injuries to cyclists. We then used quasi-induced exposure to measure the annual relative risk of crash involvement for cycling. Based on an officially published travel characteristics survey, we further measured the risk of injury for cycling per minutes cycled. RESULTS:Between 1998 and 2017, Hong Kong witnessed a more than twofold increase in the number of cyclist injuries, with an average annual increase rate of 5.18% (95% CI: 0.53%-12.77%). By 2017, cyclists were 2.21 (1.82-2.69) times more likely to be involved in traffic crashes than in 1998. Per 10 million minutes, the injury rates for cycling were 28.64 (27.43-29.70) and 42.54 (41.07-44.02) on weekdays during 2001-2003 and 2010-2012. After adjusting for sex and age groups, cyclists were 1.95 (1.43-2.61) times more likely to be injured in 2010-2012 than in 2001-2003. Per minutes traveled, cyclists also sustained significantly higher risks of fatality and injury than pedestrians, private car drivers and passengers, taxi passengers, public bus passengers, and minibus passengers. A comparison of Hong Kong with other regions suggests that Hong Kong is among the most dangerous areas for cycling in terms of fatality rate per minutes cycled. CONCLUSIONS:Cyclist injuries have become a substantial public health burden in Hong Kong. A range of countermeasures with proven effectiveness should be promptly implemented to improve the safety of these vulnerable road users.
Project description:Background: Despite governmental interventions, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) region continues to experience higher road traffic crash and fatality rates relative to Western nations. This trend suggests a potential disconnect between Road Traffic Injuries (RTI) research and the mitigation measures put in place. Method: Here, we present an in-depth bibliometric analysis to obtain a comprehensive understanding of RTI research in the GCC region. The Web of Science database was used to search and retrieve the relevant articles during the period of 1981-2019. Results: The volume of RTI research increased from 2015-2019, suggesting an increased focus on traffic safety in the GCC region. Saudi Arabia had the highest RTI research productivity level (126 publications); Bahrain had the lowest (7 publications). Inconsistent with its low publication volume, Hammad Medical Corps of Qatar had the highest citation impact score of 16.33. Global collaboration for RTI research was highest between Saudi Arabia and the United States. The most prevalent publication journal for the region was Accident Analysis and Prevention. The most common keywords were " road traffic accidents" and " road traffic injuries"; terms such as " mobile phones", " pedestrian safety", " pedestrians", and " distracted driving" were least common. In the five most productive GCC nations with respect to RTI research (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Kuwait, and Oman), researchers tended to publish works related to road traffic safety in traffic safety-oriented journals. Conclusions: The quantity and quality of RTI publications in GCC is insufficient to meet the increasing related public health and economic burden in the region. The trends among publication volumes, citations, and impact were inconsistent. There is a lack of research collaboration among the institutions. Most of the research related to RTI is being conducted by researchers with a medical background. Research focusing on pedestrians, cyclists and road user behavior is also inadequate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In Pacific Island countries and territories, the burden of road traffic injuries and their attendant risks are considered significant but are poorly quantified. As with other low and middle-income countries, understanding the epidemiology of road traffic injuries in Pacific countries is critical to informing sustainable research and policy initiatives aimed at reducing this burden. METHODS:We undertook a systematic review and critical appraisal of the relevant epidemiological literature between January 1980 and December 2010, using key search strings for incidence and aetiological studies focusing on RTIs in less resourced Pacific countries. RESULTS:Nineteen studies were identified. The majority were descriptive and were unable to provide population-based estimates of the burden of road crash injury, or reliable information on risk factors using well-designed aetiological research methods. All studies were published more than 10 years ago, and all but three reported on data from Papua New Guinea, thereby limiting the generalisability of findings to the current status in the region. Studies undertaken in Papua New Guinea suggested that RTIs were more frequent among young males, with head injuries the most common cause of death or hospital admission. Two thirds of fatalities occurred at the crash site or soon after admission. Most road crash victims were passengers or pedestrians. Factors postulated to influence the risk of RTIs were travel in open-back utility vehicles, utility vehicle overcrowding, and alcohol. CONCLUSIONS:This review suggests that, despite increasing awareness of the importance of addressing road safety among stakeholders in less resourced Pacific Island countries, road traffic injuries have not been a research priority with little relevant current evidence from the region to inform policy. Robust epidemiological research that can assess the magnitude and key determinants of road traffic injuries in these settings is essential to determine context-specific road safety initiatives that are relevant and affordable. Greater attention to harnessing routinely collected data (e.g., hospital information systems and police crash statistics) to inform policy is also required.
Project description:Autonomous Vehicles (AV) technology is emerging. Field tests on public roads have been on going in several states in the US as well as in Europe and Asia. During the US public road tests, crashes with AV involved happened, which becomes a concern to the public. Most previous studies on AV safety relied heavily on assessing drivers' performance and behaviors in a simulation environment and developing automated driving system performance in a closed field environment. However, contributing factors and the mechanism of AV-related crashes have not been comprehensively and quantitatively investigated due to the lack of field AV crash data. By harnessing California's Report of Traffic Collision Involving an Autonomous Vehicle Database, which includes the AV crash data from 2014 to 2018, this paper investigates by far the most current and complete AV crash database in the US using statistical modeling approaches that involve both ordinal logistic regression and CART classification tree. The quantitative analysis based on ordinal logistic regression and CART models has successfully explored the mechanism of AV-related crash, via both perspectives of crash severity and collision types. Particularly, the CART model reveals and visualize the hierarchical structure of the AV crash mechanism with knowledge of how these traffic, roadway, and environmental contributing factors can lead to crashes of various serveries and collision types. Statistical analysis results indicate that crash severity significantly increases if the AV is responsible for the crash. The highway is identified as the location where severe injuries are likely to happen. AV collision types are affected by whether the vehicle is on automated driving mode, whether the crashes involve pedestrians/cyclists, as well as the roadway environment. The method used in this research provides a proven approach to statistically analyze and understand AV safety issues. And this benefit is potential be even enhanced with an increasing sample size of AV-related crashes records in the future. The comprehensive knowledge obtained ultimately facilitates assessing and improving safety performance of automated vehicles.
Project description:While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian.Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control. To perform multivariable analysis and limit false-positive results, we implemented a bootstrap version of Lasso. To avoid the effect of unmeasured time-varying factors, we varied the length of the washout period from 30 to 119 days before the crash. The matching procedure led to the inclusion of 16,458 pedestrians involved in an injurious road traffic crash from 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2011. We found 48 medicine classes with a positive association with the risk of crash, with median odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 2.98. Among these, benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs were among the 10 medicines most consumed by the 16,458 pedestrians. Study limitations included slight overrepresentation of pedestrians injured in more severe crashes, lack of information about self-medication and the use of over-the-counter drugs, and lack of data on amount of walking.Therapeutic classes already identified as impacting the ability to drive, such as benzodiazepines and antihistamines, are also associated with an increased risk of pedestrians being involved in a road traffic crash. This study on pedestrians highlights the necessity of improving awareness of the effect of these medicines on this category of road user.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Official reports on modal risk have not chosen appropriate numerators and denominators to enable like-for-like comparisons. We report age- and sex-specific deaths and injury rates from equivalent incidents in England by travel mode, distance travelled and time spent travelling. METHODS: Hospital admissions and deaths in England 2007-2009 were obtained for relevant ICD-10 external codes for pedestrians, cyclists, and car/van drivers, by age-group and sex. Distance travelled by age-group, sex and mode in England (National Travel Survey 2007-2009 data) was converted to time spent travelling using mean trip speeds. Fatality rates were compared with age-specific Netherlands data. RESULTS: All-age fatalities per million hours' use (f/mhu) varied over the same factor-of-three range for both sexes (0.15-0.45 f/mhu by mode for men, 0.09-0.31 f/mhu for women). Risks were similar for men aged 21-49 y for all three modes and for female pedestrians and drivers aged 21-69 y. Most at risk were: males 17-20 y (1.3 f/mhu (95% CI 1.2-1.4)) for driving; males 70+ (2.2 f/mhu(1.6-3.0)) for cycling; and females 70+ (0.95 f/mhu (0.86-1.1)) for pedestrians. In general, fatality rates were substantially higher among males than females. Risks per hour for male drivers <30 y were similar or higher than for male cyclists; for males aged 17-20 y, the risk was higher for drivers (33/Bn km (30-36), 1.3 f/mhu (1.2-1.4)) than cyclists (20/Bn km (10-37), 0.24 f/mhu (0.12-0.45)) whether using distance or time. Similar age patterns occurred for cyclists and drivers in the Netherlands. Age-sex patterns for injuries resulting in hospital admission were similar for cyclists and pedestrians but lower for drivers. CONCLUSIONS: When all relevant ICD-10 codes are used, fatalities by time spent travelling vary within similar ranges for walking, cycling and driving. Risks for drivers were highest in youth and fell with age, while for pedestrians and cyclists, risks increased with age. For the young, especially males, cycling is safer than driving.
Project description:Background:Undisputedly, traffic crashes constitute a public health concern whose impact and importance have been increasing during the past few decades. Specifically, road safety data have systematically shown how cyclists are highly vulnerable to suffering traffic crashes and severe injuries derived from them. Furthermore, although the empirical evidence is still very limited in this regard, in addition to other human factors involved in cycling crashes, distractions while cycling appear to be a major contributor to the road risk of cyclists. Objectives:The main objectives of this study were, first, to explore the prevalence and trends of cycling distractions within an international sample of bike users, and second, to determine the influence of such distractions on road crashes suffered by cyclists, simultaneously considering the explanatory role of risky behaviors (errors and traffic violations) as potentially mediating variables between cycling distractions and traffic crashes. Methods:For this cross-sectional study, we analyzed the data obtained from 1,064 cyclists-61.2% male and 38.8% female-from 20 different countries, who answered an on-line questionnaire on cycling-related features, habits, behaviors and accidents. Results:The prevalence of different cycling distractions oscillated between 34.7% and 83.6%. The most common distractions were those related to the behavior of other users, physical elements of the road, weather conditions and phone calls. Age trends and differences were also found, thus establishing a positive association between age and distractibility during cycling. Furthermore, the effect of distractions on traffic crashes of cyclists was significant when tested together with age, risk perception and risky behaviors on the road. Conclusion:The results of this study support the hypotheses that distractions have a major prevalence among bike users, and that they play a significant role in the prediction of the traffic crash rates of cyclists, through the mediation of risky behaviors.
Project description:To "put oneself in the place of other road users" may improve understanding of the global traffic situation. It should be useful enabling drivers to anticipate and detect obstacles in time to prevent accidents to other road users, especially those most vulnerable. We created a pioneering Hazard Perception and Prediction test to explore this skill in different road users (pedestrians, cyclists and drivers), with videos recorded in naturalistic scenarios: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car. There were 79 participants (30 pedestrians, 14 cyclists, 13 novice drivers and 22 experienced drivers). Sixty videos of hazardous traffic situations were presented, divided into 2 blocks of 30 videos each: 10 walking, 10 riding a bicycle, 10 driving a car. In each situation presented, we evaluated the performance of the participants carrying out the task of predicting the hazard and estimating the risk. In the second block, after they had carried out the task, we gave them feedback on their performance and let them see the whole video (i.e., checking what happened next). The results showed that the holistic test had acceptable psychometric properties (Cronbach's alpha = .846). The test was able to discriminate between the different conditions manipulated: a) between traffic hazards recorded from different perspectives: walking, riding a bicycle and driving a car; b) between participants with different user profiles: pedestrians, cyclists and drivers; c) between the two test blocks: the first evaluation only and the second combining evaluation with this complex intervention. We found modal bias effects in both Hazard Perception and Prediction; and in Risk Estimation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A systematic understanding of population-level trends in deaths due to road injuries at the subnational level over time for India's 1·4 billion people, by age, sex, and type of road user is not readily available; we aimed to fill this knowledge gap. METHODS:As part of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study, we estimated the rate of deaths due to road injuries in each state of India from 1990 to 2017 based on several verbal autopsy data sources. We calculated the number of deaths and death rate for road injuries by type of road user, and assessed the age and sex distribution of these deaths over time. Based on the trends of the age-standardised death rate from 1990 to 2017, we projected the age-standardised death rate to 2030 to assess if the states of India would meet the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target to halve the death rate for road injuries from 2015 by 2020 or 2030. We calculated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for the point estimates. FINDINGS:In 2017, 218?876 deaths (95% UI 201?734 to 231?141) due to road injuries occurred in India, with an age-standardised death rate for road injuries of 17·2 deaths (15·7 to 18·1) per 100?000 population, which was much higher in males (25·7 deaths [23·5 to 27·4] per 100?000) than in females (8·5 deaths [7·2 to 9·1] per 100?000). The number of deaths due to road injuries in India increased by 58·7% (43·6 to 74·7) from 1990 to 2017, but the age-standardised death rate decreased slightly, by 9·2% (0·6 to 18·3). In 2017, pedestrians accounted for 76?729 (35·1%) of all deaths due to road injuries, motorcyclists accounted for 67?524 (30·9%), motor vehicle occupants accounted for 57?802 (26·4%), and cyclists accounted for 15?324 (7·0%). India had a higher age-standardised death rate for road injury among motorcyclists (4·9 deaths [3·9-5·4] per 100?000 population) and cyclists (1·2 deaths [0·9-1·4] per 100?000 population) than the global average. Road injury was the leading cause of death in males aged 15 to 39 years in India in 2017, and the second leading cause in this age group for both sexes combined. The overall age-standardised death rate for road injuries varied by up to 2·6 times between states in 2017. Wide variations were seen between the states in the percentage change in age-standardised death rate for road injuries from 1990 to 2017, ranging from a reduction of 38·2% (22·3 to 51·7) in Delhi to an increase of 17·0% (0·6 to 34·7) in Odisha. If the trends estimated up to 2017 were to continue, no state in India or India overall would achieve the SDG 2020 target in 2020 or even in 2030. INTERPRETATION:India's contribution to the global number of deaths due to road injuries is increasing, and the country is unlikely to meet the SDG targets if the trends up to 2017 continue. India needs to implement evidence-based road safety interventions, promote strong policies and traffic law enforcement, have better road and vehicle design, and improve care for road injuries at the state level to meet the SDG goal. FUNDING:Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Indian Council of Medical Research, Department of Health Research, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Regular cycling has been shown to improve health and has a role in tackling the threats posed by obesity and inactivity. Cycle collisions, particularly those involving motorised vehicles, can lead to significant mortality and morbidity and are currently a barrier to wider uptake of cycling. There is evidence that the conspicuity of cyclists is a factor in many injury collisions. Low-cost, easy to use retro-reflective and fluorescent clothing and accessories ('conspicuity aids') are available. Their effectiveness in reducing cycling collisions is unknown. The study is designed to investigate the relationship between the use of conspicuity aids and risk of collision or evasion crashes for utility and commuter cyclists in the UK. METHODS/DESIGN: A matched case-control study is proposed. Cases are adult commuter and utility cyclists involved in a crash resulting from a collision or attempted evasion of a collision with another road user recruited at a UK emergency department. Controls are commuter and utility cyclists matched by journey purpose, time and day of travel and geographical area recruited at public and private cycle parking sites. Data on the use of conspicuity aids, crash circumstances, demographics, cycling experience, safety equipment use, journey characteristics and route will be collected using self-completed questionnaires and maps. Conditional logistic regression will be used to calculate adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of the risk of a crash when using any item of fluorescent or reflective clothing or equipment. DISCUSSION: This study will provide information on the effectiveness of conspicuity aids in reducing the risk of injury to cyclists resulting from crashes involving other road users.