Inhibition of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) by caveolin-1 promotes stress-induced premature senescence.
ABSTRACT: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce premature cellular senescence, which is believed to contribute to aging and age-related diseases. The nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that mediates cytoprotective responses against stress. We demonstrate that caveolin-1 is a direct binding partner of Nrf2, as shown by the binding of the scaffolding domain of caveolin-1 (amino acids 82-101) to the caveolin-binding domain of Nrf2 (amino acids 281-289). Biochemical studies show that Nrf2 is concentrated into caveolar membranes in human and mouse fibroblasts, where it colocalizes with caveolin-1, under resting conditions. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 limits the movement of Nrf2 from caveolar membranes to the nucleus. In contrast, Nrf2 is constitutively localized to the nucleus before and after oxidative stress in caveolin-1-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), which do not express caveolin-1. Functional studies demonstrate that caveolin-1 acts as an endogenous inhibitor of Nrf2, as shown by the enhanced up-regulation of NQO1, an Nrf2 target gene, in caveolin-1-null MEFs and the activation or inhibition of a luciferase construct carrying an antioxidant responsive element (ARE) after down-regulation of caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA or overexpression of caveolin-1, respectively. Expression of a mutant form of Nrf2 that cannot bind to caveolin-1 (??A-Nrf2) hyperactivates ARE and inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence in fibroblasts. Finally, we show that overexpression of caveolin-1 in colon cancer cells inhibits oxidant-induced activation of Nrf2-dependent signaling, promotes premature senescence, and inhibits their transformed phenotype. Thus, by inhibiting Nrf2-mediated signaling, caveolin-1 links free radicals to the activation of the p53/senescence pathway.
Project description:We show that caveolin-1 is a novel binding protein for Mdm2. After oxidative stress, caveolin-1 sequesters Mdm2 away from p53, leading to stabilization of p53 and up-regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1) in human fibroblasts. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the Mdm2 binding domain of caveolin-1 is sufficient to up-regulate p53 and p21(Waf1/Cip1) protein expression and induce premature senescence. Oxidative stress-induced activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence are compromised in caveolin-1 null mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF). We also show that reintroduction of caveolin-1 in oncogenic Ras (Ras(G12V))-transformed fibroblasts, which express residual levels of caveolin-1, is sufficient to promote cellular senescence. Moreover, caveolin-1 expression in MEFs is required for senescent fibroblast-induced stimulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis of both Ras(G12V)-transformed fibroblasts and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, our results propose caveolin-1 as a key mediator of the antagonistic pleiotropic properties of cellular senescence.
Project description:According to the "free radical theory" of aging, premature senescence induced by oxidative stress contributes to organismal aging. Polymerase I and transcript release factor (PTRF)/cavin-1 is a structural protein component of caveolae, invaginations of the plasma membrane involved in signal transduction. We show that oxidative stress up-regulates PTRF/cavin-1 protein expression and promotes the interaction between PTRF/cavin-1 and caveolin-1, another structural protein component of caveolae. Consistent with these data, the number of caveolae is dramatically increased in cells subjected to oxidative stress. We demonstrate that down-regulation of PTRF/cavin-1 by shRNA significantly inhibits oxidative stress-induced premature senescence. Mechanistically, we found that PTRF/cavin-1 expression is necessary for the oxidant-induced sequestration of Mdm2, a negative regulator of p53, into caveolar membranes, away from p53, and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway. Expression of a mutant form of PTRF/cavin-1, which fails to localize to caveolar membranes after oxidative stress, inhibits oxidative stress-induced activation of p53 and induction of premature senescence. Thus, PTRF/cavin-1 is a novel regulator of oxidative stress-induced premature senescence by acting as a link between free radicals and activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway.
Project description:Free radicals play a role in aging and age-related human diseases, including pulmonary emphysema. Cigarette smoke represents a source of oxidants and is considered an environmental hazard that causes pulmonary emphysema. Here, we show that caveolin-1 activates ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) after oxidative stress by sequestering the ATM inhibitor, the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A, into caveolar membranes. We demonstrate that cigarette smoke extracts promote stress-induced premature senescence in wild type but not caveolin-1 null lung fibroblasts and that caveolin-1 expression is required for activation of the ATM-p53-p21(Waf1)(/)(Cip1) pathway following stimulation with cigarette smoke extracts in vitro. In vivo studies show that caveolin-1 expression is necessary for cigarette smoking-induced senescence of lung fibroblasts and pulmonary emphysema. These findings bring new insights into the molecular mechanism underlying free radical activation of the ATM-p53 pathway and indicate that caveolin-1 is a novel therapeutic target for the treatment and/or prevention of pulmonary emphysema.
Project description:Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is an important antioxidant enzyme that controls cellular redox homeostasis. By using a proteomic-based approach, here we identify TrxR1 as a caveolar membrane-resident protein. We show that caveolin 1, the structural protein component of caveolae, is a TrxR1-binding protein by demonstrating that the scaffolding domain of caveolin 1 (amino acids 82-101) binds directly to the caveolin-binding motif (CBM) of TrxR1 (amino acids 454-463). We also show that overexpression of caveolin 1 inhibits TrxR activity, whereas a lack of caveolin 1 activates TrxR, both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of a peptide corresponding to the caveolin 1 scaffolding domain is sufficient to inhibit TrxR activity. A TrxR1 mutant lacking the CBM, which fails to localize to caveolae and bind to caveolin 1, is constitutively active and inhibits oxidative-stress-mediated activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of premature senescence. Finally, we show that caveolin 1 expression inhibits TrxR1-mediated cell transformation. Thus, caveolin 1 links free radicals to activation of the p53/p21(Waf1/Cip1) pathway and induction of cellular senescence by acting as an endogenous inhibitor of TrxR1.
Project description:Cellular senescence is believed to represent a natural tumor suppressor mechanism. We have previously shown that up-regulation of caveolin-1 was required for oxidative stress-induced premature senescence in fibroblasts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying caveolin-1 up-regulation in senescent cells remain unknown. Here, we show that subcytotoxic oxidative stress generated by hydrogen peroxide application promotes premature senescence and stimulates the activity of a (-1,296) caveolin-1 promoter reporter gene construct in fibroblasts. Functional deletion analysis mapped the oxidative stress response elements of the mouse caveolin-1 promoter to the sequences -244/-222 and -124/-101. The hydrogen peroxide-mediated activation of both Cav-1 (-244/-222) and Cav-1 (-124/-101) was prevented by the antioxidant quercetin. Combination of electrophoretic mobility shift studies, chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, Sp1 overexpression experiments, as well as promoter mutagenesis identifies enhanced Sp1 binding to two GC-boxes at -238/-231 and -118/-106 as the core mechanism of oxidative stress-triggered caveolin-1 transactivation. In addition, signaling studies show p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) as the upstream regulator of Sp1-mediated activation of the caveolin-1 promoter following oxidative stress. Inhibition of p38 MAPK prevents the oxidant-induced Sp1-mediated up-regulation of caveolin-1 protein expression and development of premature senescence. Finally, we show that oxidative stress induces p38-mediated up-regulation of caveolin-1 and premature senescence in normal human mammary epithelial cells but not in MCF-7 breast cancer cells, which do not express caveolin-1 and undergo apoptosis. This study delineates for the first time the molecular mechanisms that modulate caveolin-1 gene transcription upon oxidative stress and brings new insights into the redox control of cellular senescence in both normal and cancer cells.
Project description:Replicative senescence in human fibroblasts is accompanied with alterations of various biological processes, including the impaired function of the proteasome. The proteasome is responsible for the removal of both normal and damaged proteins. Due to its latter function, proteasome is also considered a representative secondary antioxidant cellular mechanism. Nrf2 is a basic transcription factor responsible for the regulation of the cellular antioxidant response that has also been shown to regulate several proteasome subunits in mice. We have established in this study the proteasome-related function of Nrf2 in human fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence. We demonstrate that Nrf2 has a declined function in senescence, whereas its silencing leads to premature senescence. However, upon its activation by a novel Nrf2 inducer, elevated levels of proteasome activity and content are recorded only in cell lines possessing a functional Nrf2. Moreover, treatment by the Nrf2 inducer results in the enhanced survival of cells following oxidative stress, whereas continuous treatment leads to lifespan extension of human fibroblasts. Importantly the Nrf2-proteasome axis is functional in terminally senescent cultures as these cells retain their responsiveness to the Nrf2 stimuli. In conclusion, these findings open up new directions for future manipulation of the senescence phenotype.
Project description:In the present work, we indicate that copper is involved in the senescence of human diploid fibroblasts and we describe mechanisms to explain it. Using different techniques, we show for the first time an accumulation of copper in cells during replicative senescence. This accumulation seems to be co-localized with lipofuscin. Second, we observed that an incubation of cells with copper sulfate induced oxidative stress, antioxidant response and premature senescence. Antioxidant molecules reduced the appearance of premature senescence. Third, we found that Nrf2 transcription factor was activated and regulated the expression of genes involved in antioxidant response while p38(MAPK) regulated the appearance of premature senescence.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) signaling regulates cell cycle progression in several cell types, primarily by inducing a G1 cell cycle arrest. Tgif1 is a transcriptional corepressor that limits TGF? responsive gene expression. Here we demonstrate that primary mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Tgif1 proliferate slowly, accumulate increased levels of DNA damage, and senesce prematurely. We also provide evidence that the effects of loss of Tgif1 on proliferation and senescence are not limited to primary cells. The increased DNA damage in Tgif1 null MEFs can be partially reversed by culturing cells at physiological oxygen levels, and growth in normoxic conditions also partially rescues the proliferation defect, suggesting that in the absence of Tgif1 primary MEFs are less able to cope with elevated levels of oxidative stress. Additionally, we show that Tgif1 null MEFs are more sensitive to TGF?-mediated growth inhibition, and that treatment with a TGF? receptor kinase inhibitor increases proliferation of Tgif1 null MEFs. Conversely, persistent treatment of wild type cells with low levels of TGF? slows proliferation and induces senescence, suggesting that TGF? signaling also contributes to cellular senescence. We suggest that in the absence of Tgif1, a persistent increase in TGF? responsive transcription and a reduced ability to deal with hyperoxic stress result in premature senescence in primary MEFs.
Project description:Paradoxical observations have been made regarding the role of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) during cellular senescence. For example, caveolin-1 deficiency prevents reactive oxygen species-induced cellular senescence despite mitochondrial dysfunction, which leads to senescence. To resolve this paradox, we re-addressed the role of caveolin-1 in cellular senescence in human diploid fibroblasts, A549, HCT116, and Cav-1-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cav-1 deficiency (knockout or knockdown) induced cellular senescence via a p53-p21-dependent pathway, downregulating the expression level of the cardiolipin biosynthesis enzymes and then reducing the content of cardiolipin, a critical lipid for mitochondrial respiration. Our results showed that Cav-1 deficiency decreased mitochondrial respiration, reduced the activity of oxidative phosphorylation complex I (CI), inactivated SIRT1, and decreased the NAD+ /NADH ratio. From these results, we concluded that Cav-1 deficiency induces premature senescence via mitochondrial dysfunction and silent information regulator 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) inactivation.
Project description:Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the primary transcription factor protecting cells from oxidative stress by regulating cytoprotective genes, including the antioxidant glutathione (GSH) pathway. GSH maintains cellular redox status and affects redox signaling, cell proliferation, and death. GSH homeostasis is regulated by de novo synthesis as well as GSH redox state; previous studies have demonstrated that Nrf2 regulates GSH homeostasis by affecting de novo synthesis. We report that Nrf2 modulates the GSH redox state by regulating glutathione reductase (GSR). In response to oxidants, lungs and embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from Nrf2-deficient (Nrf2(-/-)) mice showed lower levels of GSR mRNA, protein, and enzyme activity relative to wild type (Nrf2(+/+)). Nrf2(-/-) MEFs exhibited greater accumulation of glutathione disulfide and cytotoxicity compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs in response to t-butylhydroquinone, which was rescued by restoring GSR. Microinjection of glutathione disulfide induced greater apoptosis in Nrf2(-/-) MEFs compared to Nrf2(+/+) MEFs. In silico promoter analysis of the GSR gene revealed three putative antioxidant-response elements (ARE1, -44; ARE2, -813; ARE3, -1041). Reporter analysis, site-directed mutagenesis, and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated binding of Nrf2 to two AREs distal to the transcription start site. Overall, Nrf2 is critical for maintaining the GSH redox state via transcriptional regulation of GSR and protecting cells against oxidative stress.