Squish and CuAAC: additive-free covalent monolayers of discrete molecules in seconds.
ABSTRACT: A terminal alkyne is immobilized rapidly into a full monolayer by squishing a small volume of a solution of the alkyne between an azide-modified surface and a copper plate. The monolayer is covalently attached to the surface through a copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction, and the coverages of the immobilized electroactive alkyne species are quantified by cyclic voltammetry. A reaction time of less than 20 s is possible with no other reagents required. The procedure is effective under aerobic conditions using either an aqueous or aprotic organic solution of the alkyne (1-100 mM).
Project description:We present a trifunctional scaffold designed for the solid-phase synthesis of trimodal compounds. This scaffold holds two alkyne arms in a free and TIPS-protected form for consecutive CuAAC (copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition), one Fmoc-protected hydrazide arm for reaction with aldehydes, and one carboxylic acid arm with CF? groups for attachment to the resin and (19)F-NMR quantification. This scaffold was attached to a resin and derivatized with model azides and aliphatic, electron-rich or electron-poor aromatic aldehydes. We identified several limitations of the scaffold caused by the instability of hydrazones in acidic conditions, in the presence of copper during CuAAC, and when copper accumulated in the resin. We successfully overcame these drawbacks by optimizing synthetic conditions for the derivatization of the scaffold with aromatic aldehydes. Overall, the new trifunctional scaffold combines CuAAC and hydrazone chemistries, offering a broader chemical space for the development of bioactive compounds.
Project description:Photoinitiation of polymerizations based on the copper(i)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction enables spatio-temporal control and the formation of mechanically robust, highly glassy photopolymers. Here, we investigated several critical factors influencing photo-CuAAC polymerization kinetics via systematic variation of reaction conditions such as the physicochemical nature of the monomers; the copper salt and photoinitiator types and concentrations; light intensity; exposure time and solvent content. Real time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to monitor the polymerization kinetics in situ. Six different di-functional azide monomers and four different tri-functional alkyne monomers containing either aliphatic, aromatic, ether and/or carbamate substituents were synthesized and polymerized. Replacing carbamate structures with ether moieties in the monomers enabled an increase in conversion from 65% to 90% under similar irradiation conditions. The carbamate results in stiffer monomers and higher viscosity mixtures indicating that chain mobility and diffusion are key factors that determine the CuAAC network formation kinetics. Photoinitiation rates were manipulated by altering various aspects of the photo-reduction step; ultimately, a loading above 3 mol% per functional group for both the copper catalyst and the photoinitiator showed little or no rate dependence on concentration while a loading below 3 mol% exhibited 1st order rate dependence. Furthermore, a photoinitiating system consisting of camphorquinone resulted in 60% conversion in the dark after only 1 minute of 75 mW cm-2 light exposure at 400-500 nm, highlighting a unique characteristic of the CuAAC photopolymerization enabled by the combination of the copper(i)'s catalytic lifetime and the nature of the step-growth polymerization.
Project description:The copper (I)-catalyzed alkyne azide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (CuAAC) or 'click' reaction, is a highly versatile reaction that can be performed under a variety of reaction conditions including various solvents, a wide pH and temperature range, and using different copper sources, with or without additional ligands or reducing agents. This reaction is highly selective and can be performed in the presence of other functional moieties. The flexibility and selectivity has resulted in growing interest in the application of CuAAC in various fields. In this review, we briefly describe the importance of the structural folding of peptides and proteins and how the 1,4-disubstituted triazole product of the CuAAC reaction is a suitable isoster for an amide bond. However the major focus of the review is the application of this reaction to produce peptide conjugates for tagging and targeting purpose, linkers for multifunctional biomacromolecules, and reporter ions for peptide and protein analysis.
Project description:The design of molecular dyads combining a light-harvesting unit with an electroactive centre is highly demanded in the field of artificial photosynthesis. The versatile Copper-catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition (CuAAC) procedure was employed to assemble a ruthenium tris-diimine unit to an unprecedented azide-substituted copper diimine-dioxime moiety. The resulting RuIICuII dyad 4 was characterized by electrochemistry, 1H NMR, EPR, UV-visible absorption, steady-state fluorescence and transient absorption spectroscopies. Photoinduced electron transfer from the ruthenium to the copper centre upon light-activation in the presence of a sacrificial electron donor was established thanks to EPR-monitored photolysis experiments, opening interesting perspectives for photocatalytic applications.
Project description:The synthesis of an azide containing PNA monomer is described. The monomer was incorporated into two PNA sequences for the purpose of synthesizing an intercalating fluorophore-labeled PNA and a metal binding hairpin using a solid phase copper catalyzed azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition (CuAAC). Click chemistry was performed using 2-ethynylfluorene or 1-ethynylpyrene to add a fluorophore to the PNA, which were tested for their ability to recognize an abasic site on a DNA target. A PNA hairpin possessing azide monomers at each termini was synthesized and reacted with 2-ethynylpyridine to form a hairpin that is stabilized by Ni²?.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:For the past several decades, the resins used in dental restorations have been plagued with numerous problems, including their implication in biofilm formation and secondary caries. The need for alternative resins is critical, and evaluation of biofilm formation on these resins is essential. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro biofilm formation on the surface of novel copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC)-based resins and composites. METHODS:CuAAC-based resins/composites made from varying azide monomers and different copper concentrations were compared with BisGMA-TEGDMA resins/composites that served as the control. Biofilms were formed using a mono-species model containing a luciferase-expressing strain of Streptococcus mutans. Luciferase activity was measured and the number of viable bacteria was enumerated on biofilms associated with each resin and composite. RESULTS:A significant reduction (p<0.05) in luciferase activity, and the number of viable bacteria recovered from biofilms on CuAAC-based resins and composites was observed in comparison to biofilms associated with the BisGMA-TEGDMA controls. SIGNIFICANCE:CuAAC-based resins do still allow for the formation of biofilms; however, the statistically significant reduction of growth that was associated with the CuAAC resin may enhance the longevity of restorations that incorporate CuAAC-based materials.
Project description:The development of long-wavelength photoinduced copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click (CuAAC) reaction routes is attractive for organic and polymer chemistry. In this study, we present a novel synthetic methodology for the photoinduced CuAAC reaction utilizing exfoliated two-dimensional (2D) few-layer black phosphorus nanosheets (BPNs) as photocatalysts under white LED and near-IR (NIR) light irradiation. Upon irradiation, BPNs generated excited electrons and holes on its conduction (CB) and valence band (VB), respectively. The excited electrons thus formed were then transferred to the Cu<sup>II</sup> ions to produce active Cu<sup>I</sup> catalysts. The ability of BPNs to initiate the CuAAC reaction was investigated by studying the reaction between various low molar mass alkyne and azide derivatives under both white LED and NIR light irradiation. Due to its deeper penetration of NIR light, the possibility of synthesizing different macromolecular structures such as functional polymers, cross-linked networks and block copolymer has also been demonstrated. The structural and molecular properties of the intermediates and final products were evaluated by spectral and chromatographic analyses.
Project description:Step-economical syntheses of annulated 1,2,3-triazoles were accomplished through copper-catalyzed intramolecular direct arylations in sustainable one-pot reactions. Thus, catalyzed cascade reactions involving [3 + 2]-azide-alkyne cycloadditions (CuAAC) and C-H bond functionalizations provided direct access to fully substituted 1,2,3-triazoles with excellent chemo- and regioselectivities. Likewise, the optimized catalytic system proved applicable to the direct preparation of 1,2-diarylated azoles through a one-pot C-H/N-H arylation reaction.
Project description:O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as an essential protein post-translational modification in a range of organisms. It is involved in various cellular processes such as nutrient sensing, protein degradation, gene expression, and is associated with many human diseases. Despite its importance, identifying O-GlcNAcylated proteins is a major challenge in proteomics. Here, using peracetylated N-azidoacetylglucosamine (Ac4 GlcNAz) as a bioorthogonal chemical handle, we described a gel-based mass spectrometry method for the identification of proteins with O-GlcNAc modification in A549 cells. In addition, we made a labeling efficiency comparison between two modes of azide-alkyne bioorthogonal reactions in click chemistry: copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne and stain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition (SPAAC) with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne. After conjugation with click chemistry in vitro and enrichment via streptavidin resin, proteins with O-GlcNAc modification were separated by SDS-PAGE and identified with mass spectrometry. Proteomics data analysis revealed that 229 putative O-GlcNAc modified proteins were identified with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugated sample and 188 proteins with Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugated sample, among which 114 proteins were overlapping. Interestingly, 74 proteins identified from Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne conjugates and 46 verified proteins from Biotin-DIBO-Alkyne conjugates could be found in the O-GlcNAc modified proteins database dbOGAP (http://cbsb.lombardi.georgetown.edu/hulab/OGAP.html). These results suggested that CuAAC with Biotin-Diazo-Alkyne represented a more powerful method in proteomics with higher protein identification and better accuracy compared to SPAAC. The proteomics credibility was also confirmed by the molecular function and cell component gene ontology (GO). Together, the method we reported here combining metabolic labeling, click chemistry, affinity-based enrichment, SDS-PAGE separation, and mass spectrometry, would be adaptable for other post-translationally modified proteins in proteomics.
Project description:In the present study, the photo-initiated copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) polymerization was utilized to form structurally diverse glassy polymer networks. Systematic alterations in the monomer backbone rigidity (e.g., cyclic or aliphatic groups with a different length of backbone) and the reactive functional group density (e.g., tetra-, tri-, di-, and mono-functional azide and alkyne monomers) were used to provide readily tailorable network structures with crosslink densities (estimated from the rubbery modulus) varying by a factor of over 20. All eight of the resultant networks exhibited glass transition temperatures (T<sub>g</sub>) between 50 and 80 °C with tensile toughness ranging from 28 to 61 MJ m<sup>-3</sup>. A nearly linear dependence of yield stress and elongation at break (broadly defined as strength and ductility, respectively) on the T<sub>g</sub> and rubbery modulus was established in these triazole networks. When a flexible di-alkyne monomer (5 carbon spacing between alkynes) was incorporated in a network composed of a tri-alkyne and di-azide monomer, the elongation at break was improved from 166 to 300 %, while the yield stress was reduced from 36 to 23 MPa. Additionally, the polymer ductility was also varied by incorporating mono-functional azides as chain ends in the network - replacing a sterically hindered stiff mono-azide with a more flexible mono-azide increased the elongation at break from 24 to 185 % and the tensile toughness from 6 to 28 MJ m<sup>-3</sup>.