Retinoic acid attenuates ileitis by restoring the balance between T-helper 17 and T regulatory cells.
ABSTRACT: Retinoic acid (RA), produced by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and dendritic cells (DCs) promotes the induction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and decreases the induction of T-helper (Th)17 cells.We studied the roles of RA in mice that overproduce tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and develop chronic ileitis (TNF_ARE mice). We assessed the frequency and function of CD103+ DCs, Th17 cells, and Tregs by flow cytometry, and we measured expression of cytokines and retinaldehyde dehydrogenase (RALDH) enzymes in ileum samples, DCs, and IECs by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We quantified RA by electrochemical analysis and examined the effect of RA supplementation on TNF-induced ileitis using histologic, coculture, and suppression assays and flow cytometry.Numbers of CD103+ DCs decreased in the inflamed ilea of mice with chronic disease; RA synthetic machinery (RALDH1,2) was down-regulated. Nevertheless, the proportion of CD4+, CD25+, FoxP3+ Tregs increased, indicating an alternate source for RA. IECs responded to reduced levels of RA by up-regulating RALDH3 in vivo and in vitro. Net tissue levels of RA remained lower in TNF+ARE than wild-type mice, indicating that epithelial up-regulation of RALDH3 could not maintain adequate concentrations of RA, probably because of loss of IEC mass. RA supplementation significantly attenuated disease by increasing the number and function of CD103+ DCs and Tregs and reducing Th17 cells.Reduced levels of RA appear to induce IECs to up-regulate synthesis of RA. RA supplementation attenuates ileitis through its effects on CD103+ DCs, Tregs, and Th17 cells. RA supplementation might offer therapeutic benefit in Crohn's disease.
Project description:Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonists are popular therapies for inflammatory diseases. These agents enhance the numbers and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are important in controlling inflammatory diseases. However, elevated Treg levels increase susceptibility to infections, including histoplasmosis. We determined the mechanism by which Tregs expand in TNF-neutralized mice infected with Histoplasma capsulatum Lung CD11c+ CD11b+ dendritic cells (DCs), but not alveolar macrophages, from H. capsulatum-infected mice treated with anti-TNF induced a higher percentage of Tregs than control DCs in vitro CD11b+ CD103+ DCs, understood to be unique to the intestines, were augmented in lungs with anti-TNF treatment. In the absence of this subset, DCs from anti-TNF-treated mice failed to amplify Tregs in vitro CD11b+ CD103+ DCs from TNF-neutralized mice displayed higher retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2) gene expression, and CD11b+ CD103+ RALDH+ DCs exhibited greater enzyme activity. To determine if CD11b+ CD103+ DCs migrated from gut to lung, fluorescent beads were delivered to the gut via oral gavage, and the lungs were assessed for bead-containing DCs. Anti-TNF induced migration of CD11b+ CD103+ DCs from the gut to the lung that enhanced the generation of Tregs in H. capsulatum-infected mice. Therefore, TNF neutralization promotes susceptibility to pulmonary H. capsulatum infection by promoting a gut/lung migration of DCs that enhances Tregs.
Project description:Kidney dendritic cells (DCs) regulate nephritogenic T cell responses. Most kidney DCs belong to the CD11b+ subset and promote crescentic GN (cGN). The function of the CD103+ subset, which represents <5% of kidney DCs, is poorly understood. We studied the role of CD103+ DCs in cGN using several lines of genetically modified mice that allowed us to reduce the number of these cells. In all lines, we detected a reduction of FoxP3+ intrarenal regulatory T cells (Tregs), which protect against cGN. Mice lacking the transcription factor Batf3 had a more profound reduction of CD103+ DCs and Tregs than did the other lines used, and showed the most profound aggravation of cGN. The conditional reduction of CD103+ DC numbers by 50% in Langerin-DTR mice halved Treg numbers, which did not suffice to significantly aggravate cGN. Mice lacking the cytokine Flt3L had fewer CD103+ DCs and Tregs than Langerin-DTR mice but exhibited milder cGN than did Batf3-/- mice presumably because proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs were somewhat depleted as well. Conversely, Flt3L supplementation increased the number of CD103+ DCs and Tregs, but also of proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. On antibody-mediated removal of CD11b+ DCs, Flt3L supplementation ameliorated cGN. Mechanistically, CD103+ DCs caused cocultured T cells to differentiate into Tregs and produced the chemokine CCL20, which is known to attract Tregs into the kidney. Our findings show that CD103+ DCs foster intrarenal FoxP3+ Treg accumulation, thereby antagonizing proinflammatory CD11b+ DCs. Thus, increasing CD103+ DC numbers or functionality might be advantageous in cGN.
Project description:BACKGROUND; Imprinting an effector or regulatory phenotype on naïve T cells requires education at induction sites by dendritic cells (DC). Objectives To analyse the effect of inflammation on the frequency of mononuclear phagocytes (MP) and the effect of altering their frequency by administration of Flt3-L in chronic ileitis.Using a tumour necrosis factor (TNF) driven model of ileitis (ie, TNF?ARE) that recapitulates many features of Crohn's disease (CD), dynamic changes in the frequency and functional state of MP within the inflamed ileum were assessed by flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and real-time reverse-transcription PCR and by generating CX(3)CR1 GFP-reporter TNF?ARE mice. The effect of Flt3-L supplementation on the severity of ileitis, and the frequency of CD103(+) DC and of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells was also studied in TNF?ARE mice.CD11c(Hi)/MHCII(+) MP accumulated in inflamed ilea, predominantly mediated by expansion of the CX(3)CR1(+) MP subpopulation. This coincided with a decreased pro-regulatory CD103(+) DC. The phenotype of these MP was that of activated cells, as they expressed increased CD80 and CD86 on their surface. Flt3-ligand administration resulted in a preferential expansion of CD103(+) DC that attenuated the severity of ileitis in 20-week-old TNF?ARE mice, mediated by increased CD4(+)/CD25(+)/FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells.Results support a role for Flt3-L as a potential therapeutic agent in Crohn's-like ileitis.
Project description:A decline in immune function with aging has been reported. Regulatory T cell (Treg) induction is known to decrease with age, and elucidating the underlying mechanism is important for preventing age-related diseases due to age-related chronic inflammation. In the intestine, dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in inducing Tregs specific to oral antigens, and they efficiently induce Tregs via production of retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A metabolite, catalyzed by the enzyme retinaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (RALDH2). We have previously reported that in the mesenteric lymph node (MLN), a secondary lymphoid tissue in which immune responses to oral antigens are induced, four DC subsets express different levels of CD11b, CD103, and PD-L1, and we have reported that the CD11b-CD103+PD-L1high subset expresses the highest levels of the RALDH2 gene and induces Tregs in vitro. We examined Treg induction in young and aged mice using a Treg induction model by administering a food antigen, and we found that antigen-specific Treg induction was decreased in aged mice. We further investigated the MLN DCs, and a significant decrease in RALDH2 gene expression was observed in MLN DCs from aged mice. As factors, we found that the proportion of the CD11b-CD103+PD-L1high subset was decreased in aged mice compared with that in young mice and that RALDH enzyme activity was decreased in the CD11b-CD103+PD-L1high and CD11b+CD103+PD-L1high subsets. Furthermore, analysis of the methylation of the RALDH2 gene promoter region revealed that CpG motifs were more methylated in the MLN DCs of aged mice, suggesting that RALDH2 expression was suppressed by epigenetic changes. Finally, we found that RA treatment tended to increase Treg induction. These results suggest that the regulation of RA production may be involved in the age-related decrease in antigen-specific Treg induction.
Project description:A balance between effector and regulatory T-cell (Treg) responses is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. To regulate immunity, T cells migrate to the intestine using a combination of adhesion molecules and chemokine receptors. However, it is not known whether the migration pathways of effector cells and Tregs are distinct or shared. We sought to determine whether interaction between the chemokine receptor 9 (CCR9) and its ligand, chemokine ligand 25 (CCL25), allows effectors or Tregs to localize to chronically inflamed small intestine.By using a mouse model that develops Crohn's-like ileitis (tumor necrosis factor ?adenosine uracyl-rich element [TNF?ARE] mice) we examined the role of CCL25-CCR9 interactions for effector and Treg traffic using flow cytometry, quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, immunoneutralization, and proliferation analyses.In TNF?ARE mice, expression of CCL25 and the frequency of CCR9-expressing lymphocytes increased during late-stage disease. In the absence of CCR9, TNF?ARE mice developed exacerbated disease, compared with their CCR9-sufficient counterparts, which coincided with a deficiency of CD4(+)/CD25(+)/forkhead box P3(+) and CD8(+)/CD103(+) Tregs within the intestinal lamina propria and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, the CD8(+)/CCR9(+) subset decreased the proliferation of CD4(+) T cells in vitro. Administration of a monoclonal antibody against CCR9 to TNF?ARE mice exacerbated ileitis in vivo, confirming the regulatory role of CD8(+)/CCR9(+) cells.Signaling of the chemokine CCL25 through its receptor CCR9 induces Tregs to migrate to the intestine. These findings raise concerns about the development of reagents to disrupt this pathway for the treatment of patients with Crohn's disease.
Project description:Mucus alterations are a feature of ulcerative colitis (UC) and can drive inflammation by compromising the mucosal barrier to luminal bacteria. The exact pathogenesis of UC remains unclear, but CD4+ T cells reacting to commensal antigens appear to contribute to pathology. Given the unique capacity of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate naive T cells, colon DCs may activate pathogenic T cells and contribute to disease. Using Muc2-/- mice, which lack a functional mucus barrier and develop spontaneous colitis, we show that colitic animals have reduced colon CD103+ CD11b- DCs and increased CD103- CD11b+ phagocytes. Moreover, changes in colonic DC subsets and distinct cytokine patterns distinguish mice with distally localized colitis from mice with colitis spread proximally. Specifically, mice with proximally spread, but not distally contained, colitis have increased IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, TNF?, and IFN? combined with decreased IL-10 in the distal colon. These individuals also have increased numbers of CD103+ CD11b+ DCs in the distal colon. CD103+ CD11b+ DCs isolated from colitic but not noncolitic mice induced robust differentiation of Th17 cells but not Th1 cells ex vivo. In contrast, CD103- CD11b+ DCs from colitic Muc2-/- mice induced Th17 as well as Th1 differentiation. Thus, the local environment influences the capacity of intestinal DC subsets to induce T cell proliferation and differentiation, with CD103+ CD11b+ DCs inducing IL-17-producing T cells being a key feature of extensively spread colitis.
Project description:Although activated inflammatory monocytes (IMCs) and inflammatory dendritic cells (IDCs) are potent T cell suppressors, nonactivated IMCs and IDCs promote T cell activation and Th1/Th17 cell differentiation. In this study, we investigated how to reduce the proinflammatory properties of IMCs and IDCs and further convert them into immune regulatory dendritic cells (DCs). We found that IL-4 and retinoic acid (RA) cotreatment of GM-CSF-differentiated IDCs synergistically induced the expression of aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2, a rate-limiting enzyme for RA synthesis in DCs. IL-4 plus RA-treated IDCs upregulated CD103 expression and markedly reduced the production of proinflammatory cytokines upon activation. IL-4 plus RA-treated IDCs strongly induced CD4?Foxp3? regulatory T cell differentiation and suppressed Th1 and Th17 differentiation. Mechanistically, the transcription factors Stat6 and RA receptor ? play important roles in aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1, subfamily A2, induction. In addition, IL-4 and RA signaling pathways interact closely to enhance the regulatory function of treated DCs. Adoptive transfer of IL-4 plus RA-treated DCs significantly increased regulatory T cell frequency in vivo. Direct treatment with IL-4 and RA also markedly suppressed actively induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Our data demonstrate the synergistic effect of IL-4 and RA in inducing a regulatory phenotype in IDCs, providing a potential treatment strategy for autoimmune diseases.
Project description:Inappropriate activation of the IL-23 signaling pathway causes chronic inflammation through the induction of immunopathological Th17 cells in several tissues including the intestine, whereas adequate Th17 responses are essential for host defense against harmful organisms. In the intestinal lamina propria, IL-23 is primarily produced by innate myeloid cells including dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages (Mϕs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of IL-23 production by these cells remains poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that BATF2 regulates intestinal homeostasis by inhibiting IL-23-driven T-cell responses. Batf2 was highly expressed in intestinal innate myeloid subsets, such as monocytes, CD11b+ CD64+ Mϕs and CD103+ DCs. Batf2-/- mice spontaneously developed colitis and ileitis with altered microbiota composition. In this context, IL-23, but not TNF-α and IL-10, was produced in high quantities by intestinal CD11b+ CD64+ Mϕs from Batf2-/- mice compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, increased numbers of IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+ IL-17+ CD4+ T cells, but not IL-10+ CD4+ T cells, accumulated in the colons and small intestines of Batf2-/- mice. In addition, RORγt-expressing innate lymphoid cells were increased in Batf2-/- mice. Batf2-/-Rag2-/- mice showed a reduction in intestinal inflammation present in Batf2-/- mice. Furthermore, the high numbers of intestinal IL-17+ and IFN-γ+ IL-17+ CD4+ T cells were markedly reduced in Batf2-/- mice when introducing Il23a deficiency, which was associated with the abrogation of intestinal inflammation. These results indicated that BATF2 in innate myeloid cells is a key molecule for the suppression of IL-23/IL-17 pathway-mediated adaptive intestinal pathology.
Project description:Migratory CD103+ and lymphoid-resident CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) share many attributes, such as dependence on the same transcription factors, cross-presenting ability and expression of certain surface molecules, such that it has been proposed they belong to a common sub-lineage. The functional diversity of the two DC types is nevertheless incompletely understood. Here we reveal that upon skin infection with herpes simplex virus, migratory CD103+ DCs from draining lymph nodes were more potent at inducing Th17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells than CD8+ DCs. This superior capacity to drive Th17 responses was also evident in CD103+ DCs from uninfected mice. Their differential potency to induce Th17 differentiation was reflected by higher production of IL-1? and IL-6 by CD103+ DCs compared with CD8+ DCs upon stimulation. The two types of DCs from isolated lymph nodes also differ in expression of certain pattern recognition receptors. Furthermore, elevated levels of GM-CSF, typical of those found in inflammation, substantially increased the pool size of CD103+ DCs in lymph nodes and skin. We argue that varied levels of GM-CSF may explain the contrasting reports regarding the positive role of GM-CSF in regulating development of CD103+ DCs. Together, we find that these two developmentally closely-related DC subsets display functional differences and that GM-CSF has differential effect on the two types of DCs.
Project description:Small intestinal lamina propria (SI-LP) CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) are imprinted with an ability to metabolize vitamin A (retinol), a property underlying their enhanced capacity to induce the gut-homing receptors CC chemokine receptor-9 and ?4?7 on responding T cells. In this study, we demonstrate that imprinting of CD103(+) DCs is itself critically dependent on vitamin A and occurs locally within the small intestine (SI). The major vitamin A metabolite retinoic acid (RA) induced retinol-metabolizing activity in DCs both in vitro and in vivo, suggesting a direct role for RA in this process. Consistent with this, SI-LP CD103(+) DCs constitutively received RA signals in vivo at significantly higher levels than did colonic CD103(+) DCs. Remarkably, SI CD103(+) DCs remained imprinted in mice depleted of dietary but not of systemic retinol. We found that bile contained high levels of retinol, induced RA receptor-dependent retinol-metabolizing activity in bone marrow-derived DCs, and imprinted these cells with the ability to generate gut-tropic T cells. Taken together, these results suggest a novel and unexpected role for bile in SI-LP CD103(+) DC imprinting.