Project description:An efficient method for the synthesis of fused pyrroloheterocycles from diverse propargyl-substituted heterocycles in the presence of Au-catalyst has been developed. The cascade transformation proceeds via alkyne-vinylidene isomerization with concomitant 1,2-shift of hydrogen, silyl, and stannyl groups. Remarkably, it was also shown that previously unknown 1,2-migration of a germyl group upon alkyne-vinylidene rearrangement occurs under these reaction conditions. This method allows for mild and efficient synthesis of diverse C-2 substituted N-containing heterocycles.
Project description:An efficient palladium-catalyzed intramolecular carbopalladation/cyclization cascade toward tetra- and pentacyclic N-fused heterocycles has been developed. This transformation proceeds via the palladium-catalyzed coupling of aryl halides with internal propargylic esters or ethers followed by the 5-endo-dig cyclization leading to polycyclic pyrroloheterocycles in moderate to excellent yields.
Project description:Conjugation between a 3-D icosahedral carborane and a fused 2-D ?-ring system is ambiguous. To address this issue, we prepared several carborane-fused carbo- and heterocycles. Detailed studies on their molecular structures, NMR data, and NICS (nucleus-independent chemical shift) and ISE (isomerization stabilization energy) values as well as molecular orbital analyses clearly suggest the presence of (1) considerable aromatic character in the exo five-membered ring of carborane-fused carbo- and heterocycles and (2) considerable conjugation between a 3-D carborane and a fused 2-D ?-ring system. These results will shed some light on the design of new carborane-based materials.
Project description:A general, mild, and efficient 1,2-migration/cycloisomerization methodology toward multisubstituted 3-thio-, seleno-, halo-, aryl-, and alkyl-furans and pyrroles, as well as fused heterocycles, valuable building blocks for synthetic chemistry, has been developed. Moreover, regiodivergent conditions have been identified for C-4 bromo- and thio-substituted allenones and alkynones for the assembly of regioisomeric 2-hetero substituted furans selectively. It was demonstrated that, depending on reaction conditions, ambident substrates can be selectively transformed into furan products, as well as undergo selective 6-exo-dig or Nazarov cyclizations. Our mechanistic investigations have revealed that the transformation proceeds via allenylcarbonyl or allenylimine intermediates followed by 1,2-group migration to the allenyl sp carbon during cycloisomerization. It was found that 1,2-migration of chalcogens and halogens predominantly proceeds via formation of irenium intermediates. Analogous intermediate can also be proposed for 1,2-aryl shift. Furthermore, it was shown that the cycloisomerization cascade can be catalyzed by Brønsted acids, albeit less efficiently, and commonly observed reactivity of Lewis acid catalysts cannot be attributed to the eventual formation of proton. Undoubtedly, thermally induced or Lewis acid-catalyzed transformations proceed via intramolecular Michael addition or activation of the enone moiety pathways, whereas certain carbophilic metals trigger carbenoid/oxonium type pathway. However, a facile cycloisomerization in the presence of cationic complexes, as well as observed migratory aptitude in the cycloisomerization of unsymmetrically disubstituted aryl- and alkylallenes, strongly supports electrophilic nature for this transformation. Full mechanistic details, as well as the scope of this transformation, are discussed.
Project description:The direct arylation of benzo[b]furan, benzo[b]thiophene, and indole has been studied by using aromatic bromides as the aryl source. The protocol employing common reagents and a Pd catalyst has led to the regioselective arylation of these heterocycles at the 2-position. A range of functional groups were tolerated, providing quick access to a variety of arylated benzo-fused heterocycles that would be accessible more elaborately using classical synthetic strategies. This is the first systematic study of the direct arylation of benzo[b]furan.
Project description:An additive-free Pd-catalyzed ?-allylation of different imino-group-ontaining heterocycles is reported. The activation of ?-CH pronucleophiles (pKa (DMSO) > 25) occurs without the addition of strong bases or Lewis acids using only the Pd/Xantphos catalyst system. The reaction scope has been studied for various 5- and 6-membered nitrogen-containing heterocycles (yields up to 96%). Mechanistic investigations suggest an initial allylation of the imine-N followed by a Pd-catalyzed formal aza-Claisen rearrangement.
Project description:A new practical method for the synthesis of N-fused heterocycles via the transition metal-catalyzed cycloisomerization of heterocyles possessing a propagyl group has been developed. This very mild, base- and ligand-free method allows for the synthesis of diverse fused heterocyclic cores in good to excellent yields.
Project description:Herein, we report a practical two-step synthetic route to ?-arylpyrrolidines through Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling and enantioselective copper-catalyzed intramolecular hydroamination reactions. The excellent stereoselectivity and broad scope for the transformation of substrates with pharmaceutically relevant heteroarenes render this method a practical and versatile approach for pyrrolidine synthesis. Additionally, this intramolecular hydroamination strategy facilitates the asymmetric synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines and medium-ring dibenzo-fused nitrogen heterocycles.
Project description:The synthesis of bridgehead N-fused [5,6]-bicyclic heterocycles via rhodium(III)-catalyzed C-H functionalization of C-alkenyl azoles with sulfoxonium ylides is disclosed. Reactions proceeded in good to high yields for a range of aryl, heteroaryl and alkyl sulfoxonium ylides. In addition, 2-alkenyl imidazoles with different substitution patterns as well as C-alkenyl triazoles were effective inputs. The reaction could also be performed under straightforward bench top conditions.
Project description:Organocopper reagents smoothly react with heterocyclic propargyl mesylates at low temperature to produce N-fused heterocycles. The copper reagent plays a "double duty" in this novel cascade transformation, which proceeds via an SN2' substitution followed by a subsequent cycloisomerization step.