Epitope mapping of metuximab on CD147 using phage display and molecular docking.
ABSTRACT: Metuximab is the generic name of Licartin, a new drug for radioimmunotherapy of hepatocellular carcinoma. Although it is known to be a mouse monoclonal antibody against CD147, the complete epitope mediating the binding of metuximab to CD147 remains unknown. We panned the Ph.D.-12 phage display peptide library against metuximab and got six mimotopes. The following bioinformatics analysis based on mimotopes suggested that metuximab recognizes a conformational epitope composed of more than 20 residues. The residues of its epitope may include T28, V30, K36, L38, K57, F74, D77, S78, D79, D80, Q81, G83, S86, N98, Q100, L101, H102, G103, P104, V131, P132, and K191. The homology modeling of metuximab and the docking of CD147 to metuximab were also performed. Based on the top one docking model, the epitope was predicted to contain 28 residues: AGTVFTTV (23-30), I37, D45, E84, V88, EPMGTANIQLH (92-102), VPP (131-133), Q164, and K191. Almost half of the residues predicted on the basis of mimotope analysis also appear in the docking result, indicating that both results are reliable. As the predicted epitopes of metuximab largely overlap with interfaces of CD147-CD147 interactions, a structural mechanism of metuximab is proposed as blocking the formation of CD147 dimer.
Project description:M36 is the first member of a novel class of potent HIV-1 entry inhibitors based on human engineered antibody domains (eAds). It exhibits broad inhibitory activity suggesting that its CD4-induced epitope is highly conserved. Here, we describe fine mapping of its epitope by using several approaches. First, a panel of mimotopes was affinity-selected from a random peptide library and potential m36-binding residues were computationally predicted. Second, homology modeling of m36 and molecular docking of m36 onto gp120 revealed potentially important residues in gp120-m36 interactions. Third, the predicted contact residues were verified by site-directed mutagenesis. Taken together, m36 epitope comprising three discontinuous sites including six key gp120 residues (Site C1: Thr123 and Pro124; Site C3: Glu370 and Ile371; Site C4: Met426 and Trp427) were identified. In the 3D structure of gp120, the sites C1 and C4 are located in the bridging sheet and the site C3 is within the ?15-?3 excursion, which play essential roles for the receptor- and coreceptor-binding and are major targets of neutralizing antibodies. Based on these results we propose a precise localization of the m36 epitope and suggest a mechanism of its broad inhibitory activity which could help in the development of novel HIV-1 therapeutics based on eAds.
Project description:Identification of epitopes which invokes strong humoral responses is an essential issue in the field of immunology. Various computational methods that have been developed based on the antigen structures and the mimotopes these years narrow the search for experimental validation. These methods can be divided into two categories: antigen structure-based methods and mimotope-based methods. Though new methods of the two kinds have been proposed in these years, they cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. In this paper, we proposed a new conformational B-cell epitope prediction method based on antigen preprocessing and mimotopes analysis. The method classifies the antigen surface residues into "epitopes" and "nonepitopes" by six epitope propensity scales, removing the "nonepitopes" and using the preprocessed antigen for epitope prediction based on mimotope sequences. The proposed method gives out the mean F score of 0.42 on the testing dataset. When compared with other publicly available servers by using the testing dataset, the new method yields better performance. The results demonstrate the proposed method is competent for the conformational B-cell epitope prediction.
Project description:The one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) combinatorial peptide library is a powerful tool to identify ligand and receptor interactions. Here, we applied the OBOC library technology to identify mimotopes specific to the immunoglobulin E (IgE) epitopes of the major shellfish allergen tropomyosin. OBOC peptide libraries with 8-12 amino acid residues were screened with serum samples from patients with shellfish allergy for IgE mimotopes of tropomyosin. Twenty-five mimotopes were identified from the screening and their binding reactivity to tropomyosin-specific IgE was confirmed by peptide ELISA. These mimotopes could be divided into seven clusters based on sequence homology, and epitope mapping by EpiSearch of the clustered mimotopes was performed to characterize and confirm the validity of mimotopes. Five out of six of the predicted epitopes were found to overlap with previously identified epitopes of tropomyosin. To further confirm the mimicry potential of mimotopes, BALB/c mice were immunized with mimotopes conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin and assayed for their capacity to induce tropomyosin-specific antibodies. BALB/c mice that received mimotope immunization were found to have an elevated level of tropomyosin-specific immunoglobulin G, but not mice that received an irrelevant mimotope. This study pioneers the successful application of the OBOC libraries using whole sera to screen and identify multiple shrimp allergen mimotopes and validates their mimicry potential using in vitro, in vivo, and in silico methods.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 14 september 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.83.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The prediction of conformational B-cell epitopes is one of the most important goals in immunoinformatics. The solution to this problem, even if approximate, would help in designing experiments to precisely map the residues of interaction between an antigen and an antibody. Consequently, this area of research has received considerable attention from immunologists, structural biologists and computational biologists. Phage-displayed random peptide libraries are powerful tools used to obtain mimotopes that are selected by binding to a given monoclonal antibody (mAb) in a similar way to the native epitope. These mimotopes can be considered as functional epitope mimics. Mimotope analysis based methods can predict not only linear but also conformational epitopes and this has been the focus of much research in recent years. Though some algorithms based on mimotope analysis have been proposed, the precise localization of the interaction site mimicked by the mimotopes is still a challenging task. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a method for B-cell epitope prediction based on mimotope analysis called Pep-3D-Search. Given the 3D structure of an antigen and a set of mimotopes (or a motif sequence derived from the set of mimotopes), Pep-3D-Search can be used in two modes: mimotope or motif. To evaluate the performance of Pep-3D-Search to predict epitopes from a set of mimotopes, 10 epitopes defined by crystallography were compared with the predicted results from a Pep-3D-Search: the average Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), sensitivity and precision were 0.1758, 0.3642 and 0.6948. Compared with other available prediction algorithms, Pep-3D-Search showed comparable MCC, specificity and precision, and could provide novel, rational results. To verify the capability of Pep-3D-Search to align a motif sequence to a 3D structure for predicting epitopes, 6 test cases were used. The predictive performance of Pep-3D-Search was demonstrated to be superior to that of other similar programs. Furthermore, a set of test cases with different lengths of sequences was constructed to examine Pep-3D-Search's capability in searching sequences on a 3D structure. The experimental results demonstrated the excellent search capability of Pep-3D-Search, especially when the length of the query sequence becomes longer; the iteration numbers of Pep-3D-Search to precisely localize the target paths did not obviously increase. This means that Pep-3D-Search has the potential to quickly localize the epitope regions mimicked by longer mimotopes. CONCLUSION: Our Pep-3D-Search provides a powerful approach for localizing the surface region mimicked by the mimotopes. As a publicly available tool, Pep-3D-Search can be utilized and conveniently evaluated, and it can also be used to complement other existing tools. The data sets and open source code used to obtain the results in this paper are available on-line and as supplementary material. More detailed materials may be accessed at (http://kyc.nenu.edu.cn/Pep3DSearch/).
Project description:BACKGROUND: A B-cell epitope is a group of residues on the surface of an antigen which stimulates humoral responses. Locating these epitopes on antigens is important for the purpose of effective vaccine design. In recent years, mapping affinity-selected peptides screened from a random phage display library to the native epitope has become popular in epitope prediction. These peptides, also known as mimotopes, share the similar structure and function with the corresponding native epitopes. Great effort has been made in using this similarity between such mimotopes and native epitopes in prediction, which has resulted in better outcomes than statistics-based methods can. However, it cannot maintain a high degree of satisfaction in various circumstances. RESULTS: In this study, we propose a new method that maps a group of mimotopes back to a source antigen so as to locate the interacting epitope on the antigen. The core of this method is a searching algorithm that is incorporated with both dynamic programming (DP) and branch and bound (BB) optimization and operated on a series of overlapping patches on the surface of a protein. These patches are then transformed to a number of graphs using an adaptable distance threshold (ADT) regulated by an appropriate compactness factor (CF), a novel parameter proposed in this study. Compared with both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf, two leading graph-based search tools, on average from the results of 18 test cases, MimoPro, the Web-based implementation of our proposed method, performed better in sensitivity, precision, and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) than both did in epitope prediction. In addition, MimoPro is significantly faster than both Pep-3D-Search and PepSurf in processing. CONCLUSIONS: Our search algorithm designed for processing well constructed graphs using an ADT regulated by CF is more sensitive and significantly faster than other graph-based approaches in epitope prediction. MimoPro is a viable alternative to both PepSurf and Pep-3D-Search for epitope prediction in the same kind, and freely accessible through the MimoPro server located at http://informatics.nenu.edu.cn/MimoPro.
Project description:The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus, a known trigger of diseases in poultry and humans, is perceived as a serious threat to public health. There is a clear need for a broadly protective H5N1 vaccine or vaccines for inducing neutralizing antibodies against multiple clades/subclades. We constructed single, double, and triple mutants of glycan-masked hemagglutiinin (HA) antigens at residues 83, 127 and 138 (i.e., g83, g127, g138, g83+g127, g127+g138, g83+g138 and g83+g127+g138), and then obtained their corresponding HA-expressing adenovirus vectors and recombinant HA proteins using a prime-boost immunization strategy. Our results indicate that the glycan-masked g127+g138 double mutant induced more potent HA-inhibition, virus neutralization antibodies, cross-clade protection against heterologous H5N1 clades, correlated with the enhanced bindings to the receptor binding sites and the highly conserved stem region of HA. The immune refocusing stem-specific antibodies elicited by the glycan-masked H5HA g127+g138 and g83+g127+g138 mutants overlapped with broadly neutralizing epitopes of the CR6261 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes most group 1 subtypes. These findings may provide useful information in the development of a broadly protective H5N1 influenza vaccine.
Project description:Epitope prediction based on random peptide library screening has become a focus as a promising method in immunoinformatics research. Some novel software and web-based servers have been proposed in recent years and have succeeded in given test cases. However, since the number of available mimotopes with the relevant structure of template-target complex is limited, a systematic evaluation of these methods is still absent. In this study, a new benchmark dataset was defined. Using this benchmark dataset and a representative dataset, five examples of the most popular epitope prediction software products which are based on random peptide library screening have been evaluated. Using the benchmark dataset, in no method did performance exceed a 0.42 precision and 0.37 sensitivity, and the MCC scores suggest that the epitope prediction results of these software programs are greater than random prediction about 0.09-0.13; while using the representative dataset, most of the values of these performance measures are slightly improved, but the overall performance is still not satisfactory. Many test cases in the benchmark dataset cannot be applied to these pieces of software due to software limitations. Moreover chances are that these software products are overfitted to the small dataset and will fail in other cases. Therefore finding the correlation between mimotopes and genuine epitope residues is still far from resolved and much larger dataset for mimotope-based epitope prediction is desirable.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Phage display is widely used in basic research such as the exploration of protein-protein interaction sites and networks, and applied research such as the development of new drugs, vaccines, and diagnostics. It has also become a promising method for epitope mapping. Research on new algorithms that assist and automate phage display based epitope mapping has attracted many groups. Most of the existing tools have not been implemented as an online service until now however, making it less convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate them. RESULTS: We present MIMOX, a free web tool that helps to map the native epitope of an antibody based on one or more user supplied mimotopes and the antigen structure. MIMOX was coded in Perl using modules from the Bioperl project. It has two sections. In the first section, MIMOX provides a simple interface for ClustalW to align a set of mimotopes. It also provides a simple statistical method to derive the consensus sequence and embeds JalView as a Java applet to view and manage the alignment. In the second section, MIMOX can map a single mimotope or a consensus sequence of a set of mimotopes, on to the corresponding antigen structure and search for all of the clusters of residues that could represent the native epitope. NACCESS is used to evaluate the surface accessibility of the candidate clusters; and Jmol is embedded to view them interactively in their 3D context. Initial case studies show that MIMOX can reproduce mappings from existing tools such as FINDMAP and 3DEX, as well as providing novel, rational results. CONCLUSION: A web-based tool called MIMOX has been developed for phage display based epitope mapping. As a publicly available online service in this area, it is convenient for the community to access, utilize, and evaluate, complementing other existing programs. MIMOX is freely available at http://web.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp/~hjian/mimox.
Project description:In the post-genomic era, validation of candidate gene targets frequently requires proteinbased strategies. Phage display is a powerful tool to define protein-protein interactions by generating peptide binders against target antigens. Epitope phage display libraries have the potential to enrich coding exon sequences from human genomic loci. We evaluated genomic and cDNA phage display strategies to identify genes in the 5q31 Interleukin gene cluster and to enrich cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase genes from a breast cancer cDNA library. A genomic display library containing 2 x 106 clones with exon-sized inserts was selected with antibodies specific for human Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and Interleukin-13. The library was enriched significantly after two selection rounds and DNA sequencing revealed unique clones. One clone matched a cognate IL-4 epitope; however, the majority of clone insert sequences corresponded to E. coli genomic DNA. These bacterial sequences act as 'mimotopes' (mimetic sequences of the true epitope), correspond to open reading frames, generate displayed peptides, and compete for binding during phage selection. The specificity of these mimotopes for IL-4 was confirmed by competition ELISA. Other E. coli mimotopes were generated using additional antibodies. Mimotopes for a receptor tyrosine kinase gene were also selected using a breast cancer SKBR-3 cDNA phage display library, screened against an anti-erbB2 monoclonal antibody. Identification of mimotopes in genomic and cDNA phage libraries is essential for phage display-based protein validation assays and two-hybrid phage approaches that examine protein-protein interactions. The predominance of E. coli mimotopes suggests that the E. coli genome may be useful to generate peptide diversity biased towards protein coding sequences.
Project description:CD147, a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, is highly expressed in various cancer types and plays important roles in tumor progression, especially by promoting the motility and invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. These crucial roles make CD147 an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in HCC, but no small-molecule inhibitors of CD147 have been developed to date. To identify a candidate inhibitor, we used a pharmacophore model derived from the structure of CD147 to virtually screen over 300,000 compounds. The 100 highest-ranked compounds were subjected to biological assays, and the most potent one, dubbed AC-73 (ID number: AN-465/42834501), was studied further. We confirmed that AC-73 targeted CD147 and further demonstrated it can specifically disrupt CD147 dimerization. Moreover, molecular docking and mutagenesis experiments showed that the possible binding sites of AC-73 on CD147 included Glu64 and Glu73 in the N-terminal IgC2 domain, which two residues are located in the dimer interface of CD147. Functional assays revealed that AC-73 inhibited the motility and invasion of typical HCC cells, but not HCC cells that lacked the CD147 gene, demonstrating on-target action. Further, AC-73 reduced HCC metastasis by suppressing matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 via down-regulation of the CD147/ERK1/2/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway. Finally, AC-73 attenuated progression in an orthotopic nude mouse model of liver metastasis, suggesting that AC-73 or its derivatives have potential for use in HCC intervention. We conclude that the novel small-molecule inhibitor AC-73 inhibits HCC mobility and invasion, probably by disrupting CD147 dimerization and thereby mainly suppressing the CD147/ERK1/2/STAT3/MMP-2 pathways, which are crucial for cancer progression.