A Novel Bis-Thiourea Organocatalyst for the Asymmetric Aza-Henry Reaction.
ABSTRACT: A novel bis-thiourea BINAM-based catalyst for the asymmetric aza-Henry reaction has been developed. This catalyst promotes the reaction of N-Boc imines with nitroalkanes to afford ?-nitroamines with good yields and high enantioselectivities. This catalyst has the advantage that it can be prepared in a single step from commercially available materials. A model is proposed for the catalyst action where the both components of the reaction are activated simultaneously by hydrogen bonding. Regardless of the mechanism, the success of the present catalyst demonstrates the potential of bis-thioureas as an interesting class of relatively unexplored catalysts.
Project description:A spectroscopic study of an organocatalytic Henry reaction between nitroalkanes and aldehydes catalyzed by a quinidine-derived Cinchona alkaloid is described. The binding modes of the reaction substrates are investigated using electronic absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and further corroborated by nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. Aldehydes are shown to associate with both the 6'-OH group and the basic quinuclidine nitrogen of the catalyst, whereas nitroalkanes do not exhibit a clear binding mode. Reaction progress kinetic analysis reveals that the reaction is first-order in both of the substrates and the catalyst. Second, the reaction proceeds approximately five times faster in the excess of the nitroalkanes than in the excess of the aldehydes, suggesting that binding of the aldehydes results in the inhibition of the catalyst. Aldehydes deactivate the basic quinuclidine site, thus suppressing the deprotonation of the nitroalkanes which is the proposed initial step in the reaction cycle.
Project description:Here we describe a preliminary investigation on the ability of natural keratin to catalyze the nitroaldol (Henry) reaction between aldehydes and nitroalkanes. Both aromatic and heteroaromatic aldehydes bearing strong or moderate electron-withdrawing groups were converted into the corresponding ?-nitroalcohol products in both DMSO and in water in the presence of tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB) as a phase transfer catalyst. Negligible background reactions (i.e., negative control experiment in the absence of keratin protein) were observed in these solvent systems. Aromatic aldehydes bearing electron-donating groups and aliphatic aldehydes showed poor or no conversion, respectively. In general, the reactions in water/TBAB required twice the amount of time than in DMSO to achieve similar conversions. Moreover, comparison of the kinetics of the keratin-mediated nitroaldol (Henry) reaction with other biopolymers revealed slower rates for the former and the possibility of fine-tuning the kinetics by appropriate selection of the biopolymer and solvent.
Project description:For the first time, a catalytic asymmetric Henry reaction of 1H-pyrrole-2,3-diones was achieved with a chiral bifunctional amine-thiourea as a catalyst possessing multiple hydrogen-bond donors. With this developed method, a range of 3-hydroxy-3-nitromethyl-1H-pyrrol-2(3H)-ones bearing quaternary stereocenters were obtained in acceptable yield (up to 75%) and enantioselectivity (up to 73% ee).
Project description:Given the significance of carbohydrates in life, medicine, and industry, the development of simple and efficient de novo methods to synthesize carbohydrates are highly desirable. Organocatalytic asymmetric assembly reactions are powerful tools to rapidly construct molecules with stereochemical complexity from simple precursors. Here, we present a simple and robust methodology for the asymmetric synthesis of pyranose derivatives with talo- and manno- configurations from simple achiral precursors through organocatalytic asymmetric intermolecular Michael-Henry reaction sequences. In this process, (tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy)acetaldehyde 1 was successfully utilized in two ways: as a donor in a highly selective anti-Michael reaction and as an acceptor in a consecutive Henry reaction. Varied nitroolefins served as Michael acceptors and varied aldehydes substituted for 1 as Henry acceptors providing for the construction of a wide range of carbohydrates with up to 5 stereocenters. In these reactions, a catalyst-controlled Michael reaction followed by a substrate-controlled Henry reaction provided 3,4-dideoxytalose derivatives 6 in a highly stereoselective manner. The Henry reaction was affected by addition of a simple base such as triethylamine: A complex chiral base was not necessary. 3,4-Dideoxymannose derivatives 7 were produced by simply changing the base from triethylamine to 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene. Extension of this methodology to a syn-Michael initiated sequence was also successful. A mechanistic discussion is provided to explain the unusual substrate-induced stereoselectivity of the Henry reaction.
Project description:Our previous studies into visible-light-mediated aza-Henry reactions demonstrated that molecular oxygen played a vital role in catalyst turnover as well as the production of base to facilitate the nucleophilic addition of nitroalkanes. Herein, improved conditions for the generation of iminium ions from tetrahydroisoquinolines that allow for versatile nucleophilic trapping are reported. The new conditions provide access to a diverse range of functionality under mild, anaerobic reaction conditions as well as mechanistic insights into the photoredox cycle.
Project description:The synthetic utility of the aza-Henry reaction can be diminished on scale by potential hazards associated with the use of peracid to prepare nitroalkane substrates, and the nitroalkanes themselves. In response, a continuous and scalable chemistry platform to prepare aliphatic nitroalkanes on-demand is reported, using the oxidation of oximes with peracetic acid and direct reaction of the nitroalkane intermediate in an aza-Henry reaction. A uniquely designed pipes-in-series plug flow tube reactor addresses a range of process challenges including stability and safe handling of peroxides and nitroalkanes. The subsequent continuous extraction generates a solution of purified nitroalkane which can be directly used in the following enantioselective aza-Henry chemistry to furnish valuable chiral diamine precursors in high selectivity, thus, completely avoiding isolation of potentially unsafe low molecular weight nitroalkane intermediate. A continuous campaign (16 h) established that these conditions were effective in processing 100 g of the oxime and furnishing 1.4 L of nitroalkane solution.
Project description:With the aim to easily recover and reuse the catalyst, an efficient amino alcohol catalyst previously tested in the asymmetric addition of diethylzinc to several aromatic aldehydes has been immobilized on proper functionalized superparamagnetic core-shell magnetite-silica nanoparticles and employed in the Henry reaction in the semi-homogeneous phase. The nanocatalyst exhibits a promising catalytic activity that remains unchanged in the three catalytic cycles performed. The results prove that highly efficient catalysts, by being immobilized on suitable magnetic nanosupports, can be easily recovered and reused, maintaining their catalytic behavior.
Project description:The asymmetric Henry reaction of 2-acylpyridine N-oxide remains a challenge as N-oxides generally act as competitive catalyst inhibitors or displace activating ligands. A novel variable yield (up to 99%) asymmetric Henry reaction of 2-acypyridine N-oxides catalyzed by a Ni-aminophenol sulfonamide complex with good to excellent enantioselectivity (up to 99%) has been developed. Mechanistic studies suggest that the unique properties of the electron-pairs of N-oxides for complexation with Ni makes the unexpected mononuclear complex, rather than the previously reported dinuclear complex, the active species.
Project description:While aryl pyrrolidinoamido-thioureas derived from ?-amino acids are effective catalysts in a number of asymmetric transformations, they exist as mixtures of slowly interconverting amide rotamers. Herein, the compromising role of amide bond isomerism is analyzed experimentally and computationally. A modified catalyst structure that exists almost exclusively as a single amide rotamer is introduced. This modification is shown to result in improved reactivity and enantioselectivity by minimizing competing reaction pathways.
Project description:Bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-ones have been prepared from a tandem Michael-Henry reaction between cyclohexane-1,2-diones and nitroalkenes using a quinine-derived thiourea as the catalyst. Although four stereogenic centers were created during the reaction, only two diastereomers were obtained in good diastereoselectivity and high enantioselectivity (92-99% ee). When 3-methylcyclohexane-1,2-dione (R(1) = Me) was used as the substrate, only the regioisomeric product of the corresponding thermodynamic enolate was obtained.