IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating.
ABSTRACT: Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans.
Project description:Shellfish allergy is an increasing global health priority, frequently affecting adults. Molluscs are an important shellfish group causing food allergy but knowledge of their allergens and cross-reactivity is limited. Optimal diagnosis of mollusc allergy enabling accurate advice on food avoidance is difficult. Allergens of four frequently ingested Asia-Pacific molluscs are characterized: Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata), blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), saucer scallop (Amusium balloti), and southern calamari (Sepioteuthis australis), examining cross-reactivity between species and with blue swimmer crab tropomyosin, Por p 1.IgE ELISA showed that cooking increased IgE reactivity of mollusc extracts and basophil activation confirmed biologically relevant IgE reactivity. Immunoblotting demonstrated strong IgE reactivity of several proteins including one corresponding to heat-stable tropomyosin in all species (37-40 kDa). IgE-reactive Sydney rock oyster proteins were identified by mass spectrometry, and the novel major oyster tropomyosin allergen was cloned, sequenced, and designated Sac g 1 by the IUIS. Oyster extracts showed highest IgE cross-reactivity with other molluscs, while mussel cross-reactivity was weakest. Inhibition immunoblotting demonstrated high cross-reactivity between tropomyosins of mollusc and crustacean species.These findings inform novel approaches for reliable diagnosis and improved management of mollusc allergy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:IgE reactivity to fish allergens in atopic dogs, which are used as models for food allergy, has not been elucidated to date. We investigated IgE reactivity to crude extracts and purified allergens derived from the Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) in atopic dogs to identify the allergenic proteins of cod. RESULTS:The levels of specific IgE to crude cod extracts were measured in the sera of 179 atopic dogs, including 27 dogs with cod allergy, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Specific IgE to crude cod extracts were present in 36 (20%) of the 179 atopic dogs and in 12 (44%) of the 27 dogs with cod allergy. The allergens in crude cod extracts were analyzed by ELISA, immunoblotting, and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In allergen component analysis, IgE reactivity to tropomyosin and enolase was observed in the sera of dogs with cod allergy. IgE reactivity to parvalbumin, collagen, and tropomyosin was evaluated using the sera of atopic dogs that tested positive for specific IgE to crude cod extracts. Among the 36 dogs with IgE reactivity to crude cod extracts, 9 (25%), 14 (39%), and 18 (50%) dogs tested positive for specific IgE to parvalbumin, collagen, and tropomyosin, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:The IgE reactivity to cod allergens observed in dogs was similar to that in humans, and this finding further supports the use of atopic dogs with fish allergy as a model for fish allergy in humans.
Project description:Understanding and predicting an individual's clinical cross-reactivity to related allergens is a key to better management, treatment and progression of novel therapeutics for food allergy. In food allergy, clinical cross-reactivity is observed in patients reacting to unexpected allergen sources containing the same allergenic protein or antibody binding patches (epitopes), often resulting in severe allergic reactions. Shellfish allergy affects up to 2% of the world population and persists for life in most patients. The diagnosis of shellfish allergy is however often challenging due to reported clinical cross-reactivity to other invertebrates including mites and cockroaches. Prediction of cross-reactivity can be achieved utilizing an in-depth analysis of a few selected IgE-antibody binding epitopes. We combined available experimentally proven IgE-binding epitopes with informatics-based cross-reactivity prediction modeling to assist in the identification of clinical cross-reactive biomarkers on shellfish allergens. This knowledge can be translated into prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. To overcome the problem of predicting IgE cross-reactivity of shellfish allergens we developed an epitope conservation model using IgE binding epitopes available in the Immune Epitope Database and Analysis Resource (http://www.iedb.org/). We applied this method to a set of four different shrimp allergens, and successfully identified several non-cross-reactive as well as cross-reactive epitopes, which have been experimentally established to cross-react. Based on these findings we suggest that this method can be used for advanced component-resolved-diagnosis to identify patients sensitized to a specific shellfish group and distinguish from patients with extensive cross-reactivity to ingested and inhaled allergens from invertebrate sources.
Project description:Designer proteins deprived of its IgE-binding reactivity are being sought as a regimen for allergen-specific immunotherapy. Although shrimp tropomyosin (Met e 1) has long been identified as the major shellfish allergen, no immunotherapy is currently available. In this study, we aim at identifying the Met e 1 IgE epitopes for construction of hypoallergens and to determine the IgE inhibitory capacity of the hypoallergens. IgE-binding epitopes were defined by three online computational models, ELISA and dot-blot using sera from shrimp allergy patients. Based on the epitope data, two hypoallergenic derivatives were constructed by site-directed mutagenesis (MEM49) and epitope deletion (MED171). Nine regions on Met e 1 were defined as the major IgE-binding epitopes. Both hypoallergens MEM49 and MED171 showed marked reduction in their in vitro reactivity towards IgE from shrimp allergy patients and Met e 1-sensitized mice, as well as considerable decrease in induction of mast cell degranulation as demonstrated in passive cutaneous anaphylaxis assay. Both hypoallergens were able to induce Met e 1-recognizing IgG antibodies in mice, specifically IgG2a antibodies, that strongly inhibited IgE from shrimp allergy subjects and Met e 1-sensitized mice from binding to Met e 1. These results indicate that the two designer hypoallergenic molecules MEM49 and MED171 exhibit desirable preclinical characteristics, including marked reduction in IgE reactivity and allergenicity, as well as ability to induce blocking IgG antibodies. This approach therefore offers promises for development of immunotherapeutic regimen for shrimp tropomyosin allergy.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To characterize the major allergens of Macrobrachium rosenbergii (giant freshwater prawn). METHODS: Raw and cooked extracts of the giant freshwater prawn were prepared. The IgE reactivity pattern was identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting technique with the sera of 20 skin prick test (SPT) positive patients. The major allergen identified was then characterized using the proteomics approach involving a combination of two-dimensional (2-DE) electrophoresis, mass spectrometry and bioinformatics tools. RESULTS: SDS-PAGE of the raw extract showed 23 protein bands (15-250 kDa) but those ranging from 40 to 100 kDa were not found in the cooked extract. From immunoblotting experiments, raw and cooked extracts demonstrated 11 and 5 IgE-binding proteins, respectively, with a molecular mass ranging from 15 to 155 kDa. A heat-resistant 36 kDa protein was identified as the major allergen of both extracts. In addition, a 42 kDa heat-sensitive protein was shown to be a major allergen of the raw extract. The 2-DE gel fractionated the prawn proteins to more than 50 different protein spots. Of these, 10 spots showed specific IgE reactivity with patients' sera. Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) analysis led to identification of 2 important allergens, tropomyosin and arginine kinase. CONCLUSIONS: It can be concluded that the availability of such allergens would help in component-based diagnosis and therapy of prawn allergies.
Project description:The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.
Project description:Tropomyosins represent clinically relevant seafood allergens but the role of mite tropomyosin, Der p 10, in house dust mite (HDM) allergy has not been studied in detail.To express and purify a recombinant Der p 10 with equivalent IgE reactivity as natural Der p 10 and to evaluate its IgE reactivity and allergenic activity in HDM-allergic patients.rDer p 10 was expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterized by mass spectrometry and circular dichroism. It was tested for IgE reactivity in 1322 HDM-allergic patients. Detailed IgE-reactivity profiles to six HDM allergens (Der p 1, 2, 5, 7, 10, 21) were established for subgroups of Der p 10-positive and -negative patients. The allergenic activity of rDer p 10 was evaluated in basophil degranulation experiments.rDer p 10 is an ?-helical protein sharing IgE epitopes with nDer p 10. It is recognized by 15.2% of HDM-allergic patients. Der p 10-negative patients were primarily sensitized to Der p 1 and/or Der p 2, whereas Der p 10-positive patients reacted to several other HDM allergens besides the major allergens (Der p 1, Der p 2) or showed a rather selective Der p 10 reactivity. The allergenic activity of Der p 10 was generally low but patients could be identified who suffered from clinically relevant HDM allergy due to Der p 10 sensitization.Der p 10 may be a diagnostic marker for HDM-allergic patients with additional sensitization to allergens other than Der p 1 and Der p 2. Such patients may require attention when allergen-specific immunotherapy is considered.
Project description:Background:Mosquito allergy is common in tropical countries but remains under-diagnosed. This may be due to the lack of knowledge and diagnostic tools for tropical mosquito allergens. Objective:We aimed to characterize allergens from tropical mosquito species and investigate IgE reactivity in mosquito-allergic patients to the salivary gland proteins from these mosquitoes. Methods:Salivary gland extract (SGE) from 4 mosquito species, highly distributed in the tropics, including Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Anopheles dirus b, were studied. SGE-specific IgE and IgG ELISA were developed, and serum from 64 mosquito-allergic and 22 non-allergic healthy control subjects was assayed. Further investigations using IgE-immunoblots followed by mass spectrometry analysis were performed to identify and characterize allergens from each species. Results:Mosquito-allergic subjects have detectable serum IgE to SGE derived from local mosquito species, while the IgE levels to Aedes communis using commercially available ELISA were mostly minimal. IgE-immunoblot analysis and mass spectrometry identified 5 novel mosquito allergens from A. albopictus (Aed al 2, Aed al 3), C. quinquefasciatus (Cul q 2.01, Cul q 3), and A. dirus b (Ano d 2). Interestingly, 4 of the 5 new allergens belong to the D7 protein family. Conclusions & clinical relevance:Five novel allergens from 3 tropical mosquito species were characterized. The majority of mosquito-allergic subjects who live in the tropics have IgE reactivity to these allergens. Our study paves the way for the development of diagnostic tests, component-resolved diagnostics, and future immunotherapy for mosquito allergy in tropical countries.
Project description:<label>BACKGROUND</label>Ragweed is a major cause of seasonal allergy, affecting millions of people worldwide. Several allergens have been defined based on IgE reactivity, but their relative immunogenicity in terms of T cell responses has not been studied.<label>OBJECTIVE</label>We comprehensively characterized T cell responses from atopic, ragweed-allergic subjects to Amb a 1, Amb a 3, Amb a 4, Amb a 5, Amb a 6, Amb a 8, Amb a 9, Amb a 10, Amb a 11, and Amb p 5 and examined their correlation with serological reactivity and sequence conservation in other allergens.<label>METHODS</label>Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from donors positive for IgE towards ragweed extracts after in vitro expansion for secretion of IL-5 (a representative Th2 cytokine) and IFN-? (Th1) in response to a panel of overlapping peptides spanning the above-listed allergens were assessed.<label>RESULTS</label>Three previously identified dominant T cell epitopes (Amb a 1 176-191, 200-215, and 344-359) were confirmed, and three novel dominant epitopes (Amb a 1 280-295, 304-319, and 320-335) were identified. Amb a 1, the dominant IgE allergen, was also the dominant T cell allergen, but dominance patterns for T cell and IgE responses for the other ragweed allergens did not correlate. Dominance for T cell responses correlated with conservation of ragweed epitopes with sequences of other well-known allergens.<label>CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE</label>These results provide the first assessment of the hierarchy of T cell reactivity in ragweed allergens, which is distinct from that observed for IgE reactivity and influenced by T cell epitope sequence conservation. The results suggest that ragweed allergens associated with lesser IgE reactivity and significant T cell reactivity may be targeted for T cell immunotherapy, and further support the development of immunotherapies against epitopes conserved across species to generate broad reactivity against many common allergens.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Due to high IgE recognition frequency and high allergenic activity, Der p 5 and Der p 21 are clinically important house dust mite (HDM) allergens. The objective of this study was to characterize the immunodominant IgE epitopes of Der p 5 and Der p 21 responsible for their high allergenic activity. METHODS:A panel of 12 overlapping peptides spanning the Der p 5 and Der p 21 sequence were synthesized to search for sequential IgE epitopes by direct testing for allergic patients' IgE reactivity. Peptide-specific antibodies raised in rabbits were used in inhibition studies for localizing conformational IgE epitopes which were visualized on the surfaces of the allergen structures by molecular modelling. IgE cross-reactivity between the allergens was investigated by IgE inhibition studies. RESULTS:Immunodominant IgE epitopes defined by allergic patients' IgE on Der p 5 and Der p 21 were primarily of the conformational, discontinuous type including N- and C-terminal portions of the protein. They could be located on each allergen on one area with similar localization, but despite similar structure of the allergens, no relevant IgE cross-reactivity could be detected. CONCLUSION:Our study shows that Der p 5 and Der p 21 contain a major conformational IgE epitope-containing area located on similar portions of their structure, but they lack relevant IgE cross-reactivity. These data are important for the development of modern allergy vaccines based on defined molecules for allergen-specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy.