Distinct Roles for CXCR6(+) and CXCR6(-) CD4(+) T Cells in the Pathogenesis of Chronic Colitis.
ABSTRACT: CD4(+) T cells play a central role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) via high-level production of effector cytokines such as IFN-? and TNF-?. To better characterize the colitogenic CD4(+) T cells, we examined their expression of CXCR6, a chemokine receptor that is expressed by T cells upon activation and is upregulated in several inflammatory diseases. We found that 80% of colonic lamina propria CD4(+) T cells expressed CXCR6 in the CD45RB(high) T cell-transferred colitis model. CXCR6 expression was similarly upregulated in inflamed mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Although surface marker analysis demonstrated that both CXCR6(+) and CXCR6(-) CD4(+) T-cell subsets consist of the cells with effector and effector-memory cells, the more cells in the CXCR6(+) subset produced IFN-? and TNF-? compared to CXCR6(-) subset, and only the CXCR6(+) subset produced IL-17A. Nevertheless, adoptive retransfer of lamina propria CXCR6(+) T cells into Rag1 (-/-) recipients failed to induce the disease due to limited expansion of the transferred cells. By contrast, retransfer of CXCR6(-) cells evoked colitis similar to that observed in CD4(+)CD45RB(high) T cell-transferred mice, and resulted in their conversion into CXCR6(+) cells. Collectively, these observations suggest that the CXCR6(+)CD4(+) T-cell subset consists of terminally differentiated effector cells that serve as the major source of effector cytokines in the inflamed tissue, whereas CXCR6(-)CD4(+) T-cell subset serves as a colitogenic memory compartment that retains the ability to proliferate and differentiate into CXCR6(+)CD4(+) T cells.
Project description:Pandemic HIV-1 originated from the cross-species transmission of SIVcpz, which infects chimpanzees, while SIVcpz itself emerged following the cross-species transmission and recombination of monkey SIVs, with env contributed by the SIVgsn/mus/mon lineage that infects greater spot-nosed, mustached and mona monkeys. SIVcpz and HIV-1 are pathogenic in their respective hosts, while the phenotype of their SIVgsn/mus/mon ancestors is unknown. However, two well-studied SIV infected natural hosts, sooty mangabeys (SMs) and African green monkeys (AGMs), typically remain healthy despite high viral loads; these species express low levels of the canonical coreceptor CCR5, and recent work shows that CXCR6 is a major coreceptor for SIV in these hosts. It is not known what coreceptors were used by the precursors of SIVcpz, whether coreceptor use changed during emergence of the SIVcpz/HIV-1 lineage, and what T cell subsets express CXCR6 in natural hosts. Using species-matched coreceptors and CD4, we show here that SIVcpz uses only CCR5 for entry and, like HIV-1, cannot use CXCR6. In contrast, SIVmus efficiently uses both CXCR6 and CCR5. Coreceptor selectivity was determined by Env, with CXCR6 use abrogated by Pro326 in the V3 crown, which is absent in monkey SIVs but highly conserved in SIVcpz/HIV-1. To characterize which cells express CXCR6, we generated a novel antibody that recognizes CXCR6 of multiple primate species. Testing lymphocytes from SM, the best-studied natural host, we found that CXCR6 is restricted to CD4+ effector memory cells, and is expressed by a sub-population distinct from those expressing CCR5. Thus, efficient CXCR6 use, previously identified in SM and AGM infection, also characterizes a member of the SIV lineage that gave rise to SIVcpz/HIV-1. Loss of CXCR6 usage by SIVcpz may have altered its cell tropism, shifting virus from CXCR6-expressing cells that may support replication without disrupting immune function or homeostasis, towards CCR5-expressing cells with pathogenic consequences.
Project description:The chemokine receptor CXCR6 is expressed on different T cell subsets and up-regulated following T cell activation. CXCR6 has been implicated in the localization of cells to the liver due to the constitutive expression of its ligand CXCL16 on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. Here, we analyzed the role of CXCR6 in CD8+ T cell responses to infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes. CD8+ T cells responding to listerial antigens acquired high expression levels of CXCR6. However, deficiency of mice in CXCR6 did not impair control of the L. monocytogenes infection. CXCR6-deficient mice were able to generate listeria-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses and showed accumulation of T cells in the infected liver. In transfer assays, we detected reduced accumulation of listeria-specific CXCR6-deficient CD8+ T cells in the liver at early time points post infection. Though, CXCR6 was dispensable at later time points of the CD8+ T cell response. When transferred CD8+ T cells were followed for extended time periods, we observed a decline in CXCR6-deficient CD8+ T cells. The manifestation of this cell loss depended on the tissue analyzed. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that CXCR6 is not required for the formation of a T cell response to L. monocytogenes and for the accumulation of T cells in the infected liver but CXCR6 appears to influence long-term survival and tissue distribution of activated cells.
Project description:We explored the function of endogenous type I IFNs (IFN-1) in the colon using the T cell adoptive transfer model of colitis. Colon mononuclear phagocytes (MPs) constitutively produced IFN-1 in a Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-?-dependent manner. Transfer of CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells from wild-type (WT) or IFN-?/? receptor subunit 1 knockout (IFNAR1(-/-)) mice into RAG(-/-) hosts resulted in similar onset and severity of colitis. In contrast, RAG(-/-) × IFNAR1(-/-) double knockout (DKO) mice developed accelerated severe colitis compared with RAG(-/-) hosts when transferred with WT CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. IFNAR signaling on host hematopoietic cells was required to delay colitis development. MPs isolated from the colon lamina propria of IFNAR1(-/-) mice produced less IL-10, IL-1R antagonist, and IL-27 compared with WT MPs. Accelerated colitis development in DKO mice was characterized by early T cell proliferation and accumulation of CD11b(+)CD103(-) dendritic cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes, both of which could be reversed by systemic administration of IL-1R antagonist (anakinra). Cotransfer of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) from WT or IFNAR1(-/-) mice prevented disease caused by CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells. However, WT CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(GFP+) Tregs cotransferred with CD4(+)CD45RB(hi) T cells into DKO hosts failed to expand or maintain Foxp3 expression and gained effector functions in the colon. To our knowledge, these data are the first to demonstrate an essential role for IFN-1 in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines by gut MPs and the indirect maintenance of intestinal T cell homeostasis by both limiting effector T cell expansion and promoting Treg stability.
Project description:Resident memory T cells (TRM cells) are an important first-line defense against respiratory pathogens, but the unique contributions of lung TRM cell populations to protective immunity and the factors that govern their localization to different compartments of the lung are not well understood. Here, we show that airway and interstitial TRM cells have distinct effector functions and that CXCR6 controls the partitioning of TRM cells within the lung by recruiting CD8 TRM cells to the airways. The absence of CXCR6 significantly decreases airway CD8 TRM cells due to altered trafficking of CXCR6-/- cells within the lung, and not decreased survival in the airways. CXCL16, the ligand for CXCR6, is localized primarily at the respiratory epithelium, and mice lacking CXCL16 also had decreased CD8 TRM cells in the airways. Finally, blocking CXCL16 inhibited the steady-state maintenance of airway TRM cells. Thus, the CXCR6/CXCL16 signaling axis controls the localization of TRM cells to different compartments of the lung and maintains airway TRM cells.
Project description:To identify the role of chemokine receptor in inflammation of colon, we isolated CD3+CD4+ helper T cells harboring CXCR6 from colonic lamina propria of mice We used microarrays to identify the differentially expressed genes between CXCR6Hi Tcells and CXCR6Lo Tcells CXCR6 Hi or CXCR6 Lo T cells were isolated from colonic lamina propria for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) are important players of early immune defenses in situations like lymphoid organogenesis or in case of immune response to inflammation, infection and cancer. Th1 and Th2 antagonism is crucial for the regulation of immune responses, however mechanisms are still unclear for ILC functions. ILC2 and NK cells were reported to be both involved in allergic airway diseases and were shown to be able to interplay in the regulation of the immune response. CXCR6 is a common chemokine receptor expressed by all ILC, and its deficiency affects ILC2 and ILC1/NK cell numbers and functions in lungs in both steady-state and inflammatory conditions. We determined that the absence of a specific ILC2 KLRG1+ST2- subset in CXCR6-deficient mice is probably dependent on CXCR6 for its recruitment to the lung under inflammation. We show that despite their decreased numbers, lung CXCR6-deficient ILC2 are even more activated cells producing large amount of type 2 cytokines that could drive eosinophilia. This is strongly associated to the decrease of the lung Th1 response in CXCR6-deficient mice.
Project description:T-lymphocytes are critical for protection against respiratory infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and influenza virus, with chemokine receptors playing an important role in directing these cells to the lungs. CXCR6 is expressed by activated T-lymphocytes and its ligand, CXCL16, is constitutively expressed by the bronchial epithelia, suggesting a role in T-lymphocyte recruitment and retention. However, it is unknown whether CXCR6 is required in responses to pulmonary infection, particularly on CD4+ T-lymphocytes. Analysis of CXCR6-reporter mice revealed that in naïve mice, lung leukocyte expression of CXCR6 was largely restricted to a small population of T-lymphocytes, but this population was highly upregulated after either infection. Nevertheless, pulmonary infection of CXCR6-deficient mice with M. tuberculosis or recombinant influenza A virus expressing P25 peptide (rIAV-P25), an I-Ab-restricted epitope from the immunodominant mycobacterial antigen, Ag85B, demonstrated that the receptor was redundant for recruitment of T-lymphocytes to the lungs. Interestingly, CXCR6-deficiency resulted in reduced bacterial burden in the lungs 6 weeks after M. tuberculosis infection, and reduced weight loss after rIAV-P25 infection compared to wild type controls. This was paradoxically associated with a decrease in Th1-cytokine responses in the lung parenchyma. Adoptive transfer of P25-specific CXCR6-deficient T-lymphocytes into WT mice revealed that this functional change in Th1-cytokine production was not due to a T-lymphocyte intrinsic mechanism. Moreover, there was no reduction in the number or function of CD4+ and CD8+ tissue resident memory cells in the lungs of CXCR6-deficient mice. Although CXCR6 was not required for T-lymphocyte recruitment or retention in the lungs, CXCR6 influenced the kinetics of the inflammatory response so that deficiency led to increased host control of M. tuberculosis and influenza virus.
Project description:Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP) is the cause of Johne's disease, an inflammatory bowel disorder of ruminants. Due to the similar pathology, MAP was also suggested to cause Crohn's disease (CD). Despite of intensive research, this question is still not settled, possibly due to the lack of versatile mouse models. The aim of this study was to identify basic immunologic mechanisms in response to MAP infection. Immune compromised C57BL/6 Rag2-/- mice were infected with MAP intraperitoneally. Such chronically infected mice were then reconstituted with CD4+ and CD8+ T cells 28 days after infection. A systemic inflammatory response, detected as enlargement of the spleen and granuloma formation in the liver, was observed in mice infected and reconstituted with CD4+ T cells. Whereby inflammation in infected and CD4+CD45RB(hi) T cell reconstituted animals was always higher than in the other groups. Reconstitution of infected animals with CD8+ T cells did not result in any inflammatory signs. Interestingly, various markers of inflammation were strongly up-regulated in the colon of infected mice reconstituted with CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells. We propose, the usual non-colitogenic CD4+CD45RB(lo/int) T cells were converted into inflammatory T cells by the interaction with MAP. However, the power of such cells might be not sufficient for a fully established inflammatory response in the colon. Nevertheless, our model system appears to mirror aspects of an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) like CD and Johne's diseases. Thus, it will provide an experimental platform on which further knowledge on IBD and the involvement of MAP in the induction of CD could be acquired.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells participate in immunity against several pathogens by exerting cytotoxic and cytokine-production activities. Some NK cell subsets also mediate recall responses that resemble memory of adaptive lymphocytes against antigenic and non-antigenic stimuli. The C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 6 (CXCR6) is crucial for the development and maintenance of memory-like responses in murine NK cells. In humans, several subsets of tissue-resident and circulating NK cells with different functional properties express CXCR6. However, the role of CXCR6+ NK cells in immunity against relevant human pathogens is unknown. Here, we addressed whether murine and human CXCR6+ NK cells respond to antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). For this purpose, we evaluated the immunophenotype of hepatic and splenic CXCR6+ NK cells in mice exposed to a cell-wall (CW) extract of Mtb strain H37Rv. Also, we characterized the expression of CXCR6 in peripheral NK cells from active pulmonary tuberculosis (ATB) patients, individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), and healthy volunteer donors (HD). Furthermore, we evaluated the responses of CXCR6+ NK cells from HD, LTBI, and ATB subjects to the in vitro exposure to CW preparations of Mtb H37Rv and Mtb HN878. Our results showed that murine hepatic CXCR6+ NK cells expand in vivo after consecutive administrations of Mtb H37Rv CW to mice. Remarkably, pooled hepatic and splenic, but not isolated splenic NK cells from treated mice, enhance their cytokine production capacity after an in vitro re-challenge with H37Rv CW. In humans, CXCR6+ NK cells were barely detected in the peripheral blood, although slightly significative increments in the percentage of CXCR6+, CXCR6+CD49a-, CXCR6+CD49a+, and CXCR6+CD69+ NK cells were observed in ATB patients as compared to HD and LTBI individuals. In contrast, the expansion of CXCR6+CD49a- and CXCR6+CD69+ NK cells in response to the in vitro stimulation with Mtb H37Rv was higher in LTBI individuals than in ATB patients. Finally, we found that Mtb HN878 CW generates IFN-?-producing CXCR6+CD49a+ NK cells. Our results demonstrate that antigens of both laboratory-adapted and clinical Mtb strains are stimulating factors for murine and human CXCR6+ NK cells. Future studies evaluating the role of CXCR6+ NK cells during TB are warranted.
Project description:Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a unique T cell subset that contributes to protective immunity against microbial pathogens, but little is known about the role of chemokines in recruiting MAIT cells to the site of infection. Pulmonary infection with Francisella tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) stimulates the accrual of large numbers of MAIT cells in the lungs of mice. Using this infection model, we find that MAIT cells are predominantly CXCR6+ but do not require CXCR6 for accumulation in the lungs. However, CXCR6 does contribute to long-term retention of MAIT cells in the airway lumen after clearance of the infection. We also find that MAIT cells are not recruited from secondary lymphoid organs and largely proliferate in situ in the lungs after infection. Nevertheless, the only known ligand for CXCR6, CXCL16, is sufficient to drive MAIT cell accumulation in the lungs in the absence of infection when administered in combination with the MAIT cell antigen 5-OP-RU. Overall, this new data advances the understanding of mechanisms that facilitate MAIT cell accumulation and retention in the lungs.