In vivo reduction of cell-free methemoglobin to oxyhemoglobin results in vasoconstriction in canines.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Cell-free hemoglobin (Hb) in the vasculature leads to vasoconstriction and injury. Proposed mechanisms have been based on nitric oxide (NO) scavenging by oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) or processes mediated by oxidative reactions of methemoglobin (metHb). To clarify this, we tested the vascular effect and fate of oxyHb or metHb infusions. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS:Twenty beagles were challenged with 1-hour similar infusions of (200 ?mol/L) metHb (n = 5), oxyHb (n = 5), albumin (n = 5), or saline (n = 5). Measurements were taken over 3 hours. RESULTS:Infusions of the two pure Hb species resulted in increases in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), systemic vascular resistance index, and NO consumption capacity of plasma (all p < 0.05) with the effects of oxyHb being greater than that from metHb (MAP; increase 0 to 3 hr; 27 ± 6% vs. 7 ± 2%, respectively; all p < 0.05). The significant vasoconstrictive response of metHb (vs. albumin and saline controls) was related to in vivo autoreduction of metHb to oxyHb, and the vasoactive Hb species that significantly correlated with MAP was always oxyHb, either from direct infusion or after in vivo reduction from metHb. Clearance of total Hb from plasma was faster after metHb than oxyHb infusion (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that greater NO consumption capacity makes oxyHb more vasoactive than metHb. Additionally, metHb is reduced to oxyHb after infusion and cleared faster or is less stable than oxyHb. Although we found no direct evidence that metHb itself is involved in acute vascular effects, in aggregate, these studies suggest that metHb is not inert and its mechanism of vasoconstriction is due to its delayed conversion to oxyHb by plasma-reducing agents.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cerebral intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a major cause of severe neurodevelopmental impairment in preterm infants. To date, no therapy is available that prevents infants from developing serious neurological disability following IVH. Thus, to develop treatment strategies for IVH, it is essential to characterize the initial sequence of molecular events that leads to brain damage. In this study, we investigated extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) as a causal initiator of inflammation in preterm IVH. METHODS: Using a preterm rabbit pup model, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and events following IVH. We also characterized the concentrations of cell-free Hb metabolites and pro-inflammatory mediators in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of preterm human infants and rabbit pups. Finally, Hb metabolites were evaluated as causal initiators of inflammation in primary rabbit astrocyte cell cultures. RESULTS: Following IVH in preterm rabbit pups, the intraventricular CSF concentration of cell-free methemoglobin (metHb) increased from 24 to 72 hours and was strongly correlated with the concentration of TNF? at 72 hours (r2 = 0.896, P <0.001). Also, the mRNA expression of TNF?, IL-1?, and Toll-like receptor-4 and TNF? protein levels were significantly increased in periventricular tissue at 72 hours, which was accompanied by extensive astrocyte activation (that is, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)staining). Furthermore, exposure of primary rabbit astrocyte cell cultures to metHb caused a dose-dependent increase in TNF? mRNA and protein levels, which was not observed following exposure to oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) or hemin. Finally, a positive correlation (r2 = 0.237, P <0.03) between metHb and TNF? concentrations was observed in the CSF of preterm human infants following IVH. CONCLUSIONS: Following preterm IVH, increased metHb formation in the intraventricular space induces expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Thus, the formation of metHb might be a crucial initial event in the development of brain damage following preterm IVH. Accordingly, removal, scavenging, or neutralization of Hb could present a therapeutic opportunity and plausible approach to decreasing the damage in the immature brain following preterm IVH.
Project description:The magnetic characteristics of hemoglobin (Hb) changes with the binding of dioxygen (O2) to the heme prosthetic groups of the globin chains: from paramagnetic ferrous Hb to diamagnetic ferrous oxyhemoglobin (oxyHb) with reversibly bound O2, or paramagnetic ferric methemoglobin (metHb). When multiplied over the number of Hb molecules in a red blood cell (RBC), the effect is detectable through motion analysis of RBCs in a high magnetic field and gradient. This motion is referred to as magnetophoretic mobility, which can be conveniently expressed as a fraction of the cell sedimentation velocity. In this Article, using a previously developed and reported instrument, cell tracking velocimetry (CTV), we are able to detect difference in Hb concentration in two RBC populations to a resolution of 1 × 107 Hb molecules per cell (4 × 107 atoms of Fe per cell or 4-5 femtograms of Fe). Similar resolution achieved with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry requires on the order of 105-106 cells and provides an average, whereas CTV provides a measurement for each cell. CTV analysis revealed that RBCs lose, on average, 17% of their Hb after 42 days of storage, the maximum FDA-approved length of time for the cold storage of RBCs in additive solution. This difference in Hb concentration was the result of routine RBC storage; clinical implications are discussed.
Project description:Hemolytic diseases are characterized by an accelerated breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs) and the release of hemoglobin (Hb). Following, RBC lysis Hb oxidation occurs with the formation of different redox states of Hb (metHb and ferrylHb) and the release of heme. ferrylHb is unstable and decomposes to metHb with the concomitant formation of globin radicals and eventually covalently crosslinked Hb multimers. The goal of the present study was to determine the concentrations of the different redox states of Hb in biological samples during hemolytic conditions. We used plasma and urine samples of mice with intravascular hemolysis and human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples following intraventricular hemorrhage. Because ferrylHb is highly unstable, we also addressed the fate of this species. metHb and free heme time-dependently accumulate in plasma and CSF samples following intravascular hemolysis and intraventricular hemorrhage, respectively. ferrylHb is hardly detectable in the biological samples during hemolytic conditions. Under in vitro conditions, ferrylHb decomposes quickly to metHb, which process is associated with the formation of covalently crosslinked Hb multimers. We detected these covalently crosslinked Hb multimers in plasma, urine, and CSF samples during hemolytic conditions. Because globin modification is specific for these Hb forms, we propose to call this heterogeneous form of Hb produced during ferrylHb decomposition as globin-modified oxidized Hb (gmoxHb). Understanding the formation and the contribution of gmoxHb species to the pathogenesis of hemolytic conditions could have therapeutic implications in the treatment of hemolytic diseases.
Project description:Haemolytic infection lyses red blood cells, releasing haemoglobin (Hb) into the plasma. Although recent studies showed that immune cells recognize redox-active cytotoxic extracellular Hb (metHb) bound to pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), currently available information is limited to experiments performed in defined conditions using single cell lines. Therefore, a systemic approach targeting primary whole blood cells is required to better understand the cellular immune defence against metHb and PAMPs, when under a haemolytic infection.We investigated how human white blood cells, including neutrophils, respond to metHb and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS), signalling mediators (ERK and p38), NF-?B, cytokines, elastase secretion and cell activation markers.metHb activates NF-?B in TLR2-expressing HEK293 cells but not in normal or TLR9-expressing HEK293 cells. Treatment of isolated neutrophils with metHb increased production of ROS and expressions of IL-8, TNF?, and CD11b, which were further enhanced by metHb + LTA complex. While LTA stimulated the survival of neutrophils, it caused apoptotic cell death when complexed with metHb. The activation of neutrophils by metHb + LTA was subdued by the presence of other types of white blood cells.metHb and metHb + LTA complex are ligands of TLR2, inducing an unconventional TLR signalling pathway. Neutrophils are a highly sensitive cell type to metHb + LTA complex. During a haemolytic infection, white blood cells in the vicinity crosstalk to modulate neutrophil TLR-signalling induced by metHb and LTA.
Project description:Normally, cell free haemoglobin is bound by haptoglobin and efficiently cleared. However, the chronic haemolysis in sickle cell disease (SCD) overwhelms haptoglobin binding capacity and protein turnover, resulting in elevated cell free haemoglobin. Cell free haemoglobin acts as both a scavenger of vasoactive nitric oxide and a pro-oxidant. In addition, methaemoglobin (metHb) releases the haem moiety, which can bind to albumin to form methaemalbumin (metHSA). This study used electron paramagnetic resonance to detect metHSA in SCD plasma and demonstrated that haptoglobin prevents haem transfer from metHb to HSA. MetHSA may either provide a second line of defence against haemoglobin/haem-mediated oxidation or contribute to the pro-oxidant environment of SCD plasma. We demonstrated that HSA inhibited oxidative protein modification induced by metHb. Additionally, we showed that while metHb induced haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1), an indicator of oxidative stress, HSA attenuated metHb induction of this enzyme, thereby limiting the potential benefits of HO-1. Furthermore, HO-1 induction by metHSA was less than HO-1 induction by equimolar metHb not bound to albumin. Our findings confirm the presence of metHSA in SCD and suggest that haem transfer from metHb to HSA reduces the oxidative effects of free haemoglobin/haem on endothelium with both beneficial (reduced protein oxidation) and potentially harmful (reduced HO-1 induction) outcomes.
Project description:Intravascular red cell hemolysis impairs nitric oxide (NO)-redox homeostasis, producing endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and vasculopathy. Red blood cell storage under standard conditions results in reduced integrity of the erythrocyte membrane, with formation of exocytic microvesicles or microparticles and hemolysis, which we hypothesized could impair vascular function and contribute to the putative storage lesion of banked blood.We now find that storage of human red blood cells under standard blood banking conditions results in the accumulation of cell-free and microparticle-encapsulated hemoglobin, which, despite 39 days of storage, remains in the reduced ferrous oxyhemoglobin redox state and stoichiometrically reacts with and scavenges the vasodilator NO. Using stopped-flow spectroscopy and laser-triggered NO release from a caged NO compound, we found that both free hemoglobin and microparticles react with NO about 1000 times faster than with intact erythrocytes. In complementary in vivo studies, we show that hemoglobin, even at concentrations below 10 ?mol/L (in heme), produces potent vasoconstriction when infused into the rat circulation, whereas controlled infusions of methemoglobin and cyanomethemoglobin, which do not consume NO, have substantially reduced vasoconstrictor effects. Infusion of the plasma from stored human red blood cell units into the rat circulation produces significant vasoconstriction related to the magnitude of storage-related hemolysis.The results of these studies suggest new mechanisms for endothelial injury and impaired vascular function associated with the most fundamental of storage lesions, hemolysis.
Project description:Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent complication of prematurity that is associated with high neonatal mortality and morbidity. IVH is accompanied by red blood cell (RBC) lysis, hemoglobin (Hb) oxidation, and sterile inflammation. Here we investigated whether extracellular Hb, metHb, ferrylHb, and heme contribute to the inflammatory response after IVH. We collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (n = 20) from premature infants with grade III IVH at different time points after the onset of IVH. Levels of Hb, metHb, total heme, and free heme were the highest in CSF samples obtained between days 0 and 20 after the onset of IVH and were mostly non-detectable in CSF collected between days 41 and 60 of post-IVH. Besides Hb monomers, we detected cross-linked Hb dimers and tetramers in post-IVH CSF samples obtained in days 0-20 and 21-40, but only Hb tetramers were present in CSF samples obtained after 41-60 days. Vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) levels were higher in CSF samples obtained between days 0 and 20 than in CSF collected between days 41 and 60 of post-IVH. Concentrations of VCAM-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and IL-8 strongly correlated with total heme levels in CSF. Applying the identified heme sources on human brain microvascular endothelial cells revealed that Hb oxidation products and free heme contribute to the inflammatory response. We concluded that RBC lysis, Hb oxidation, and heme release are important components of the inflammatory response in IVH. Pharmacological interventions targeting cell-free Hb, Hb oxidation products, and free heme could have potential to limit the neuroinflammatory response following IVH.
Project description:The pathophysiological alterations in patients with familial hemiplegic migraine (FHM) are not yet fully known. The headache characteristics in patients with FHM mutations have been examined in a series of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) provocation studies in FHM patients, but the cortical vascular response to GTN in FHM patients has never been investigated before.To investigate changes in spontaneous low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of cortical vessels in response to the nitric oxide donor GTN by near-infrared spectroscopy in FHM patients.Twenty-three FHM patients without known mutations and 9 healthy controls received a continuous intravenous infusion of GTN 0.5?µg/kg/minute over 20 minutes. Using near-infrared spectroscopy, we recorded oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) LFO amplitude bilateral at the frontal cortex at baseline and 15 minutes and 40 minutes after start of the GTN infusion.GTN changed oxyHb LFO amplitude in FHM patients (P?=?.002), but not in healthy controls (P?=?.121). Only in FHM patients with coexisting common migraine types did GTN infusion induced changes in LFO amplitudes (P?<?.001), where post-hoc analysis revealed an increase in LFO amplitude 15 minutes (P?=?.003) and 40 (P?=?.013) minutes after start of infusion compared with baseline. Interestingly, GTN infusion induced no changes in LFO amplitude in patients with a pure FHM phenotype (P?=?.695).FHM patients with a mixed phenotype (coexisting common type of migraine) showed an increase in oxyHb LFO amplitude during GTN infusion, whereas FHM patients with pure phenotype showed no changes. These data suggest possible differences in frontal cortical nitric oxide vascular sensitivity between FHM patients with a mixed phenotype and patients with pure FHM.
Project description:It is proposed that the bond between nitric oxide (NO) and the Hb thiol Cys-beta(93) (SNOHb) is favored when hemoglobin (Hb) is in the relaxed (R, oxygenated) conformation, and that deoxygenation to tense (T) state destabilizes the SNOHb bond, allowing transfer of NO from Hb to form other (vasoactive) S-nitrosothiols (SNOs). However, it has not previously been possible to measure SNOHb without extensive Hb preparation, altering its allostery and SNO distribution. Here, we have validated an assay for SNOHb that uses carbon monoxide (CO) and cuprous chloride (CuCl)-saturated Cys. This assay is specific for SNOs and sensitive to 2-5 pmol. Uniquely, it measures the total SNO content of unmodified erythrocytes (RBCs) (SNO(RBC)), preserving Hb allostery. In room air, the ratio of SNO(RBC) to Hb in intact RBCs is stable over time, but there is a logarithmic loss of SNO(RBC) with oxyHb desaturation (slope, 0.043). This decay is accelerated by extraerythrocytic thiol (slope, 0.089; P < 0.001). SNO(RBC) stability is uncoupled from O(2) tension when Hb is locked in the R state by CO pretreatment. Also, SNO(RBC) is increased approximately 20-fold in human septic shock (P = 0.002) and the O(2)-dependent vasoactivity of RBCs is affected profoundly by SNO content in a murine lung bioassay. These data demonstrate that SNO content and O(2) saturation are tightly coupled in intact RBCs and that this coupling is likely to be of pathophysiological significance.
Project description:SUMMARY:In this report we introduce a weak-model approach for examination of the intrinsic time-varying properties of the hemoglobin signal, with the aim of advancing the application of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) for the detection of breast cancer, among other potential uses. The developed methodology integrates concepts from stochastic network theory with known modulatory features of the vascular bed, and in doing so provides access to a previously unrecognized dense feature space that is shown to have promising diagnostic potential. Notable features of the methodology include access to this information solely from measures acquired in the resting state, and analysis of these by treating the various components of the hemoglobin (Hb) signal as a co-varying interacting system. APPROACH:The principal data-transform kernel projects Hb state-space trajectories onto a coordinate system that constitutes a finite-state representation of covariations among the principal elements of the Hb signal (i.e., its oxygenated (?oxyHb) and deoxygenated (?deoxyHb) forms and the associated dependent quantities: total hemoglobin (?totalHb = ?oxyHb + ?deoxyHb), hemoglobin oxygen saturation (?HbO2Sat = 100?(oxyHb/totalHb)), and tissue-hemoglobin oxygen exchange (?HbO2Exc = ?deoxyHb-?oxyHb)). The resulting ten-state representation treats the evolution of this signal as a one-space, spatiotemporal network that undergoes transitions from one state to another. States of the network are defined by the algebraic signs of the amplitudes of the time-varying components of the Hb signal relative to their temporal mean values. This assignment produces several classes of coefficient arrays, most with a dimension of 10×10. BIOLOGICAL MOTIVATION:Motivating our approach is the understanding that effector mechanisms that modulate blood delivery to tissue operate on macroscopic scales, in a spatially and temporally varying manner. Also recognized is that this behavior is sensitive to nonlinear actions of these effectors, which include the binding properties of hemoglobin. Accessible phenomenology includes measures of the kinetics and probabilities of network dynamics, which we treat as surrogates for the actions of feedback mechanisms that modulate tissue-vascular coupling. FINDINGS:Qualitative and quantitative features of this space, and their potential to serve as markers of disease, have been explored by examining continuous-wave fNIRS 3D tomographic time series obtained from the breasts of women who do and do not have breast cancer. Inspection of the coefficient arrays reveals that they are governed predominantly by first-order rate processes, and that each array class exhibits preferred structure that is mainly independent of the others. Discussed are strategies that may serve to extend evaluation of the accessible feature space and how the character of this information holds potential for development of novel clinical and preclinical uses.