Gender differences in multiple underlying dimensions of health-related quality of life are associated with sociodemographic and socioeconomic status.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of the study was to examine whether gender differences in summary health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are due to differences in specific dimensions of health, and whether they are explained by sociodemographic and socioeconomic (SES) variation.The National Health Measurement Study collected cross-sectional data on a national sample of 3648 black and white noninstitutionalized adults ages 35 to 89 years. Data included the Short Form 36-Item survey, which yielded separate Mental and Physical Component Summary scores (MCS and PCS, respectively), and five HRQoL indexes: Short Form 6 dimension, EuroQol 5 dimension, the Health Utilities Indexes Mark 2 and 3, and the Quality of Well-Being Scale Self-Administered form. Structural equation models were used to explore gender differences in physical, psychosocial, and pain latent dimensions of the 5 indexes, adjusting for sociodemographic and SES indicators. Observed MCS and PCS scores were examined in regression models to judge robustness of latent results.Men had better estimated physical and psychosocial health and less pain than women with similar trends on the MCS and PCS scores. Adjustments for marital status or income reduced gender differences more than did other indicators. Adjusting results for partial factorial invariance of HRQoL attributes supported the presence of gender differentials, but also indicated that these differences are impacted by dimensions being related to some HRQoL attributes differently by gender.Men have better estimated health on 3 latent dimensions of HRQoL-physical, psychosocial, and pain-comparable to gender differences on the observed MCS and PCS scores. Gender differences are partly explained by sociodemographic and SES factors, highlighting the role of socioeconomic inequalities in perpetuating gender differences in health outcomes across multiple domains. These results also emphasize the importance of accounting for measurement invariance for meaningful comparison of group differences in estimated means of self-reported measures of health.
Project description:INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE:The purpose was to analyze socioeconomic and clinical factors of psychosocial functioning and self-perception in relation to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in people with severe mental health illness (SMI) by gender. MATERIALS AND METHOD:A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 133 women and 90 men. Recorded variables: HRQOL, SF-36 Physical Component Scores (PCS) and Mental Component Scores (MCS); sociodemographic and clinical data on psychosocial and self-perception functioning. Correlational studies using raw and adjusted linear regression models to evaluate the factors associated with HRQOL by obtaining coefficients, p-values and respective confidence intervals. RESULTS:The mean PCS for women and men was 44.6 and 49.0 (p = 0.004) and 36.4 and 37.5 (p = 0.575), respectively for MCS. The factors associated with PCS in women were age, -0.2(-0.4:0); in work, 4.2(0.3:8.2); with an income higher than 700 euros/month, 4.4(1:7.7). In men, these factors were education level, 6.1(0.4:11.7); belief that they would not need help in the future, 4.6(0.1:9.2) and a higher need for psychosocial services, -6.6(-11.1:-2). Factors associated with MCS in women were, in work, 6.1(1.5:10.7); and having a high number of friends, 6.6(2.1:11.1). In men, these factors were, living alone, -7.1(-12.7:-1.4); lack of economic benefits, 8.5(3.2:13.8); and a higher need for psychosocial and social services, -3.6(-7.1:-0.2) and -7.7(-13.4:-2). CONCLUSIONS:The dimensions affected and the factors that are associated with HRQOL for people with SMI differ by gender. Therefore, these differences should to be taken into account when designing interventions for improving HRQOL.
Project description:PURPOSE:To explore the relationship between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of a large cohort of 'healthy' older individuals. METHODS:The sample included individuals aged 65+ years from Australia (N?=?16,703) and the USA (N?=?2411) enrolled in the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) multicentre placebo-controlled trial study and free of cardiovascular disease, dementia, serious physical disabilities or 'fatal' illnesses. The associations with the physical (PCS) and mental component scores (MCS) of HRQoL (SF-12 questionnaire) were explored using multiple linear regression models from data collected at baseline (2010-2014). RESULTS:The adjusted PCS mean was slightly higher in the USA (49.5?±?9.1) than Australia (48.2?±?11.6; p?<?0.001), but MCS was similar in both samples (55.7?±?7.5 and 55.7?±?9.6, respectively; p?=?0.603). Males, younger participants, better educated, more active individuals, or those currently drinking 1-2 alcoholic drinks/day showed a better HRQoL (results more evident for PCS than MCS), while current heavy smokers had the lowest physical HRQoL in both countries. Neither age, walking time, nor alcohol intake was associated with MCS in either cohort. CONCLUSIONS:Baseline HRQoL of ASPREE participants was higher than that reported in population-based studies of older individuals, but the associations between sociodemographic and lifestyle variables were consistent with the published literature. As the cohort ages and develops chronic diseases, ASPREE will be able to document HRQoL changes.
Project description:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is associated with considerable impairment of patients' health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Knowledge of factors that significantly affect IBD patients' HRQoL can contribute to better patient care. However, the HRQoL of IBD patients in non-Western countries are limited. Hence, we assessed the HRQoL of Singaporean IBD patients and identified its determinants. METHODS:A prospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at Singapore General Hospital outpatient IBD Centre. The HRQoL of IBD patients was assessed using the short IBD questionnaire (SIBDQ), Short Form-36 physical and mental component summary (SF-36 PCS/MCS) and EuroQol 5-dimensions 3-levels (EQ-5D-3L) and visual analogue scale (VAS). Independent samples t-test was used to compare HRQoL between Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Determinants of HRQoL were identified through multiple linear regression. RESULTS:A total of 195 IBD patients (103 UC, 92 CD) with a mean disease duration of 11.2 years were included. There was no significant difference in HRQoL between patients with UC and CD. Factors that significantly worsened HRQoL were presence of active disease (b=-6.293 [SIBDQ], -9.409 [PCS], -9.743 [MCS], -7.254 [VAS]), corticosteroids use (b=-7.392 [SIBDQ], -10.390 [PCS], -8.827 [MCS]), poor medication adherence (b=-4.049 [SIBDQ], -1.320 [MCS], -8.961 [VAS]), presence of extraintestinal manifestations (b=-13.381 [PCS]), comorbidities (b=-4.531 [PCS]), non-employment (b=-9.738 [MCS], -0.104 [EQ-5D-3L]) and public housing (b=-8.070 [PCS], -9.207 [VAS]). CONCLUSIONS:The HRQoL is impaired in this Asian cohort of IBD. The magnitude of HRQoL impairment was similar in UC and CD. Clinical characteristics were better determinants of patients' HRQoL than socio-demographic factors. Recognizing the factors that impact patients' HRQoL would improve the holistic management of IBD patients.
Project description:Gout is the most prevalent arthritis and significantly impacts on function and quality of life. Given that gout associates with disabling comorbid conditions, it is not clear whether such a complex of diseases accounts for the increased disability or if gout may play a role by itself. This study aims to evaluate the specific influence of gout and disease-related features on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with gout followed in rheumatology clinics.A random sample of patients was drawn from clinical registries of 30 rheumatology clinics across Italy. Sociodemographic, general health and gout-specific variables were collected. Functional disability and HRQoL were assessed by the health assessment questionnaire (HAQ) and the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS) of the Short Form-36 (SF-36). Crude and adjusted ordinal logistic and linear regression models were applied to investigate the specific contribution of different variables on HAQ and SF-36 scores. Results are presented as odds ratio (OR) or mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence intervals.Out of 446 patients with gout, 90% were males with a mean age of 63.9 years and median disease duration of 3.8 years; the majority of patients were overweight or obese, and with several comorbidities; 21.1% showed at least moderate disability; the PCS score was significantly lower than expected age- and gender-matched samples in the general population, while MCS score was not. After adjusting for potential sociodemographic and general-health confounders, gout-specific variables significantly impacted on HAQ, including polyarticular involvement OR 3.82 (1.63, 8.95), presence of tophi OR 1.92 (1.07, 3.43) and recent attacks OR 2.20 (1.27, 3.81). Consistent results were found for PCS. The impairment of PCS compared to the general population was limited to patients with features of chronic gout. MCS was only affected by recent attacks (MD -2.72 [-4.58, -0.86]) and corticosteroid treatment (-3.39 [-5.30,-1.48]).The data from the KING study confirm that gout impacts on disability and provide evidence for an independent association of gout and gout-related features with functional outcome and HRQoL. This result supports the need to improve specific treatment in gout.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To explore the influence of contextual factors on health-related quality of life (HRQoL), which is sometimes used as an indicator of quality of care, we examined the association of neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) and trajectories of HRQoL after hospitalization for acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS:We studied 1481 patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes in Massachusetts and Georgia querying HRQoL via the mental and physical components of the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36) (MCS and PCS) and the physical limitations and angina-related HRQoL subscales of the Seattle Angina Questionnaire (SAQ) during hospitalization and at 1-, 3-, and 6-month postdischarge. We categorized participants by tertiles of the neighborhood deprivation index (a residence-census tract-based measure) to examine the association of NSES with trajectories of HRQoL after adjusting for individual socioeconomic status (SES) and clinical characteristics. RESULTS:Participants had mean age 61.3 (SD, 11.4) years; 33% were female; 76%, non-Hispanic white; 11.2% had household income below the federal poverty level. During 6 months postdischarge, living in lower NSES neighborhoods was associated with lower mean PCS scores (1.5 points for intermediate NSES; 1.8 for low) and SAQ scores (2.4 and 4.2 points) versus living in high NSES neighborhoods. NSES was more consequential for patients with lower individual SES. Individuals living below the federal poverty level had lower average MCS and SAQ physical scores (3.7 and 7.7 points, respectively) than those above. CONCLUSIONS:Neighborhood deprivation was associated with worse health status. Using HRQoL to assess quality of care without accounting for individual SES and NSES may unfairly penalize safety-net hospitals.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HRQoL is an important outcome to guide and promote healthcare. Clinical and socioeconomic factors may influence HRQoL according to ethnicity. METHODOLOGY:A multiethnic cross-sectional national cohort (N?=?7198) of the Singapore general population consisting of Chinese (N?=?4873), Malay (N?=?1167) and Indian (N?=?1158) adults were evaluated using measures of HRQoL (SF-36 version 2), family functioning, health behaviours and clinical/laboratory assessments. Multiple regression analyses were performed to identify determinants of physical and mental HRQoL in the overall population and their potential differential effects by ethnicity. No a priori hypotheses were formulated so all interaction effects were explored. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:HRQoL levels differed between ethnic groups. Chinese respondents had higher physical HRQoL (PCS) than Indian and Malay participants (p<0.001) whereas mental HRQoL (MCS) was higher in Malay relative to Chinese participants (p<0.001). Regressions models explained 17.1% and 14.6% of variance in PCS and MCS respectively with comorbid burden, income and employment being associated with lower HRQoL. Age and family were associated only with MCS. The effects of gender, stroke and musculoskeletal conditions on PCS varied by ethnicity, suggesting non-uniform patterns of association for Chinese, Malay and Indian individuals. CONCLUSIONS:Differences in HRQoL levels and determinants of HRQoL among ethnic groups underscore the need to better or differentially target population segments to promote well-being. More work is needed to explore HRQoL and wellness in relation to ethnicity.
Project description:To compare health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after treatment with etanercept in patients with moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and psoriasis using spydergram representations.Data from randomised, controlled trials of etanercept in patients with RA, PsA and psoriasis were analysed. HRQoL was assessed by the medical outcomes survey short form 36 (SF-36) physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) component summary and domain scores. Baseline comparisons with age and gender-matched norms and treatment-associated changes in domain scores were quantified using spydergrams and the health utility SF-6D measure.Mean baseline PCS scores were lower than age and gender-matched norms in patients with RA and PsA, but near normative values in patients with psoriasis; MCS scores at baseline were near normal in PsA and psoriasis but low in RA. Treatment with etanercept resulted in improvements in PCS and MCS scores as well as individual SF-36 domains across all indications. Mean baseline SF-6D scores were higher in psoriasis than in RA or PsA; clinically meaningful improvements in SF-6D were observed in all three patient populations following treatment with etanercept.Patients with RA, PsA and psoriasis demonstrated unique HRQoL profiles at baseline. Treatment with etanercept was associated with improvements in PCS and MCS scores as well as individual domain scores in patients with RA, PsA and psoriasis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Survivors of childhood cancer report poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Modifiable lifestyle factors such as nutrition and physical activity represent opportunities for interventions to improve HRQOL. METHODS:The authors examined the association between modifiable lifestyle factors and HRQOL among 2480 adult survivors of childhood cancer in the St. Jude Lifetime Cohort Study. Dietary intake, physical activity, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption were assessed through questionnaires. Weight and height were measured in the clinic. HRQOL was evaluated using the Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Survey. The physical component summary (PCS), mental component summary (MCS), and 8 domain scores of HRQOL were calculated. Multivariable linear regression models were used to estimate regression coefficients (?) associated with HRQOL differences. RESULTS:Being physically active (PCS ? = 3.10; and MCS ? = 1.48) was associated with higher HRQOL whereas current cigarette smoking (PCS ? = -2.30; and MCS ? = -6.49) and obesity (body mass index ?30 kg/m2 ) (PCS ? = -3.29; and MCS ? = -1.61) were associated with lower HRQOL in both the physical and mental domains. Better diet (Healthy Eating Index-2015) was associated with higher physical HRQOL (PCS ? = 1.79). Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with higher physical (PCS ? = 1.14) but lower mental (MCS ? = -1.13) HRQOL (all P <.05). Adherence to multiple healthy lifestyle factors demonstrated a linear trend with high scores in both physical and mental HRQOL (highest vs lowest adherence: PCS ? = 7.60; and MCS ? = 5.76 [P for trend, <.0001]). CONCLUSIONS:The association between healthy lifestyle factors and HRQOL is cumulative, underscoring the importance of promoting multiple healthy lifestyles to enhance HRQOL in long-term survivors of childhood cancer.
Project description:Few studies have evaluated the association between a healthful plant-based diet and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We followed 50 290 women in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS; 1992-2000) and 51 784 women in NHSII (1993-2001) for 8 years to investigate changes in plant-based diet quality in relation to changes in physical and mental HRQoL. Plant-based diet quality was assessed by three plant-based diet indices: overall plant-based diet index (PDI), healthful PDI (hPDI) and unhealthful PDI (uPDI). Physical and mental HRQoL were measured by physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS) of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Diet was assessed 2 years before the HRQoL measurements and both were updated every 4 years. The associations between 4-year changes in PDIs and HRQoL were evaluated. Each 10-point increase in PDI was associated with an improvement of 0·07 (95 % CI 0·01, 0·13) in PCS and 0·11 (95 % CI 0·05, 0·16) in MCS. A 10-point increase in hPDI was associated with an increment of 0·13 (95 % CI 0·08, 0·19) in PCS and 0·09 (95 % CI 0·03, 0·15) in MCS. Conversely, a 10-point increase in uPDI was associated with decreases in PCS and MCS (-0·07 (95 % CI -0·12, -0·02) and -0·10 (95 % CI -0·16, -0·05), respectively). Compared with a stable diet, an increase in hPDI was significantly associated with improvements in physical HRQoL in older women and with mental HRQoL in younger women. In conclusion, adherence to a healthful plant-based diet was modestly associated with improvements in both physical and mental dimensions of HRQoL.
Project description:Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessment is important for patients with functional dyspepsia. However, no studies have assessed factors associated with HRQoL reduction in such patients in an Asian population. This study aimed to determine the contribution of clinical, psychosocial, and demographic factors to HRQoL in affected patients in Indonesia.In a cross-sectional study, we recruited 124 patients in a tertiary hospital with functional dyspepsia according to Rome III criteria. HRQoL was measured using the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) and compared with 2009 United States population norms. The factors investigated were age, gender, symptom severity, education level, employment status, anxiety, depression, and ethnicity. Factors associated with reduced HRQoL were identified using linear regression analysis.All domains of HRQoL except vitality were impaired in patients with functional dyspepsia. The mean PCS was 42.3 (SD?=?8.4); and the mean MCS was 47.8 (SD?=?10). Increasing age (p?=?0.002), female gender (p?=?0.006), low-to-mid education level (p?=?0.015) and greater symptom severity (p?<?0.001) were significantly associated with impaired PCS (R2?=?0.36). Female gender (p?=?0.047), greater symptom severity (p?=?0.002), anxiety (p?=?0.001), and depression (p?=?0.002 were all significantly associated with an impaired MCS (R2?=?0.41). There were no significant associations between HRQoL and with ethnic group (Javanese/non-Javanese) or employment status.There was significant HRQoL impairment in these patients with functional dyspepsia in Indonesia. Anxiety, depression, increasing age, female gender, greater symptom severity, and low-to-mid education level were significant factors associated with low HRQoL. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03321383 . Registered 18 October 2017 retrospectively registered.