Two-photon interference between disparate sources for quantum networking.
ABSTRACT: Quantum networks involve entanglement sharing between multiple users. Ideally, any two users would be able to connect regardless of the type of photon source they employ, provided they fulfill the requirements for two-photon interference. From a theoretical perspective, photons coming from different origins can interfere with a perfect visibility, provided they are made indistinguishable in all degrees of freedom. Previous experimental demonstrations of such a scenario have been limited to photon wavelengths below 900 nm, unsuitable for long distance communication, and suffered from low interference visibility. We report two-photon interference using two disparate heralded single photon sources, which involve different nonlinear effects, operating in the telecom wavelength range. The measured visibility of the two-photon interference is 80 ± 4%, which paves the way to hybrid universal quantum networks.
Project description:Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.
Project description:While integrated photonics is a robust platform for quantum information processing, architectures for photonic quantum computing place stringent demands on high quality information carriers. Sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable and pure, that are either near-deterministic or heralded with high efficiency, and that are suitable for mass-manufacture, have been elusive. Here, we demonstrate on-chip photon sources that simultaneously meet each of these requirements. Our photon sources are fabricated in silicon using mature processes, and exploit a dual-mode pump-delayed excitation scheme to engineer the emission of spectrally pure photon pairs through inter-modal spontaneous four-wave mixing in low-loss spiralled multi-mode waveguides. We simultaneously measure a spectral purity of 0.9904?±?0.0006, a mutual indistinguishability of 0.987?±?0.002, and >90% intrinsic heralding efficiency. We measure on-chip quantum interference with a visibility of 0.96?±?0.02 between heralded photons from different sources.
Project description:Efficient generation and detection of indistinguishable twin photons are at the core of quantum information and communications technology (Q-ICT). These photons are conventionally generated by spontaneous parametric down conversion (SPDC), which is a probabilistic process, and hence occurs at a limited rate, which restricts wider applications of Q-ICT. To increase the rate, one had to excite SPDC by higher pump power, while it inevitably produced more unwanted multi-photon components, harmfully degrading quantum interference visibility. Here we solve this problem by using recently developed 10 GHz repetition-rate-tunable comb laser, combined with a group-velocity-matched nonlinear crystal, and superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. They operate at telecom wavelengths more efficiently with less noises than conventional schemes, those typically operate at visible and near infrared wavelengths generated by a 76 MHz Ti Sapphire laser and detected by Si detectors. We could show high interference visibilities, which are free from the pump-power induced degradation. Our laser, nonlinear crystal, and detectors constitute a powerful tool box, which will pave a way to implementing quantum photonics circuits with variety of good and low-cost telecom components, and will eventually realize scalable Q-ICT in optical infra-structures.
Project description:Practical quantum communication between remote quantum memories rely on single photons at telecom wavelengths. Although spin-photon entanglement has been demonstrated in atomic and solid-state qubit systems, the produced single photons at short wavelengths and with polarization encoding are not suitable for long-distance communication, because they suffer from high propagation loss and depolarization in optical fibres. Establishing entanglement between remote quantum nodes would further require the photons generated from separate nodes to be indistinguishable. Here, we report the observation of correlations between a quantum-dot spin and a telecom single photon across a 2-km fibre channel based on time-bin encoding and background-free frequency downconversion. The downconverted photon at telecom wavelengths exhibits two-photon interference with another photon from an independent source, achieving a mean wavepacket overlap of greater than 0.89 despite their original wavelength mismatch (900 and 911?nm). The quantum-networking operations that we demonstrate will enable practical communication between solid-state spin qubits across long distances.
Project description:The non-deterministic nature of photon sources is a key limitation for single-photon quantum processors. Spatial multiplexing overcomes this by enhancing the heralded single-photon yield without enhancing the output noise. Here the intrinsic statistical limit of an individual source is surpassed by spatially multiplexing two monolithic silicon-based correlated photon pair sources in the telecommunications band, demonstrating a 62.4% increase in the heralded single-photon output without an increase in unwanted multipair generation. We further demonstrate the scalability of this scheme by multiplexing photons generated in two waveguides pumped via an integrated coupler with a 63.1% increase in the heralded photon rate. This demonstration paves the way for a scalable architecture for multiplexing many photon sources in a compact integrated platform and achieving efficient two-photon interference, required at the core of optical quantum computing and quantum communication protocols.
Project description:In this paper, a generation scheme for telecom band hyper-entanglement is proposed and demonstrated based on the vector spontaneous four wave mixing (SFWM) processes in optical fibers. Two kinds of two-photon states are generated, one is hyper-entangled in the degree of freedoms (DOFs) of energy-time and polarization, the other is hyper-entangled in DOFs of energy-time and discrete-frequency. Experiments of Franson-type interference, two-photon interference under non-orthogonal polarization bases and spatial quantum beating are realized to demonstrate the entanglement in energy-time, polarization and frequency, respectively. This scheme provides a simple way to realize telecom band hyper-entanglement, which has potential for large geographic-scale applications of quantum communication and quantum information over optical fibers.
Project description:Future quantum computers require a scalable architecture on a scalable technology-one that supports millions of high-performance components. Measurement-based protocols, using graph states, represent the state of the art in architectures for optical quantum computing. Silicon photonics technology offers enormous scale and proven quantum optical functionality. Here we produce and encode photonic graph states on a mass-manufactured chip, using four on-chip-generated photons. We programmably generate all types of four-photon graph state, implementing a basic measurement-based protocol, and measure high-visibility heralded interference of the chip's four photons. We develop a model of the device and bound the dominant sources of error using Bayesian inference. The combination of measurement-based quantum computation, silicon photonics technology, and on-chip multi-pair sources will be a useful one for future scalable quantum information processing with photons.
Project description:Optical metasurfaces open new avenues for the precise wavefront control of light for integrated quantum technology. Here, we demonstrate a hybrid integrated quantum photonic system that is capable of entangling and disentangling two-photon spin states at a dielectric metasurface. Via the interference of single-photon pairs at a nanostructured dielectric metasurface, a path-entangled two-photon NOON state with circular polarization that exhibits a quantum HOM interference visibility of 86 ± 4% is generated. Furthermore, we demonstrate nonclassicality andphase sensitivity in a metasurface-based interferometer with a fringe visibility of 86.8 ± 1.1% in the coincidence counts. This high visibility proves the metasurface-induced path entanglement inside the interferometer. Our findings provide a promising way to develop hybrid-integrated quantum technology operating in the high-dimensional mode space in various applications, such as imaging, sensing, and computing.
Project description:Raman-scattering noise in silica has been the key obstacle toward the realisation of high quality fiber-based photon-pair sources. Here, we experimentally demonstrate how to get past this limitation by dispersion tailoring a xenon-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber. The source operates at room temperature, and is designed to generate Raman-free photon-pairs at useful wavelength ranges, with idler in the telecom, and signal in the visible range. We achieve a coincidence-to-accidentals ratio as high as 2740 combined with an ultra low heralded second order coherence [Formula: see text], indicating a very high signal to noise ratio and a negligible multi-photon emission probability. Moreover, by gas-pressure tuning, we demonstrate the control of photon frequencies over a range as large as 13?THz, covering S-C and L telecom band for the idler photon. This work demonstrates that hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is an excellent platform to design high quality photon-pair sources, and could play a driving role in the emerging quantum technology.
Project description:Long-lifetime quantum storages accessible to the telecom photonic infrastructure are essential to long-distance quantum communication. Atomic quantum storages have achieved subsecond storage time corresponding to 1000?km transmission time for a telecom photon through a quantum repeater algorithm. However, the telecom photon cannot be directly interfaced to typical atomic storages. Solid-state quantum frequency conversions fill this wavelength gap. Here we report on the experimental demonstration of a polarization-insensitive solid-state quantum frequency conversion to a telecom photon from a short-wavelength photon entangled with an atomic ensemble. Atom-photon entanglement has been generated with a Rb atomic ensemble and the photon has been translated to telecom range while retaining the entanglement by our nonlinear-crystal-based frequency converter in a Sagnac interferometer.