Diagnoses and timing of 30-day readmissions after hospitalization for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia.
ABSTRACT: To better guide strategies intended to reduce high rates of 30-day readmission after hospitalization for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (MI), or pneumonia, further information is needed about readmission diagnoses, readmission timing, and the relationship of both to patient age, sex, and race.To examine readmission diagnoses and timing among Medicare beneficiaries readmitted within 30 days after hospitalization for HF, acute MI, or pneumonia.We analyzed 2007-2009 Medicare fee-for-service claims data to identify patterns of 30-day readmission by patient demographic characteristics and time after hospitalization for HF, acute MI, or pneumonia. Readmission diagnoses were categorized using an aggregated version of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' Condition Categories. Readmission timing was determined by day after discharge.We examined the percentage of 30-day readmissions occurring on each day (0-30) after discharge; the most common readmission diagnoses occurring during cumulative periods (days 0-3, 0-7, 0-15, and 0-30) and consecutive periods (days 0-3, 4-7, 8-15, and 16-30) after hospitalization; median time to readmission for common readmission diagnoses; and the relationship between patient demographic characteristics and readmission diagnoses and timing.From 2007 through 2009, we identified 329,308 30-day readmissions after 1,330,157 HF hospitalizations (24.8% readmitted), 108,992 30-day readmissions after 548,834 acute MI hospitalizations (19.9% readmitted), and 214,239 30-day readmissions after 1,168,624 pneumonia hospitalizations (18.3% readmitted). The proportion of patients readmitted for the same condition was 35.2% after the index HF hospitalization, 10.0% after the index acute MI hospitalization, and 22.4% after the index pneumonia hospitalization. Of all readmissions within 30 days of hospitalization, the majority occurred within 15 days of hospitalization: 61.0%, HF cohort; 67.6%, acute MI cohort; and 62.6%, pneumonia cohort. The diverse spectrum of readmission diagnoses was largely similar in both cumulative and consecutive periods after discharge. Median time to 30-day readmission was 12 days for patients initially hospitalized for HF, 10 days for patients initially hospitalized for acute MI, and 12 days for patients initially hospitalized for pneumonia and was comparable across common readmission diagnoses. Neither readmission diagnoses nor timing substantively varied by age, sex, or race.Among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries hospitalized for HF, acute MI, or pneumonia, 30-day readmissions were frequent throughout the month after hospitalization and resulted from a similar spectrum of readmission diagnoses regardless of age, sex, race, or time after discharge.
Project description:Patients aged ? 65 years are vulnerable to readmissions due to a transient period of generalized risk after hospitalization. However, whether young and middle-aged adults share a similar risk pattern is uncertain. We compared the rate, timing, and readmission diagnoses following hospitalization for heart failure (HF), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and pneumonia among patients aged 18-64 years with patients aged ? 65 years.We used an all-payer administrative dataset from California consisting of all hospitalizations for HF (n=206,141), AMI (n=107,256), and pneumonia (n=199,620) from 2007-2009. The primary outcomes were unplanned 30-day readmission rate, timing of readmission, and readmission diagnoses. Our findings show that the readmission rate among patients aged 18-64 years exceeded the readmission rate in patients aged ? 65 years in the HF cohort (23.4% vs. 22.0%, p<0.001), but was lower in the AMI (11.2% vs. 17.5%, p<0.001) and pneumonia (14.4% vs. 17.3%, p<0.001) cohorts. When adjusted for sex, race, comorbidities, and payer status, the 30-day readmission risk in patients aged 18-64 years was similar to patients ? 65 years in the HF (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.97-1.02) and pneumonia (HR 0.97; 95%CI 0.94-1.01) cohorts and was marginally lower in the AMI cohort (HR 0.92; 95%CI 0.87-0.96). For all cohorts, the timing of readmission was similar; readmission risks were highest between days 2 and 5 and declined thereafter across all age groups. Diagnoses other than the index admission diagnosis accounted for a substantial proportion of readmissions among age groups <65 years; a non-cardiac diagnosis represented 39-44% of readmissions in the HF cohort and 37-45% of readmissions in the AMI cohort, while a non-pulmonary diagnosis represented 61-64% of patients in the pneumonia cohort.When adjusted for differences in patient characteristics, young and middle-aged adults have 30-day readmission rates that are similar to elderly patients for HF, AMI, and pneumonia. A generalized risk after hospitalization is present regardless of age. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:The 30-day readmission rate after hospitalization for a sickle cell crisis (SCC) is extremely high. Accurate information on readmission diagnoses, total readmission costs and factors associated with readmission is required to effectively plan resource allocation and to plan interventions to reduce readmission rates. The present study aimed to examine readmission diagnoses and factors associated with all-cause 30-day readmission after hospitalization for SCC. We analyzed 2016 nationwide readmission database (NRD) to identify patterns of 30-day readmission by patient demographic characteristics and time after hospitalization for SCC. We estimated the percentage and most common readmission diagnoses for 30-day and 7-day readmissions after discharge. We studied the relationship between risk factors and readmission and the impact of readmission on patient outcomes and resulting financial burden on health care in dollars. In 2016, of 67,887 discharges after index hospitalizations, 18099 (26.9%) were readmitted within 30-days. Of all readmissions, 5166 (7.6%) were readmitted within 7 days. The spectrum of readmission diagnoses was largely similar in both 30-day and 7-day readmission with more than 80% patients in both time periods readmitted with diagnoses related to SCC. The mean length of stay for readmitted patients was significantly longer than the index hospitalization (5.3 days (5.1-5.5) vs 4.9 days (CI 4.8-5.1, p?<?0.01). Also, the mean cost of hospitalization in readmitted patients $8485 was significantly higher than the index hospitalization $8064 p?<?0.01. In 2016, readmission among patients with SCC incurred an additional 95,445 hospitalization days resulting a total charge of $609 million and a total cost of $152 million in the US. On Multivariate analysis, age group 18-30 years, discharge against medical advice, higher Charlson comorbidity index, low socioeconomic status and admission at high volume centers were associated with a higher likelihood of 30-day readmission. Among patients hospitalized for SCC, 30-day readmissions were frequent throughout the month post hospitalization and resulted in an enormous financial burden on the United States healthcare system.
Project description:BACKGROUND:While 30-day readmissions following hospitalization for pneumonia have been well-studied in the elderly, their burden in young adults remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE:To study patterns of readmissions following hospitalization for pneumonia across age groups and insurance payers. METHODS:In the Nationwide Readmission Database for the years 2013 and 2014 we identified all adults (?18 years) discharged alive after a hospitalization with the primary diagnosis of pneumonia, and examined rates of readmissions within 30-days of discharge. Using covariates included in the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services risk-adjustment model for pneumonia readmissions in a multivariable regression model for survey data, we identified predictors of 30-day readmission. RESULTS:We identified 629,939 index pneumonia hospitalizations with a weighted estimate of 1,472,069 nationally. Overall, 16.2% of patients were readmitted within 30 days of their hospitalization for pneumonia, with 30-day readmission rates of 12.4% in the 18-44 year age-group, 16.1% in the 45-64 year age-group, and 16.7% in the ?65-year age-group. In risk-adjusted analyses, compared with elderly, middle-aged adults were more likely to be readmitted (risk-adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07). Mean cost per readmission was also highest for this age group at $15,976. CONCLUSION:Middle-aged adults experience substantial rates of 30-day readmission that are comparable to those over 65 years of age, with a higher cost per readmission event. Future efforts are needed to identify potential interventions to alleviate the high burden of pneumonia readmissions in middle-aged adults.
Project description:Background Although 30-day readmission is thought to be an important quality indicator in patients with hospitalized heart failure, its prognostic impact and comparison of patients who were readmitted beyond 30 days has not been investigated. We assessed early (0-30 days) versus midrange (31-90 days) readmission in terms of incidence and distribution, and elucidated whether the timing of readmission could have a different prognostic significance. Methods and Results We examined patients with hospitalized heart failure registered in the WET-HF (West Tokyo Heart Failure) registry. The primary outcomes analyzed were all-cause death and HF readmission. Data of 3592 consecutive patients with hospitalized heart failure (median follow-up, 2.0 years [interquartile range, 0.8-3.1 years]; 39.6% women, mean age 73.9±13.3 years) were analyzed. Within 90 days after discharge, HF readmissions occurred in 11.1% patients. Of them, patients readmitted within 30 and 31 to 90 days after discharge accounted for 43.1% and 56.9%, respectively. Independent predictors of 30- and 90-day readmission were almost identical, and after adjustment, readmission for HF within 90 days (including both early and midrange readmission) was an independent predictor of subsequent all-cause death (hazard ratio, 2.36; P<0.001). Among 90-day readmitted patients, the time interval from discharge to readmission was not significantly associated with subsequent all-cause death. Conclusions Among patients readmitted within 90 days after index hospitalization discharge, ?60% of readmission events occurred beyond 30 days. Patients readmitted within 90 days had a higher risk of long-term mortality, regardless of the temporal proximity of readmission to the index hospitalization.
Project description:In the United States, approximately 20% of patients hospitalized with pneumonia are readmitted to a hospital within 30 days. Given the significant costs and healthcare system use resulting from unplanned readmissions, pneumonia readmission rates are a target of national quality measures. Patient do-not-resuscitate (DNR) status strongly influences hospital pneumonia mortality measures; however, associations between DNR status and 30-day readmissions after pneumonia are unclear.Determine the effect of accounting for patient DNR status on hospital readmission measures for pneumonia.After excluding patients with missing data, those who died during the index hospitalization, those who were discharged against medical advice, those who did not reside in California, and those admitted to low pneumonia case-volume hospitals, we identified 30-day unplanned readmissions after an index pneumonia hospitalization from the 2011 California State Inpatient Database. We used hierarchical logistic regression to determine the association between early DNR status (within 24 hours of admission) and 30-day readmission and hospital risk-adjusted readmission rates.We identified 68,691 hospitalizations for pneumonia across 321 hospitals. Patients with early DNR orders were less likely to be readmitted within 30 days (20.0% vs. 22.5%, adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.99). Patients with pneumonia admitted to high-versus-low DNR rate hospitals were at lower risk for readmission (DNR rate quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, aOR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55-0.70), regardless of individual DNR status. Higher hospital risk-adjusted DNR rates were strongly associated with lower risk-adjusted readmission rates (r?=?-0.44; P?<?0.0001). Inclusion of early DNR status in risk-adjusted readmission models changed ranking categories for 7/321 (2.2%) hospitals, with 2 hospitals no longer labeled as "under-performing outliers."Patients with an early DNR order have a lower risk for readmission after a pneumonia hospitalization. Unmeasured DNR status weakly confounds hospital readmission measures; accounting for patient DNR status would alter readmission ratings for a small number of hospitals.
Project description:AIMS:Patients hospitalized for heart failure (HF) are at high risk for 30-day readmission. This study sought to examine the timings and causes of readmission within 30?days of an HF hospitalization. METHODS AND RESULTS:Timing and cause of readmission in the ASCEND-HF (Acute Study of Clinical Effectiveness of Nesiritide and Decompensated Heart Failure) trial were assessed. Early and late readmissions were defined as admissions occurring within 0-7?days and 8-30?days post-discharge, respectively. Patients who died in hospital or remained hospitalized at day 30 post-randomization were excluded. Patients were compared by timing and cause of readmission. Logistic and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for early vs. late readmission and associations with 180-day outcomes. Of the 6584 patients (92%) in the ASCEND-HF population included in this analysis, 751 patients (11%) were readmitted within 30?days for any cause. Overall, 54% of readmissions were for non-HF causes. The median time to rehospitalization was 11?days (interquartile range: 6-18?days) and 33% of rehospitalizations occurred by day 7. Rehospitalization within 30?days was independently associated with increased risk for 180-day all-cause death [hazard ratio (HR) 2.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.93-2.94; P?<?0.001]. Risk for 180-day all-cause death did not differ according to early vs. late readmission (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.67-1.45; P?=?0.94). CONCLUSIONS:In this hospitalized HF trial population, a significant majority of 30-day readmissions were for non-HF causes and one-third of readmissions occurred in the first 7?days. Early and late readmissions within the 30-day timeframe were associated with similarly increased risk for death. Continued efforts to optimize multidisciplinary transitional care are warranted to improve rates of early readmission.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is unknown whether causes and temporal patterns of 30-day readmission vary between heart failure (HF) with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We sought to address this question by examining a 5% national sample of Medicare beneficiaries. METHODS AND RESULTS:We included individuals who experienced a hospitalization for HFpEF or HFrEF between 2007 and 2013. We identified causes of 30-day readmission based on primary discharge diagnosis and further classified causes of readmission as HF-related, non-HF cardiovascular-related, and non-cardiovascular-related. We calculated the cumulative incidence of these classifications for HFpEF and HFrEF in a competing risks model and calculated subdistribution hazard ratios of these classifications by comparing those with HFpEF and those with HFrEF. Among 60 640 Medicare beneficiaries, we identified 13 785 unique older adults hospitalized with HFpEF and 15 205 who were hospitalized with HFrEF. Noncardiovascular diagnoses represented the most common causes of 30-day readmission (HFpEF: 59%; HFrEF: 47%), a pattern that was observed for each week of the 30-day study period for both HFpEF and HFrEF participants. In comparing readmission diagnoses in an adjusted model, non-cardiovascular-related diagnoses were more common and HF-related diagnoses were less common in HFpEF participants. CONCLUSIONS:Non-cardiovascular-related diagnoses represented the most common causes of 30-day readmission following HF hospitalization for each week of the 30-day postdischarge period. HF diagnoses were less common among those with HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Future interventions aimed at reducing 30-day readmissions following an HF hospitalization would benefit from an increased focus on noncardiovascular comorbidity and interventions that target HFpEF and HFrEF separately.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>To determine whether high performing hospitals with low 30 day risk standardized readmission rates have a lower proportion of readmissions from specific diagnoses and time periods after admission or instead have a similar distribution of readmission diagnoses and timing to lower performing institutions.<h4>Design</h4>Retrospective cohort study.<h4>Setting</h4>Medicare beneficiaries in the United States.<h4>Participants</h4>Patients aged 65 and older who were readmitted within 30 days after hospital admission for heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, or pneumonia in 2007-09.<h4>Main outcome measures</h4>Readmission diagnoses were classified with a modified version of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services' condition categories, and readmission timing was classified by day (0-30) after hospital discharge. Hospital 30 day risk standardized readmission rates over the three years of study were calculated with public reporting methods of the US federal government, and hospitals were categorized with bootstrap analysis as having high, average, or low readmission performance for each index condition. High and low performing hospitals had ? 95% probability of having an interval estimate respectively less than or greater than the national 30 day readmission rate over the three year period of study. All remaining hospitals were considered average performers.<h4>Results</h4>For readmissions in the 30 days after the index admission, there were 320,003 after 1,291,211 admissions for heart failure (4041 hospitals), 102,536 after 517,827 admissions for acute myocardial infarction (2378 hospitals), and 208,438 after 1,135,932 admissions for pneumonia (4283 hospitals). The distribution of readmissions by diagnosis was similar across categories of hospital performance for all three conditions. High performing hospitals had fewer readmissions for all common diagnoses. Median time to readmission was similar by hospital performance for heart failure and acute myocardial infarction, though was 1.4 days longer among high versus low performing hospitals for pneumonia (P<0.001). Findings were unchanged after adjustment for other hospital characteristics potentially associated with readmission patterns.<h4>Conclusions</h4>High performing hospitals have proportionately fewer 30 day readmissions without differences in readmission diagnoses and timing, suggesting the possible benefit of strategies that lower risk of readmission globally rather than for specific diagnoses or time periods after hospital stay.
Project description:Hospitalizations are common in heart failure (HF). Multimorbidity, defined as ?2 comorbid conditions, drives many readmissions. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in decreasing these hospital readmissions. We enrolled 100 hospitalized HF patients into a randomized controlled trial, randomizing in a 2:1 ratio: intervention (n = 70) and control (n = 30). The intervention group received MI tailored to reports of self-care during one home visit and three to four follow-up phone calls. After 3 months, 34 participants had at least one hospital readmission. The proportion of patients readmitted for a condition unrelated to HF was lower in the intervention (7.1%) compared with the control group (30%, p = .003). Significant predictors of a non-HF readmission were intervention group, age, diabetes, and hemoglobin. Together, these variables explained 35% of the variance in multimorbidity readmissions. These preliminary results are promising in suggesting that MI may be an effective method of decreasing multimorbidity hospital readmissions in HF patients.
Project description:Thirty-day readmission following heart failure hospitalization impacts hospital performance measures and reimbursement. We investigated readmission characteristics and the magnitude of 30-day hospital readmissions after hospital discharge for heart failure using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project State Inpatient Databases (SID).Adults aged ? 40 years hospitalized with a primary discharge diagnosis of heart failure from 2007-2011 were identified in the California, New York, and Florida SIDs. Characteristics of patients with and without 7-, 8 to 30-, and 30-day readmission, and primary readmission diagnoses and risk factors for readmission were examined.We identified 547,068 patients with mean age 74.7 years; 50.7% were female, and 65.4% were White. Of 117,123 patients (21.4%) readmitted within 30 days (median 12 days), 69.7% had a non-heart failure primary readmission diagnosis. Patients with 30-day readmissions more frequently had a history of previous admission with heart failure as a secondary diagnosis, fluid and electrolyte disorders, and chronic deficiency anemia. There were no significant clinical differences at baseline between those patients whose first readmission was in the first 7 days after discharge vs in the next 23 days. The most common primary diagnoses for 30-day non-heart failure readmissions were other cardiovascular conditions (14.9%), pulmonary disease (8.5%), and infections (7.7%).In this large all-payer cohort, ?70% of 30-day readmissions were for non-heart failure causes, and the median time to readmission was 12 days. Future interventions to reduce readmissions should focus on common comorbid conditions that contribute to readmission burden.