A randomized, 4-week double-blind placebo control study on the efficacy of donepezil augmentation of lithium for treatment of acute mania.
ABSTRACT: A significant number of mania patients fail to respond to current pharmacotherapy, thereby there is need for novel augmentation strategies. The results of some early studies showed the effectiveness of cholinomimetics in the treatment of mania. One open case series suggested the efficacy of donepezil in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Our aim was to explore whether an oral cholinesterase inhibitor, donepezil, administered during a 4-week treatment period, would benefit patients with acute mania.We conducted a 4-week double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of donepezil as an adjunctive treatment to lithium in patients with acute mania. Eligible subjects were randomly assigned to receive donepezil or placebo in addition to lithium. Donepezil was started at 5 mg/day, and increased to 10 mg/day in the first week. Patients were rated with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) at baseline, day 1, week 1, week 2, and week 4.Out of the 30 patients who were enrolled, 15 were on donepezil and 15 were on placebo. All patients completed the 4-week trial. On the first day, there was a difference of 1.97 units on the psychomotor symptoms scale of the YMRS in the donepezil group as compared to the placebo group (t = 2.39, P = 0.02). There was a difference of 0.57 units (t = 2.09, P = 0.04) in the speech item and a difference of 0.29 units in the sexual interest item (t = 2.11, P = 0.04) in the donepezil group as compared to the placebo group. The total YMRS difference on the first day approached the conventional significance level (1.97 units, t = 1.84, P = 0.07). Over the course of 4 weeks, we failed to find that donepezil produced any significant difference in the YMRS (6.71 units difference, t = -1.44, P = 0.16) or the BPRS scale (1.29 units difference, t = -0.33, P = 0.75) as compared to placebo. Ten subjects (66.67%) in both groups met the criteria for clinical response (Fisher's exact P = 1.00). Five subjects (33.33%) in the donepezil group met the criteria for clinical remission while nine subjects (60.00%) in the placebo group met the remission criteria (Fisher's exact P = 0.27).Use of the oral anticholinergic donepezil had some benefit in the augmentation of lithium treatment on the first day, but did not provide any significant benefits in the long-term.
Project description:Quetiapine extended release (XR) and lithium are treatments with proven efficacy in acute mania. This randomized study evaluated the efficacy and safety of lithium or placebo as add-on to quetiapine XR in adult patients with manic or mixed symptoms of bipolar I disorder. In this 6-week, double-blind study (Trial D144AC00003), adult patients with DSM-IV-TR-diagnosed bipolar I disorder (current episode manic or mixed), a Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) total score ?20, and score ?4 on two of four core YMRS items were administered quetiapine XR (400 to 800 mg/day) and randomly assigned to receive add-on lithium (600 to 1,800 mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy end point was change in the YMRS total score from baseline to day 43, analyzed using a mixed-model for repeated measures (MMRM) approach. Secondary efficacy and safety end points were also measured. Rating scales were administered by trained staff. Three hundred fifty-six patients treated with quetiapine XR were randomized to add-on lithium (n?=?173) or placebo (n = 183). Two hundred ninety-one patients (81.7%) completed the study. At day 43, least squares mean change in YMRS total score was -22.8 for add-on lithium and -20.1 for add-on placebo, a statistically significant treatment group difference of -2.69 (p < 0.001). On secondary measures, add-on lithium was associated with significant improvements in response, remission, illness severity, and overall illness versus add-on placebo (p < 0.05). The number needed to treat was 9.1 for response and 7.9 for remission for add-on lithium compared with add-on placebo. Lithium in combination with quetiapine XR was generally well tolerated, with a similar profile to quetiapine XR in combination with placebo. The addition of lithium to quetiapine XR therapy was associated with significantly greater efficacy than placebo as add-on and was generally well tolerated in patients with acute bipolar I mania. This study was registered under Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier NCT00931723.
Project description:RATIONALE:Lithium is an effective prophylactic and anti-manic treatment in bipolar disorder; however, its use is declining through perceived poor tolerance and toxicity. Lithium inhibits inositol monophosphatase (IMPase), a probable key therapeutic mechanism. The anti-inflammatory drug, ebselen, also inhibits IMPase and appears well-tolerated and safe. OBJECTIVES:To assess the efficacy of adjunctive ebselen in mania using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) (primary outcome) and the Altman Self-Rating Mania (ASRM) Scale and Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale (CGI-S) among the secondary outcomes. METHODS:Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted between October 2017 and June 2019, at Oxford Health NHS Foundation Trust. Pharmacy-controlled randomisation was computer-generated, with full allocation concealment. In/outpatients (n?=?68) aged 18-70, experiencing mania or hypomania, were assigned to 3 weeks ebselen (600 mg bd) (n?=?33) or placebo (n?=?35). Participants received usual clinical care and psychotropic medication. RESULTS:Ebselen was numerically, but not statistically, superior to placebo in lowering scores on the YMRS (adjusted mean difference and 95% confidence interval, -?1.71 (-?5.34 to 1.91), p =?0.35) and ASRM (-?1.36 (-?3.75 to 1.17), p =?0.29). However, scores on the CGI-S were significantly lower at week 3 in ebselen-treated participants (adjusted mean difference, -?0.58 (-?1.14 to -?0.03), p =?0.04). A post hoc analysis excluding patients taking concomitant valproate treatment magnified the difference between ebselen and placebo on the YMRS. Adverse events were comparable between groups, and mild. CONCLUSIONS:Ebselen merits further investigation where concomitant psychotropic medication is better controlled and participants taking valproate are excluded. If effective, ebselen's superior tolerance and safety could make it a useful alternative to lithium. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Trial Registry: www.clinicaltrials.gov , Identifier: NCT03013400.
Project description:Lithium is a benchmark treatment for bipolar disorder in adults. Definitive studies of lithium in pediatric bipolar I disorder (BP-I) are lacking.This multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pediatric participants (ages 7-17 years) with BP-I/manic or mixed episodes compared lithium (n = 53) versus placebo (n = 28) for up to 8 weeks. The a priori primary efficacy measure was change from baseline to the end of study (week 8/ET) in the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) score, based on last-observation-carried-forward analysis.The change in YMRS score was significantly larger in lithium-treated participants (5.51 [95% confidence interval: 0.51 to 10.50]) after adjustment for baseline YMRS score, age group, weight group, gender, and study site (P = .03). Overall Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scores favored lithium (n = 25; 47% very much/much improved) compared with placebo (n = 6; 21% very much/much improved) at week 8/ET (P = .03). A statistically significant increase in thyrotropin concentration was seen with lithium (3.0 ± 3.1 mIU/L) compared with placebo (-0.1 ± 0.9 mIU/L; P < .001). There was no statistically significant between-group difference with respect to weight gain.Lithium was superior to placebo in reducing manic symptoms in pediatric patients treated for BP-I in this clinical trial. Lithium was generally well tolerated in this patient population and was not associated with weight gain, distinguishing it from other agents commonly used to treat youth with bipolar disorder.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The therapeutics for bipolar disorders are still far from adequate, and new options with improved effectiveness, safety, and tolerability in a wide range of patients are necessary. Preliminary data have suggested a role for dysfunctions targeting the purinergic system in mood disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of the purinergic agents allopurinol and dipyridamole combined with lithium in bipolar mania. METHOD:A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed in adult inpatients (N = 180) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of bipolar I disorder, current episode manic with or without psychotic features (rapid cyclers and mixed episodes were not included). No antipsychotic agent was used during the study. Subjects were given fixed oral doses of either allopurinol 600 mg/day (N = 60), dipyridamole 200 mg/day (N = 60), or placebo (N = 60) added to lithium for 4 weeks. Subjects were rated at baseline and days 7, 14, 21, and 28 using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) as the primary efficacy measure. The study was conducted between September 2003 and September 2006. RESULTS:Allopurinol resulted in greater mean reductions in YMRS scores from baseline to day 21 (p < .001) and day 28 (p = .003) compared with placebo using a linear model analysis (d = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.57). Remission rates were significantly higher for allopurinol compared with dipyridamole and placebo (p = .008). Lithium showed a significant antimanic efficacy even in the placebo group. Decrease in plasma uric acid levels showed a significant positive association with antimanic effects in the allopurinol group (p < .001). CONCLUSION:Allopurinol is clinically effective and well-tolerated adjunctively with lithium in manic episodes and may represent an alternative approach in the treatment of acute mania, especially for those presenting tolerability and safety issues with antipsychotics. The present results strongly support the involvement of the purinergic system in the pathophysiology and therapeutics of bipolar disorder. Further placebo-controlled studies with allo-purinol compared with standard mood stabilizers in mania and maintenance are warranted. TRIAL REGISTRATION:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00560079.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Despite lithium's clinical efficacy in treating mania in bipolar disorder (BD), studies evaluating early improvement and subsequent treatment response are sparse. This study investigated whether early improvement (within one week) to lithium monotherapy predicted later response and remission in individuals with BD mania. METHODS:BD-I patients (n=46) experiencing a manic episode received lithium monotherapy for four weeks (initial dose: 600mg/d, adjusted to therapeutic levels); individuals experiencing a mixed episode, rapid cyclers, previous non-responders to lithium, and those with current drug abuse/dependence were excluded. Symptoms were rated using the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) at baseline and at Days 7, 14, 21, and 28. RESULTS:Thirty-three percent of the total sample responded to lithium within the first week of treatment, defined as a ?50% decrease from baseline YMRS scores; 63% responded by study endpoint. In addition, 39% of the total sample showed early improvement (at least 20% decrease in YMRS scores) after one week of treatment. In this group, 79% responded to lithium by study endpoint. Among those showing less than 20% improvement at Week 1, only 23% responded to lithium by study endpoint. LIMITATIONS:History of episodes sequence was not assessed. CONCLUSIONS:Early improvement in response to lithium monotherapy in subjects with BD mania predicted later response and remission. Most patients who did not show early improvement in response to lithium during the first week of treatment showed no response after one month. The findings provide a valuable clinical tool for early identification of those patients most likely to benefit from lithium in clinical practice.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Clinicians treating older patients with bipolar disorder with mood stabilizers need evidence from age-specific randomized controlled trials. The authors describe findings from a first such study of late-life mania. METHOD:The authors compared the tolerability and efficacy of lithium carbonate and divalproex in 224 inpatients and outpatients age 60 or older with bipolar I disorder who presented with a manic, hypomanic, or mixed episode. Participants were randomly assigned, under double-blind conditions, to treatment with lithium (target serum concentration, 0.80-0.99 mEq/L) or divalproex (target serum valproate concentration, 80-99 ?g/mL) for 9 weeks. Participants with an inadequate response after 3 weeks received open adjunctive risperidone. The authors hypothesized that divalproex would be better tolerated and more efficacious than lithium. Tolerability was assessed based on a measure of sedation and on the proportions of participants achieving target concentrations. Efficacy was assessed with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS). RESULTS:Attrition rates were similar for lithium and divalproex (14% and 18% at week 3 and 51% and 44% at week 9, respectively). The groups did not differ significantly in sedation. Participants in the lithium group tended to experience more tremor. Similar proportions of participants in the lithium and divalproex groups achieved target concentrations (57% and 56%, respectively). A longitudinal mixed model of improvement (change from baseline in YMRS score) favored lithium (change in score, 3.90; 97.5% CI=1.71, 6.09). Nine-week response rates did not differ significantly between the lithium and divalproex groups (79% and 73%, respectively). The need for adjunctive risperidone was low and similar between groups (17% and 14%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS:Both lithium and divalproex were adequately tolerated and efficacious; lithium was associated with a greater reduction in mania scores over 9 weeks.
Project description:Background:Bipolar disorder is associated with an increased risk of aggression. However, effective management of hostility and/or agitation symptoms may prevent patients from becoming violent. This analysis investigated the efficacy of the antipsychotic asenapine on hostility and agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder. Methods:Data were pooled from three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, Phase III trials of asenapine in adults with manic or mixed episodes of bipolar I disorder (NCT00159744, NCT00159796, and NCT00764478). Post hoc analyses assessed the changes from baseline to day 21 on the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) hostility-related item scores in asenapine- or placebo-treated patients with at least minimal or mild symptom severity and on the PANSS-excited component (PANSS-EC) total score in agitated patients. Changes were adjusted for improvements in overall mania symptoms to investigate direct effects on hostility. Results:Significantly greater changes in favor of asenapine versus placebo were observed in YMRS hostility-related item scores (irritability: least squares mean difference [95% confidence interval] =-0.5 [-0.87, -0.22], P=0.001; disruptive-aggressive behavior: -0.7 [-0.99, -0.37], P<0.0001), PANSS hostility item score (-0.2 [-0.44, -0.04]; P=0.0181), and PANSS-EC total score (-1.4 [-2.4, -0.4]; P=0.0055). Changes in the YMRS disruptive-aggressive behavior score and the sum of the hostility-related items remained significant after adjusting for improvements in other YMRS item scores. Conclusion:Asenapine significantly reduced hostility and agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder; improvement was at least partially independent of overall improvement on mania symptoms.
Project description:Published studies in adult and pediatric bipolar disorder have used different definitions of treatment response. This analysis aimed to compare different definitions of response in a large sample of children and adolescents.Anexploratory analysis of a 4-week, multicenter, placebo-controlled study assessed patients (n=296; ages, 10-17 years) with an acute manic/mixed episode associated with BIPOLAR I disorder who were randomized to aripiprazole (10 or 30?mg/day) or placebo. The primary efficacy endpoint was mean change from baseline to week 4 in young mania rating scale (YMRS) total score. Additional assessments included: clinical global impressions-bipolar disorder (CGI-BP) Overall and mania scales, child global assessment scale (CGAS), and parent and subject general behavior inventory. Response was compared across seven operational definitions. Cohen's ? and Spearman's correlation tested relationships between various response definitions or changes in outcome measures and clinically meaningful improvement (defined as a CGI-BP overall improvement score of 1 or 2).Response rates varied depending upon the operational definition, but were highest for 95% reliable change (statistical method used to determine individual change from previous assessment) and ?33% reduction in YMRS total score. Response rate definitions with the highest validity in terms of predicting clinically meaningful improvement were: ?50% reduction on YMRS (?=0.64), a composite definition of response (YMRS <12.5, children's depression rating scale-revised (CDRS-R) ?40, and CGAS ?51; ?=0.59), and 95% reliable change on the CGAS or 33% reduction on YMRS (?=0.56). Parent ratings of symptoms were generally better at detecting symptom improvement than were subject ratings (?=?0.4-0.5 vs. ?0.2 when compared with CGI-BP overall improvement score).Clinically meaningful definitions of response in acute treatment of a manic/mixed episode in pediatric subjects include a 50% change in YMRS and a composite measure of response. Parent-reported measures of symptom improvement appear reliable for assessing symptom change.
Project description:Phenomenological studies on mood disorder are rare in Nepal which prompted us to undertake the current factor analytical study of mania.It was a cross-sectional descriptive study for which we did purposive sampling technique according to certain inclusion and exclusion criteria. The study sample consists of fifty patients, who fulfilled the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Edition (ICD-10) diagnostic criteria for Manic Episode and/or Bipolar Affective Disorder-current episode mania. Tools used were ICD-10 Diagnostic Criteria for Research, Young's Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS). Principal component factor analysis was applied to the 35 symptoms taken from YMRS and BPRS.Factor analysis revealed the presence of four main factors, which explained 51.082% of the total variance. These are "pure mania" which isolated 11 manic symptoms, "dysphoric mania" which isolated five depressive symptoms, "hostile mania" which isolated six symptoms, and the fourth factor, we called it "delirious mania," isolated four symptoms.The identified factors and subtypes are a useful conceptualization of atypical features among patients with acute mania. Further validation studies are required to determine whether the identified subtypes are of clinical and theoretical importance.
Project description:Deficits in long-chain omega-3 (LCn-3) fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may be associated with the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder. However, LCn-3 fatty acid status at the initial onset of mania and its association with treatment response are not known. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acid composition was determined in first-episode bipolar manic or mixed (n=40) and healthy (n=40) subjects. Mood symptom ratings were obtained with the Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Erythrocyte fatty acid composition and clinical ratings were also determined within a sub-group of bipolar subjects following 8-week (n=19) or 52-week (n=11) open-label treatment with lithium or quetiapine. At baseline bipolar subjects exhibited significantly lower erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) composition compared with healthy subjects (-23%, p<0.0001). EPA (20:5n-3) and docosapentanoic acid (22:5n-3), and LCn-6 fatty acids including arachidonic acid were not different. Following 8- or 52-week treatment with lithium or quetiapine, YMRS and HDRS total scores decreased significantly whereas erythrocyte fatty acids including DHA did not change. These data indicate that selective erythrocyte DHA deficits coincide with the initial onset of manic symptoms, and reductions in mood symptoms following treatment are not mediated by changes in fatty acid status.