Sox2 Level Is a Determinant of Cellular Reprogramming Potential.
ABSTRACT: Epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) and embryonic stem cells (ESCs) differ in their in vivo differentiation potential. While ESCs form teratomas and efficiently contribute to the development of chimeras, EpiSCs form teratomas but very rarely chimeras. In contrast to their differentiation potential, the reprogramming potential of EpiSCs has not yet been investigated. Here we demonstrate that the epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells EpiSCs and P19 embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs) exhibit a lower reprogramming potential than ESCs and F9 ECCs. In addition, we show that the low reprogramming ability is due to the lower levels of Sox2 in epiblast-derived stem cells. Consistent with this observation, overexpression of Sox2 enhances reprogramming efficiency. In summary, these findings suggest that a low reprogramming potential is a general feature of epiblast-derived stem cells and that the Sox2 level is a determinant of the cellular reprogramming potential.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can contribute to the tissues of chimeric animals, including the germline. By contrast, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) barely contribute to chimeras. These two types of cells are established and maintained under different culture conditions. Here, we show that a modified EpiSC culture condition containing the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 can support a germline-competent pluripotent state that is intermediate between ESCs and EpiSCs. When ESCs were cultured under a modified condition containing bFGF, Activin A, and CHIR99021, they converted to intermediate pluripotent stem cells (INTPSCs). These INTPSCs were able to form teratomas in vivo and contribute to chimeras by blastocyst injection. We also induced formation of INTPSCs (iINTPSCs) from mouse embryonic fibroblasts by exogenous expression of four reprogramming factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, under the INTPSC culture condition. These iINTPSCs contributed efficiently to chimeras, including the germline, by blastocyst injection. The INTPSCs exhibited several characteristic properties of both ESCs and EpiSCs. Our results suggest that the modified EpiSC culture condition can support growth of cells that meet the most stringent criteria for pluripotency, and that germline-competent pluripotency may depend on the activation state of Wnt signaling.
Project description:To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced by Esrrb, we performed ChIP-seq analysis of Esrrb, Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 in Tet-on Esrrb EpiSCs after treatment with doxycycline (Dox).
Project description:Diverse pluripotent stem cell lines have been derived from the mouse, including embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), embryonal carcinoma cells (ECCs), and epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). While all are pluripotent, these cell lines differ in terms of developmental origins, morphology, gene expression, and signaling, indicating that multiple pluripotent states exist. Whether and how the pluripotent state influences the cell line's developmental potential or the competence to respond to differentiation cues could help optimize directed differentiation protocols. To determine whether pluripotent stem cell lines differ in developmental potential, we compared the capacity of mouse ESCs, iPSCs, ECCs, and EpiSCs to form trophoblast. ESCs do not readily differentiate into trophoblast, but overexpression of the trophoblast-expressed transcription factor, CDX2, leads to efficient differentiation to trophoblast and to formation of trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) in the presence of fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF4) and Heparin. Interestingly, we found that iPSCs and ECCs could both give rise to TSC-like cells following Cdx2 overexpression, suggesting that these cell lines are equivalent in developmental potential. By contrast, EpiSCs did not give rise to TSCs following Cdx2 overexpression, indicating that EpiSCs are no longer competent to respond to CDX2 by differentiating to trophoblast. In addition, we noted that culturing ESCs in conditions that promote naïve pluripotency improved the efficiency with which TSC-like cells could be derived. This work demonstrates that CDX2 efficiently induces trophoblast in more naïve than in primed pluripotent stem cells and that the pluripotent state can influence the developmental potential of stem cell lines.
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) comprise at least two populations of cells with divergent states of pluripotency. Here, we show that epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) also comprise two distinct cell populations that can be distinguished by the expression of a specific Oct4-GFP marker. These two subpopulations, Oct4-GFP positive and negative EpiSCs, are capable of converting into each other in vitro. Oct4-GFP positive and negative EpiSCs are distinct from ESCs with respect to global gene expression pattern, epigenetic profile, and Oct4 enhancer utilization. Oct4-GFP negative cells share features with cells of the late mouse epiblast and cannot form chimeras. However, Oct4-GFP positive EpiSCs, which only represent a minor EpiSC fraction, resemble cells of the early epiblast and can readily contribute to chimeras. Our findings suggest that the rare ability of EpiSCs to contribute to chimeras is due to the presence of the minor EpiSC fraction representing the early epiblast. RNA samples to be analyzed on microarrays were prepared using Qiagen RNeasy columns with on-column DNA digestion. 300 ng of total RNA per sample was used as input into a linear amplification protocol (Ambion), which involved synthesis of T7-linked double-stranded cDNA and 12 hrs of in-vitro transcription incorporating biotin-labelled nucleotides. Purified and labelled cRNA was then hybridized for 18 hrs onto MouseRef-8 v2 expression BeadChips (Illumina) according to the manufacturer's instructions. After washing, as recommended, chips were stained with streptavidin-Cy3 (GE Healthcare) and scanned using the iScan reader (Illumina) and accompanying software. Samples were hybridized as biological replicates. 6 samples were analyzed, five of them in duplicate and one of them (T9-EpiSC) a single time (11 total samples). ESC: Mouse ESC male; EpiSC: Mouse EpiSC male GOF18; Epi-Sox2: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 male GOF18 (Overexpressing WT Sox2) cultured in condition EpiSC medium (CM); EpiSC-GFP-: Mouse E3 EpiSC grown in CM and FACS-sorted for GFP-; EpiSC-GFP+: Mouse E3 EpiSC grown in CM and FACS-sorted for GFP+; T9-EpiSC: Mouse T9 EpiSC grown on medium-density CF1 MEFs in UM, 2d -Fgf2, harvested without MEFs. The supplementary file 'GSE17984_non-normalized_data.txt' contains non-normalized data for Samples GSM450294-GSM450304.
Project description:Murine pluripotent stem cells can exist in two functionally distinct states, LIF-dependent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and bFGF-dependent epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs). However, human pluripotent cells so far seemed to assume only an epiblast-like state. Here we demonstrate that human iPSC reprogramming in the presence of LIF yields human stem cells that display morphological, molecular, and functional properties of murine ESCs. We termed these hLR5 iPSCs because they require the expression of five ectopic reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, cMyc, and Nanog, to maintain this more naive state. The cells are "metastable" and upon ectopic factor withdrawal they revert to standard human iPSCs. Finally, we demonstrate that the hLR5 state facilitates gene targeting, and as such provides a powerful tool for the generation of recombinant human pluripotent stem cell lines.
Project description:Several mouse pluripotent stem cell types have been established either from mouse blastocysts and epiblasts. Among these, embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are considered to represent a "naïve", epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) a "primed" pluripotent state. Although EpiSCs form derivatives of all three germ layers during in vitro differentiation, they rarely incorporate into the inner cell mass of blastocysts and rarely contribute to chimera formation following blastocyst injection. Here we successfully established homogeneous population of EpiSC lines with efficient chimera-forming capability using a medium containing fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-4. The expression levels of Rex1 and Nanog was very low although Oct4 level is comparable to ESCs. EpiSCs also expressed higher levels of epiblast markers, such as Cer1, Eomes, Fgf5, Sox17, and T, and further showed complete DNA methylation of Stella and Dppa5 promoters. However, the EpiSCs were clustered separately from E3 and T9 EpiSC lines and showed a completely different global gene expression pattern to ESCs. Furthermore, the EpiSCs were able to differentiate into all three germ layers in vitro and efficiently formed teratomas and chimeric embryos (21.4%) without germ-line contribution.
Project description:Blimp1 (Prdm1), the key determinant of primordial germ cells (PGCs), plays a combinatorial role with Prdm14 during PGC specification from postimplantation epiblast cells. They together initiate epigenetic reprogramming in early germ cells toward an underlying pluripotent state, which is equivalent to embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Whereas Prdm14 alone can promote reprogramming and is important for the propagation of the pluripotent state, it is not known whether Blimp1 is similarly involved. By using a genetic approach, we demonstrate that Blimp1 is dispensable for the derivation and maintenance of ESCs and postimplantation epiblast stem cells (epiSCs). Notably, Blimp1 is also dispensable for reprogramming epiSCs to ESCs. Thus, although Blimp1 is obligatory for PGC specification, it is not required for the reversion of epiSCs to ESCs and for their maintenance thereafter. This study suggests that reprogramming, including that of somatic cells to ESCs, may not entail an obligatory route through a Blimp1-positive PGC-like state.
Project description:Pluripotent stem cell lines derived from embryos of different stages have distinct pluripotent ground states, but similar levels of the transcription factor Oct4. Epiblast-derived pluripotent stem cells (EpiSCs), in contrast to embryonic stem (ES) cells, cannot form chimeras. We show that EpiSCs express lower levels of the transcription factors Sox2 and Klf4 than ES cells and have limited reprogramming potential, as shown by cell fusion. Sox2 overexpression dramatically increases the reprogramming potential, chimera formation, and germline contribution of EpiSCs. Therefore, although Oct4 is essential for reprogramming, the level of Sox2 defines both the reprogramming capability and the pluripotent ground states. RNA samples to be analyzed on microarrays were prepared using Qiagen RNeasy columns with on-column DNA digestion. 300 ng of total RNA per sample was used as input into a linear amplification protocol (Ambion), which involved synthesis of T7-linked double-stranded cDNA and 12 hrs of in-vitro transcription incorporating biotin-labelled nucleotides. Purified and labelled cRNA was then hybridized for 18 hrs onto MouseRef-8 v2 expression BeadChips (Illumina) according to the manufacturer's instructions. After washing, as recommended, chips were stained with streptavidin-Cy3 (GE Healthcare) and scanned using the iScan reader (Illumina) and accompanying software. Samples were hybridized as biological replicates. 12 sample types were analyzed, each of them in duplicate. ESCm: Mouse ESC male; ESCf: Mouse ESC OG2 female; F9 EC: F9 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell); F9-Sox2: F9 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell) overexpressing wild type Sox2; EpiSCf: Mouse EpiSC OG2 female; Epi-Sox2f: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (OG2 female) overexpressing wild type Sox2; P19 EC: P19 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell); P19-Sox2: P19 EC (mouse embryonic carcinoma cell) overexpressing wild type Sox2; EpiSCm: Mouse EpiSC (GOF18 male) (duplicates); EpiSox2mL2: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in condition EpiSC medium (CM); EpiSox2mE1: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in ESC medium (ESC like1); EpiSox2mE2: Mouse EpiSC Sox2 (GOF18 male) overexpressing wild type Sox2 cultured in ESC medium (ESC like2).
Project description:The interconversion between naive and primed pluripotent states is accompanied by drastic epigenetic rearrangements. However, it is unclear whether intrinsic epigenetic events can drive reprogramming to naive pluripotency or if distinct chromatin states are instead simply a reflection of discrete pluripotent states. Here, we show that blocking histone H3K4 methyltransferase MLL1 activity with the small-molecule inhibitor MM-401 reprograms mouse epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) to naive pluripotency. This reversion is highly efficient and synchronized, with more than 50% of treated EpiSCs exhibiting features of naive embryonic stem cells (ESCs) within 3 days. Reverted ESCs reactivate the silenced X chromosome and contribute to embryos following blastocyst injection, generating germline-competent chimeras. Importantly, blocking MLL1 leads to global redistribution of H3K4me1 at enhancers and represses lineage determinant factors and EpiSC markers, which indirectly regulate ESC transcription circuitry. These findings show that discrete perturbation of H3K4 methylation is sufficient to drive reprogramming to naive pluripotency.
Project description:To characterize the reprogramming of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) into embryonic stem cells (ESCs) induced by Esrrb, we performed microarray analysis of Tet-on Esrrb EpiSCs after treatment with doxycycline (Dox).