High mobility group protein N5 (HMGN5) and lamina-associated polypeptide 2α (LAP2α) interact and reciprocally affect their genome-wide chromatin organization.
ABSTRACT: The interactions of nuclear lamins with the chromatin fiber play an important role in regulating nuclear architecture and chromatin function; however, the full spectrum of these interactions is not known. We report that the N-terminal domain of the nucleosome-binding protein HMGN5 interacts with the C-terminal domain of the lamin-binding protein LAP2α and that these proteins reciprocally alter their interaction with chromatin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis of cells lacking either HMGN5 or LAP2α reveals that loss of either protein affects the genome-wide distribution of the remaining partner. Our study identifies a new functional link between chromatin-binding and lamin-binding proteins.
Project description:High mobility group nucleosome-binding protein 5 (HMGN5) is a chromatin architectural protein that binds specifically to nucleosomes and reduces the compaction of the chromatin fiber. The protein is present in most vertebrate tissues however the physiological function of this protein is unknown. To examine the function of HMGN5 in vivo, mice lacking the nucleosome-binding domain of HMGN5 were generated and characterized. Serological analysis revealed that compared to wild-type littermates (Hmgn5(+/Y)), mice with a targeted mutation in the HMGN5 gene (Hmgn5(tm1/Y)), had elevated serum albumin, non-HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, and alanine transaminase, suggesting mild hepatic abnormalities. Metabolomics analysis of liver extracts and urine revealed clear differences in metabolites between Hmgn5(tm1/Y) and their Hmgn5(+/Y) littermates. Hmgn5(tm1/Y) mice had a significant increase in hepatic glutathione levels and decreased urinary concentrations of betaine, phenylacetylglycine, and creatine, all of which are metabolically related to the glutathione precursor glycine. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed that expression of two genes affecting glutathione metabolism, glutathione peroxidase 6 (Gpx6) and hexokinase 1 (Hk1), was significantly decreased in Hmgn5(tm1/Y) mouse liver tissue. Analysis of chromatin structure by DNase I digestion revealed alterations in the chromatin structure of these genes in the livers of Hmgn5(tm1/Y) mice. Thus, functional loss of HMGN5 leads to changes in transcription of Gpx6 and Hk1 that alter glutathione metabolism.
Project description:The HMGN family is a family of nucleosome-binding architectural proteins that affect the structure and function of chromatin in vertebrates. We report that the HMGN5 variant, encoded by a gene located on chromosome X, is a rapidly evolving protein with an acidic C-terminal domain that differs among vertebrate species. We found that the intranuclear organization and nucleosome interactions of human HMGN5 are distinct from those of mouse HMGN5 and that the C-terminal region of the protein is the main determinant of the chromatin interaction properties. Despite their apparent differences, both mouse and human HMGN5 proteins interact with histone H1, reduce its chromatin residence time, and can induce large-scale chromatin decompaction in living cells. Analysis of HMGN5 mutants suggests that distinct domains in HMGN5 affect specific steps in the interaction of H1 with chromatin. Elevated levels of either human or mouse HMGN5 affect the transcription of numerous genes, most in a variant-specific manner. Our study identifies HMGN5 as a rapidly evolving vertebrate nuclear protein with species-specific properties. HMGN5 has a highly disordered structure, binds dynamically to nucleosome core particles, modulates the binding of H1 to chromatin, reduces the compaction of the chromatin fiber, and affects transcription.
Project description:The emergence of the nucleus was a major event of eukaryogenesis. How the nuclear envelope (NE) arose and acquired functions governing chromatin organization and epigenetic control has direct bearing on origins of developmental/stage-specific expression programs. The configuration of the NE and the associated lamina in the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) is of major significance and can provide insight into activities within the LECA nucleus. Subsequent lamina evolution, alterations, and adaptations inform on the variation and selection of distinct mechanisms that subtend gene expression in distinct taxa. Understanding lamina evolution has been difficult due to the diversity and limited taxonomic distributions of the three currently known highly distinct nuclear lamina. We rigorously searched available sequence data for an expanded view of the distribution of known lamina and lamina-associated proteins. While the lamina proteins of plants and trypanosomes are indeed taxonomically restricted, homologs of metazoan lamins and key lamin-binding proteins have significantly broader distributions, and a lamin gene tree supports vertical evolution from the LECA. Two protist lamins from highly divergent taxa target the nucleus in mammalian cells and polymerize into filamentous structures, suggesting functional conservation of distant lamin homologs. Significantly, a high level of divergence of lamin homologs within certain eukaryotic groups and the apparent absence of lamins and/or the presence of seemingly different lamina proteins in many eukaryotes suggests great evolutionary plasticity in structures at the NE, and hence mechanisms of chromatin tethering and epigenetic gene control.
Project description:Humans express three major splicing isoforms of LAP2, a lamin- and chromatin-binding nuclear protein. LAP2beta and gamma are integral membrane proteins, whereas alpha is intranuclear. When truncated recombinant human LAP2beta proteins were added to cell-free Xenopus laevis nuclear assembly reactions at high concentrations, a domain common to all LAP2 isoforms (residues 1-187) inhibited membrane binding to chromatin, whereas the chromatin- and lamin-binding region (residues 1-408) inhibited chromatin expansion. At lower concentrations of the common domain, membranes attached to chromatin with a unique scalloped morphology, but these nuclei neither accumulated lamins nor replicated. At lower concentrations of the chromatin- and lamin-binding region, nuclear envelopes and lamins assembled, but nuclei failed to enlarge and replicated on average 2. 5-fold better than controls. This enhancement was not due to rereplication, as shown by density substitution experiments, suggesting the hypothesis that LAP2beta is a downstream effector of lamina assembly in promoting replication competence. Overall, our findings suggest that LAP2 proteins mediate membrane-chromatin attachment and lamina assembly, and may promote replication by influencing chromatin structure.
Project description:Lamins are components of the peripheral nuclear lamina and interact with heterochromatic genomic regions, termed lamina-associated domains (LADs). In contrast to lamin B1 being primarily present at the nuclear periphery, lamin A/C also localizes throughout the nucleus, where it associates with the chromatin-binding protein lamina-associated polypeptide (LAP) 2 alpha. Here, we show that lamin A/C also interacts with euchromatin, as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation of euchromatin- and heterochromatin-enriched samples. By way of contrast, lamin B1 was only found associated with heterochromatin. Euchromatic regions occupied by lamin A/C overlap with those bound by LAP2alpha, and lack of LAP2alpha in LAP2alpha-deficient cells shifts binding of lamin A/C toward more heterochromatic regions. These alterations in lamin A/C-chromatin interactions correlate with changes in epigenetic histone marks in euchromatin but do not significantly affect gene expression. Loss of lamin A/C in heterochromatic regions in LAP2alpha-deficient cells, however, correlated with increased gene expression. Our data show a novel role of nucleoplasmic lamin A/C and LAP2alpha in regulating euchromatin.
Project description:In most metazoan nuclei, heterochromatin is located at the nuclear periphery in contact with the nuclear lamina, which provides mechanical stability to the nucleus. We show that in cultured cells, chromatin decompaction by the nucleosome binding protein HMGN5 decreases the sturdiness, elasticity and rigidity of the nucleus. Mice overexpressing HMGN5, either globally or only in the heart, are normal at birth but develop hypertrophic heart with large cardiomyoctyes, deformed nuclei and disrupted lamina and die of cardiac malfunction. Chromatin decompaction is seen in cardiomyocytes of newborn mice but misshaped nuclei with disrupted lamina are seen only in adult cardiomyocytes, suggesting that loss of heterochromatin diminishes the ability of the nucleus to withstand the mechanical forces of the contracting heart. Thus, heterochromatin enhances the ability of the nuclear lamina to maintain the sturdiness and shape of the eukaryotic nucleus; a structural role for chromatin that is distinct from its genetic functions.
Project description:In animal cells the nuclear lamina, which consists of lamins and lamin-associated proteins, serves several functions: it provides a structural scaffold for the nuclear envelope and tethers proteins and heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. In yeast, proteins and large heterochromatic domains including telomeres are also peripherally localized, but there is no evidence that yeast have lamins or a fibrous nuclear envelope scaffold. Nonetheless, we found that the Lem2 and Man1 proteins of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, evolutionarily distant relatives of the Lap2/Emerin/Man1 (LEM) sub-family of animal cell lamin-associated proteins, perform fundamental functions of the animal cell lamina. These integral inner nuclear membrane localized proteins, with nuclear localized DNA binding Helix-Extension-Helix (HEH) domains, impact nuclear envelope structure and integrity, are essential for the enrichment of telomeres at the nuclear periphery and by means of their HEH domains anchor chromatin, most likely transcriptionally repressed heterochromatin, to the nuclear periphery. These data indicate that the core functions of the nuclear lamina are conserved between fungi and animal cells and can be performed in fission yeast, without lamins or other intermediate filament proteins.
Project description:At the nuclear periphery, associations of chromatin with the nuclear lamina through lamina-associated domains (LADs) aid functional organization of the genome. We review the organization of LADs and provide evidence of LAD heterogeneity from cell ensemble and single-cell data. LADs are typically repressive environments in the genome; nonetheless, we discuss findings of lamin interactions with regulatory elements of active genes, and the role lamins may play in genome regulation. We address the relationship between LADs and other genome organizers, and the involvement of LADs in laminopathies. The current data lay the basis for future studies on the significance of lamin-chromatin interactions in health and disease.
Project description:Lamins are intermediate filament proteins that form a fibrous meshwork, called the nuclear lamina, between the inner nuclear membrane and peripheral heterochromatin of metazoan cells. The assembly and incorporation of lamin A/C into the lamina, as well as their various functions, are still not well understood. Here, we employed designed ankyrin repeat proteins (DARPins) as new experimental tools for lamin research. We screened for DARPins that specifically bound to lamin A/C, and interfered with lamin assembly in vitro and with incorporation of lamin A/C into the native lamina in living cells. The selected DARPins inhibited lamin assembly and delocalized A-type lamins to the nucleoplasm without modifying lamin expression levels or the amino acid sequence. Using these lamin binders, we demonstrate the importance of proper integration of lamin A/C into the lamina for nuclear mechanical properties and nuclear envelope integrity. Finally, our study provides evidence for cell-type-specific differences in lamin functions.
Project description:Meiotic chromosome movement is important for the pairwise alignment of homologous chromosomes, which is required for correct chromosome segregation. Movement is driven by cytoplasmic forces, transmitted to chromosome ends by nuclear membrane-spanning proteins. In animal cells, lamins form a prominent scaffold at the nuclear periphery, yet the role lamins play in meiotic chromosome movement is unclear. We show that chromosome movement correlates with reduced lamin association with the nuclear rim, which requires lamin phosphorylation at sites analogous to those that open lamina network crosslinks in mitosis. Failure to remodel the lamina results in delayed meiotic entry, altered chromatin organization, unpaired or interlocked chromosomes, and slowed chromosome movement. The remodeling kinases are delivered to lamins via chromosome ends coupled to the nuclear envelope, potentially enabling crosstalk between the lamina and chromosomal events. Thus, opening the lamina network plays a role in modulating contacts between chromosomes and the nuclear periphery during meiosis.