Comparison of missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in 3 geographically proximate emergency departments.
ABSTRACT: Differences in the prevalence of undiagnosed HIV between different types of emergency departments (EDs) are not well understood. We seek to define missed opportunities for HIV diagnosis within 3 geographically proximate EDs serving different patient populations in a single metropolitan area.For an urban academic, an urban community, and a suburban community ED located within 10 miles of one another, we reviewed visit records for a cohort of patients who received a new diagnosis of HIV between July 1999 and June 2003. Missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis were defined as ED visits in the year before diagnosis, during which there was no documented ED HIV testing offer or test. Outcomes were the number of missed opportunity visits and the number of patients with a missed opportunity for each ED. We secondarily reviewed medical records for missed opportunity encounters, using an extensive list of indications that might conceivably trigger testing.Among 276 patients with a new HIV diagnosis, 123 (44.5%) visited an ED in the year before diagnosis or received a diagnosis in the ED. The urban academic ED HIV testing program diagnosed 23 (8.3%) cases and offered testing to 24 (8.7%) patients who declined. Missed opportunities occurred during 187 visits made by 76 (27.5%) patients. These included 70 patients with 157 visits at the urban academic ED, 9 patients with 24 visits at the urban community ED, and 4 patients with 6 visits at the suburban community ED. Medical records were available for 172 of the 187 missed opportunity visits. Visits were characterized by the following potential testing indicators: HIV risk factors (58; 34%), related diagnosis indicating risk (7; 4%), AIDS-defining illness (8; 5%), physician suspicion of HIV (29; 17%), and nonspecific signs or symptoms of illness potentially consistent with HIV (126; 73%).Geographically proximate EDs differ in their opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis, but all 3 sites had missed opportunities. Many ED patients with undiagnosed HIV have potential indications for testing documented even in the absence of a dedicated risk assessment, although most of these are nonspecific signs or symptoms of illness that may not be clinically useful selection criteria.
Project description:The objective was to measure the variation in missed diagnosis and costs of care for older acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) and to identify the hospital and ED characteristics associated with this variation.Using 2004-2005 Medicare inpatient and outpatient records, the authors identified a cohort of AMI patients age 65 years and older who presented to the ED for initial care. The primary outcome was missed diagnosis of AMI, i.e., AMI hospital admission within 7 days of an ED discharge for a condition suggestive of cardiac ischemia. Costs were defined as Medicare hospital payments for all services associated with and immediately resulting from the ED evaluation. The effect of ED and hospital characteristics on quality and costs were estimated using multilevel models with hospital random effects.There were 371,638 AMI patients age 65 and older included in the study, of whom 4,707 were discharged home from their initial ED visits and subsequently admitted to the hospital. The median unadjusted hospital-level missed diagnosis percentage was 0.52% (interquartile range [IQR] = 0 to 3.45%). ED characteristics protective of adverse outcomes include higher ED chest pain acuity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.23, 99% confidence interval [CI] = 0.19 to 0.27) and American Board of Emergency Medicine (ABEM) certification (aOR = 0.60, 99% CI = 0.50 to 0.73). Protective hospital characteristics include larger hospital size (aOR = 0.46, 99% CI = 0.37 to 0.57) and academic status (aOR = 0.74, 99% CI = 0.58 to 0.94). All of these characteristics were associated with higher costs as well.The proportion of missed AMI diagnoses and cost of care for patients age 65 years and older presenting to EDs with AMI varies across hospitals. Hospitals with more board-certified emergency physicians (EPs) and higher average acuity are associated with significantly higher quality. All hospital characteristics associated with better ED outcomes are associated with higher costs.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Missed diagnoses of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the ED may result in lost opportunities to treat AIS. Our objectives were to describe the rate and clinical characteristics of missed AIS in the ED, to determine clinical predictors of missed AIS, and to report tissue plasminogen (tPA) eligibility among those with missed strokes. METHODS:Among a population of 1.3 million in a five-county region of southwest Ohio and northern Kentucky, cases of AIS that presented to 16 EDs during 2010 were identified using ICD-9 codes followed by physician verification of cases. Missed ED diagnoses were physician-verified strokes that did not receive a diagnosis indicative of stroke in the ED. Bivariate analyses were used to compare clinical characteristics between patients with and without an ED diagnosis of AIS. Logistic regression was used to evaluate predictors of missed AIS diagnoses. Alternative diagnoses given to those with missed AIS were codified. Eligibility for tPA was reported between those with and without a missed stroke diagnosis. RESULTS:Of 2,027 AIS cases, 14.0% (n = 283) were missed in the ED. Race, sex, and stroke subtypes were similar between those with missed AIS diagnoses and those identified in the ED. Hospital length of stay was longer in those with a missed diagnosis (5 days vs. 3 days, p < 0.0001). Younger age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.94, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.89 to 0.98) and decreased level of consciousness (LOC) (aOR = 3.58, 95% CI = 2.63 to 4.87) were associated with higher odds of missed AIS. Altered mental status was the most common diagnosis among those with missed AIS. Only 1.1% of those with a missed stroke diagnosis were eligible for tPA. CONCLUSION:In a large population-based sample of AIS cases, one in seven cases were not diagnosed as AIS in the ED, but the impact on acute treatment rates is likely small. Missed diagnosis was more common among those with decreased LOC, suggesting the need for improved diagnostic approaches in these patients.
Project description:Importance:The Institute of Medicine described diagnostic error as the next frontier in patient safety and highlighted a critical need for better measurement tools. Objectives:To estimate the proportions of emergency department (ED) visits attributable to symptoms of imminent ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke, aortic dissection, and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) that end in discharge without diagnosis; to evaluate longitudinal trends; and to identify patient characteristics independently associated with missed diagnostic opportunities. Design, Setting, and Participants:This was a retrospective cohort study of all Medicare claims for 2006 to 2014. The setting was hospital EDs in the United States. Participants included all fee-for-service Medicare patients admitted to the hospital during 2007 to 2014 for the conditions of interest. Hospice enrollees and patients with recent skilled nursing facility stays were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures:The proportion of potential diagnostic opportunities missed in the ED was estimated using the difference between observed and expected ED discharges within 45 days of the index hospital admissions as the numerator, basing expected discharges on ED use by the same patients in earlier months. The denominator was estimated as the number of recognized emergencies (index hospital admissions) plus unrecognized emergencies (excess discharges). Results:There were 1 561 940 patients, including 17 963 hospitalized for ruptured AAA, 304 980 for AMI, 1 181 648 for stroke, 19 675 for aortic dissection, and 37 674 for SAH. The mean (SD) age was 77.9 (10.3) years; 8.9% were younger than 65 years, and 54.1% were female. The proportions of diagnostic opportunities missed in the ED were as follows: ruptured AAA (3.4%; 95% CI, 2.9%-4.0%), AMI (2.3%; 95% CI, 2.1%-2.4%), stroke (4.1%; 95% CI, 4.0%-4.2%), aortic dissection (4.5%; 95% CI, 3.9%-5.1%), and SAH (3.5%; 95% CI, 3.1%-3.9%). Longitudinal trends were either nonsignificant (AMI and aortic dissection) or increasing (ruptured AAA, stroke, and SAH). Patient characteristics associated with unrecognized emergencies included age younger than 65 years, dual eligibility for Medicare and Medicaid coverage, female sex, and each of the following chronic conditions: end-stage renal disease, dementia, depression, diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, hypertension, coronary artery disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusions and Relevance:Among Medicare patients, opportunities to diagnose ruptured AAA, AMI, stroke, aortic dissection, and SAH are missed in less than 1 in 20 ED presentations. Further improvement may prove difficult.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Late HIV diagnosis is associated with increased AIDS-related morbidity and mortality as well as an increased risk of HIV transmission. In this study, we quantified and characterized missed opportunities for earlier HIV diagnosis in British Columbia (BC), Canada. DESIGN:Retrospective cohort. METHODS:A missed opportunity was defined as a healthcare encounter due to a clinical manifestation which may be caused by HIV infection, or is frequently present among those with HIV infection, but no HIV diagnosis followed within 30 days. We developed an algorithm to identify missed opportunities within one, three, and five years prior to diagnosis. The algorithm was applied to the BC STOP HIV/AIDS population-based cohort. Eligible individuals were ?18 years old, and diagnosed from 2001-2014. Multivariable logistic regression identified factors associated with missed opportunities. RESULTS:Of 2119 individuals, 7%, 12% and 14% had ?1 missed opportunity during one, three and five years prior to HIV diagnosis, respectively. In all analyses, individuals aged ?40 years, heterosexuals or people who ever injected drugs, and those residing in Northern health authority had increased odds of experiencing ?1 missed opportunity. In the three and five-year analysis, individuals with a CD4 count <350 cells/mm3 were at higher odds of experiencing ?1 missed opportunity. Prominent missed opportunities were related to recurrent pneumonia, herpes zoster/shingles among younger individuals, and anemia related to nutritional deficiencies or unspecified cause. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our newly-developed algorithm, this study demonstrated that HIV-diagnosed individuals in BC have experienced several missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis. Specific clinical indicator conditions and population sub-groups at increased risk of experiencing these missed opportunities were identified. Further work is required in order to validate the utility of this proposed algorithm by establishing the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values corresponding to the incidence of the clinical indicator conditions among both HIV-diagnosed and HIV-negative populations.
Project description:Timely diagnosis of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in the emergency department (ED) is made solely by ECG. Obtaining this test within 10 minutes of ED arrival is critical to achieving the best outcomes. We investigated variability in the timely identification of STEMI across institutions and whether performance variation was associated with the ED characteristics, the comprehensiveness of screening criteria, and the STEMI screening processes.We examined STEMI screening performance in 7 EDs, with the missed case rate (MCR) as our primary end point. The MCR is the proportion of primarily screened ED patients diagnosed with STEMI who did not receive an ECG within 15 minutes of ED arrival. STEMI was defined by hospital discharge diagnosis. Relationships between the MCR and ED characteristics, screening criteria, and STEMI screening processes were assessed, along with differences in door-to-ECG times for captured versus missed patients. The overall MCR for all 7 EDs was 12.8%. The lowest and highest MCRs were 3.4% and 32.6%, respectively. The mean difference in door-to-ECG times for captured and missed patients was 31 minutes, with a range of 14 to 80 minutes of additional myocardial ischemia time for missed cases. The prevalence of primarily screened ED STEMIs was 0.09%. EDs with the greatest informedness (sensitivity+specificity-1) demonstrated superior performance across all other screening measures.The 29.2% difference in MCRs between the highest and lowest performing EDs demonstrates room for improving timely STEMI identification among primarily screened ED patients. The MCR and informedness can be used to compare screening across EDs and to understand variable performance.
Project description:In 2019, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Ending the HIV Epidemic: A Plan for America (EHE) initiative to end the U.S. human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic by 2030. A critical component of the EHE initiative involves early diagnosis of HIV infection, along with prevention of new transmissions, treatment of infections, and response to HIV outbreaks (1). HIV testing is the first step in identifying persons with HIV infection who need to be engaged in treatment and care as well as persons with a negative HIV test result and who are at high risk for infection and can benefit from HIV preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and other prevention services. These opportunities are often missed for persons receiving clinical services in ambulatory care settings (2). Data from the 2009-2016 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) and 2009-2017 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS) were analyzed to estimate trends in HIV testing at visits by males and nonpregnant females to physician offices, community health centers (CHCs), and emergency departments (EDs) in the United States. HIV tests were performed at 0.63% of 516 million visits to physician offices, 2.65% of 37 million visits to CHCs, and 0.55% of 87 million visits to EDs. The percentage of visits with an HIV test did not increase at visits to physician offices during 2009-2016, increased at visits to CHC physicians during 2009-2014, and increased slightly at visits to EDs during 2009-2017. All adolescents and adults should have at least one HIV test in their lifetime (3). Strategies that reduce clinical barriers to HIV testing (e.g., clinical decision supports that use information in electronic health records [EHRs] to order an HIV test for persons who require one or standing orders for routine opt-out testing) are needed to increase HIV testing at ambulatory care visits.
Project description:To examine current trends in the characteristics of patients visiting California emergency departments (EDs) in order to better direct the allocation of acute care resources.A retrospective study.We analysed ED utilisation trends between 2005 and 2015 in California using non-public patient data from California's Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development.We included all ED visits in California from 2005 to 2015.We analysed ED visits and visit rates by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer and urban/rural trends. We further examined age, sex, race/ethnicity and urban/rural trends within each payer group for a more granular picture of the patient population. Additionally, we looked at the proportion of patients admitted from the ED and distribution of diagnoses.Between 2005 and 2015, the annual number of ED visits increased from 10.2 to 14.2?million in California. ED visit rates increased by 27.8% (p<0.001), with the greatest increases among patients aged 5-19 (37.4%, p<0.001) and 45-64 years (41.1%, p<0.001), non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic patients (56.8% and 48.8%, p<0.001), the uninsured and Medicaid-insured (36.1%, p=0.002; 28.6%, p<0.001) and urban residents (28.3%, p<0.001). The proportion of ED visits resulting in hospitalisation decreased by 18.3%, with decreases across all payer groups.Our findings reveal an increasing demand for emergency care and may reflect current limitations in accessing care in other parts of the healthcare system. Policymakers may need to recognise the increasingly vital role that EDs are playing in the provision of care and consider ways to incorporate this changing reality into the delivery of health services.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVE:Nearly 20 million adolescents receive emergency department (ED) care each year, many of whom have untreated reproductive health issues. ED visits represent an opportunity to provide appropriate care, however, ED physician reproductive health care practices and capabilities in the United States have not been described. We sought to characterize pediatric ED director's individual practice and ED system resources for providing adolescent reproductive health care. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, AND INTERVENTIONS:We invited pediatric ED division and/or medical directors nationally to participate in an anonymous, online survey. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Outcomes included ED directors' personal practice regarding providing adolescent patients reproductive health care, and their ED's resources and standard practice regarding screening adolescents for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and other reproductive health concerns. RESULTS:One hundred thirty-five of 442 (30.5%) ED directors responded. Respondents were 73% (90/124) male, with a median of 18 (interquartile range, 13-23) years of experience and 63% (84/134) working in urban EDs. Seventy-one percent (90/130) preferred face-to-face interviews for obtaining a sexual history, but only 59% (77/130) of participants "always ask parents to leave the room for sensitive questions." Eighty-four percent (106/127) were receptive to pregnancy prevention interventions being initiated in the ED, with 75% (80/106) of those willing to provide an intervention. Only 16% (21/128) indicated their ED has a universal STI screening program, and only 18% (23/126) "always" successfully notify patients of a positive STI test. CONCLUSION:ED directors are comfortable providing adolescent reproductive health care, and many individual- and ED-level opportunities exist to provide improved reproductive health care for adolescents in the ED.
Project description:The objective was to characterize the medical, social, and psychiatric correlates of frequent emergency department (ED) use among released prisoners with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).Data on all ED visits by 151 released prisoners with HIV on antiretroviral therapy (ART) were prospectively collected for 12 months. Correlates of frequent ED use, defined as having two or more ED visits postrelease, were described using univariate and multivariate models and generated medical, psychiatric, and social multimorbidity indices.Forty-four (29%) of the 151 participants were defined as frequent ED users, accounting for 81% of the 227 ED visits. Frequent ED users were more likely than infrequent or nonusers to be female; have chronic medical illnesses that included seizures, asthma, and migraines; and have worse physical health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In multivariate Poisson regression models, frequent ED use was associated with lower physical HRQoL (odds ratio [OR] = 0.95, p = 0.02) and having not had prerelease discharge planning (OR = 3.16, p = 0.04). Frequent ED use was positively correlated with increasing psychiatric multimorbidity index values.Among released prisoners with HIV, frequent ED use is driven primarily by extensive comorbid medical and psychiatric illness. Frequent ED users were also less likely to have received prerelease discharge planning, suggesting missed opportunities for seamless linkages to care.
Project description:Since 2009, syphilis has been increasing in New York State (NYS) excluding New York City (NYC) among men with a history of male-to-male sexual contact (MSM). Because MSM make up a disproportionate number of new HIV infections, this study aims to: 1) establish yearly rates of early syphilis diagnosis, 2) assess factors associated with early syphilis diagnosis, and 3) describe missed opportunities for earlier diagnosis of syphilis among MSM living with diagnosed HIV(MSMLWDH) in NYS, excluding NYC. A cohort of adult MSMLWDH alive in 2013 were followed through 2016 to identify individuals with at least one early syphilis diagnosis between July 2014 and December 2016. Early syphilis diagnosis rates were calculated for 2015 and 2016. Crude relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to determine associations between available covariates and both syphilis diagnosis and missed opportunities. Missed opportunities were defined as reports of an HIV-related laboratory test within a given window corresponding to syphilis staging where syphilis testing was not performed at the same time. Of 7,512 MSMLWDH, 50.0% were non-Hispanic white, 85.4% aged ?35, and 320(4.3%) had an early syphilis diagnosis. Yearly rates were: 1,838/100,000, and 1,681/100,000 in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Persons who were non-Hispanic black, living with diagnosed HIV for less than three years, aged <45, and were always virally suppressed or always in HIV care were significantly more likely to have a syphilis diagnosis. Over half of individuals had evidence of a missed opportunity for earlier syphilis diagnosis. Syphilis stage at diagnosis, older age, and syphilis diagnosis not concurrent with an HIV-related laboratory test were associated with a higher likelihood of having a missed opportunity. This study supports high interrelatedness of the syphilis and HIV epidemics among MSM. Since syphilis can impact HIV viral load suppression status, efforts to end the HIV epidemic need to be coupled with syphilis elimination efforts.