ABSTRACT: Surface-adsorbed fibrinogen (FBG) was recognized by adhering astrocytes, and was removed from the substrates in vitro by a two-phase removal process. The cells removed adsorbed FBG from binary proteins' surface patterns (FBG+laminin, or FBG+albumin) while leaving the other protein behind. Astrocytes preferentially expressed chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) at the loci of fibrinogen stimuli; however, no differences in overall CSPG production as a function of FBG surface coverage were identified. Removal of FBG by astrocytes was also found to be independent of transforming growth factor type ? (TGF-?) receptor based signaling as cells maintained CSPG production in the presence of TGF-? receptor kinase inhibitor, SB 431542. The inhibitor decreased CSPG expression, but did not abolish it entirely. Because blood contact and subsequent FBG adsorption are unavoidable in neural implantations, the results indicate that implant-adsorbed FBG may contribute to reactive astrogliosis around the implant as astrocytes specifically recognize adsorbed FBG.
Project description:Transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) isoforms are secreted as inactive complexes formed through noncovalent interactions between the bioactive TGF-? entity and its N-terminal latency-associated peptide prodomain. Extracellular activation of the latent TGF-? complex is a crucial step in the regulation of TGF-? function for tissue homeostasis. We show that the fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain of the matrix glycoprotein tenascin-X (TNX) interacts physically with the small latent TGF-? complex in vitro and in vivo, thus regulating the bioavailability of mature TGF-? to cells by activating the latent cytokine into an active molecule. Activation by the FBG domain most likely occurs through a conformational change in the latent complex and involves a novel cell adhesion-dependent mechanism. We identify ?11?1 integrin as a cell surface receptor for TNX and show that this integrin is crucial to elicit FBG-mediated activation of latent TGF-? and subsequent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in mammary epithelial cells.
Project description:When a biomaterial is inserted into the body, proteins rapidly adsorb onto its surface, creating a conditioning protein film that functions as a link between the implant and adhering cells. Depending on the nano-roughness of the surface, proteins will adsorb in different amounts, with different conformations and orientations, possibly affecting the subsequent attachment of cells to the surface. Thus, modifications of the surface nanotopography of an implant may prevent biomaterial-associated infections. Fibrinogen is of particular importance since it contains adhesion epitopes that are recognized by both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells, and can therefore influence the adhesion of bacteria. The aim of this study was to model adsorption of fibrinogen to smooth or nanostructured silica surfaces in an attempt to further understand how surface nanotopography may affect the orientation of the adsorbed fibrinogen molecule. We used a coarse-grained model, where the main body of fibrinogen (visible in the crystal structure) was modeled as rigid and the flexible ? C-chains (not visible in the crystal structure) were modeled as completely disordered. We found that the elongated fibrinogen molecule preferably adsorbs in such a way that it protrudes further into solution on a nanostructured surface compared to a flat one. This implicates that the orientation on the flat surface increases its bio-availability.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, which has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen beta and gamma chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) containing one or more FBG domains are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this gene family in Drosophila, we analyzed FREPs in twelve Drosophila species. RESULTS: Using the genome data from 12 Drosophila species, we identified FBG domains in each species. The results show that the gene numbers in each species vary from 14 genes up to 43 genes. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout. By comparison of structure and sequence conservation, some of the FBG domains in Drosophila melanogaster are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity. CONCLUSION: Sequence and structural analyses show that FREP family across 12 Drosophila species contains conserved FBG domains. Expansion of the FREP families in Drosophila is mainly accounted by a major expansion of FBG domains.
Project description:The fibrinogen-like (FBG) domain, which consists of approximately 200 amino acid residues, has high sequence similarity to the C-terminal halves of fibrinogen beta and gamma chains. Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs), which contain FBG domains in their C-terminal region, are found universally in vertebrates and invertebrates. In invertebrates, FREPs are involved in immune responses and other aspects of physiology. To understand the complexity of this family in insects, we analyzed FREPs in the mosquito genome and made comparisons to FREPs in the fruitfly genome.By using the genome data of the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, 53 FREPs were identified, whereas only 20 members were found in the Drosophila melanogaster genome. Using sequence profile analysis, we found that FBG domains have high sequence similarity and are highly conserved throughout the FBG domain region. By secondary structure analysis and comparison, the FBG domains of FREPs are predicted to function in recognition of carbohydrates and their derivatives on the surface of microorganisms in innate immunity.Detailed sequence and structural analysis discloses that the FREP family contains FBG domains that have high sequence similarity in the A. gambiae genome. Expansion of the FREP family in mosquitoes during evolutionary history is mainly accounted for by a major expansion of the FBG domain architecture. The characterization of the FBG domains in the FREP family is likely to aid in the experimental analysis of the ability of mosquitoes to recognize parasites in innate immunity and physiologies associated with blood feeding.
Project description:Chondroitin sulfate-4,6 (CS-E) glycosaminoglycan (GAG) upregulation in astroglial scars is a major contributor to chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG)-mediated inhibition [Gilbert et al. (2005) Mol Cell Neurosci 29:545–558]. However, the role of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfate 6-O-sulfotransferase (GalNAc4S6ST) catalyzed sulfation of CS-E, and its contribution to CSPG-mediated inhibition of CNS regeneration remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we used in situ hybridization to show localized upregulation of GalNAc4S6ST mRNA after CNS injury. Using in vitro spot assays with immobilized CS-E, we demonstrate dose-dependent inhibition of rat embryonic day 18 (E18) cortical neurons. To determine whether selective downregulation of CS-E affected the overall inhibitory character of extracellular matrix produced by reactive astrocytes, single [against (chondroitin 4) sulfotransferase 11 (C4ST1) or GalNAc4S6ST mRNA] or double [against C4ST1 and GalNAc4S6ST mRNA] siRNA treatments were conducted and assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and high-performance liquid chromatography to confirm the specific downregulation of CS-4S GAG (CS-A) and CS-E. Spot and Bonhoeffer stripe assays using astrocyte-conditioned media from siRNA-treated rat astrocytes showed a significant decrease in inhibition of neuronal attachment and neurite extensions when compared with untreated and TGF-treated astrocytes. These findings reveal that selective attenuation of CS-E via siRNA targeting of GalNAc4S6ST significantly mitigates CSPG-mediated inhibition of neurons, potentially offering a novel intervention strategy for CNS injury.
Project description:Scar formation in the nervous system begins within hours after traumatic injury and is characterized primarily by reactive astrocytes depositing proteoglycans that inhibit regeneration. A fundamental question in CNS repair has been the identity of the initial molecular mediator that triggers glial scar formation. Here we show that the blood protein fibrinogen, which leaks into the CNS immediately after blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption or vascular damage, serves as an early signal for the induction of glial scar formation via the TGF-beta/Smad signaling pathway. Our studies revealed that fibrinogen is a carrier of latent TGF-beta and induces phosphorylation of Smad2 in astrocytes that leads to inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Consistent with these findings, genetic or pharmacologic depletion of fibrinogen in mice reduces active TGF-beta, Smad2 phosphorylation, glial cell activation, and neurocan deposition after cortical injury. Furthermore, stereotactic injection of fibrinogen into the mouse cortex is sufficient to induce astrogliosis. Inhibition of the TGF-beta receptor pathway abolishes the fibrinogen-induced effects on glial scar formation in vivo and in vitro. These results identify fibrinogen as a primary astrocyte activation signal, provide evidence that deposition of inhibitory proteoglycans is induced by a blood protein that leaks in the CNS after vasculature rupture, and point to TGF-beta as a molecular link between vascular permeability and scar formation.
Project description:Immune responses triggered by implant abutment surfaces contributed by surface-adsorbed proteins are critical in clinical implant integration. How material surface-adsorbed proteins relate to host immune responses remain unclear. This study aimed to profile and address the immunological roles of surface-adsorbed salivary proteins on conventional implant abutment materials. Standardized polished bocks (5 × 5 × 1 mm3) were prepared from titanium and feldspathic ceramic. Salivary acquired pellicle formed in vitro was examined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and gene ontology (GO) analysis to identify and characterize the adsorbed proteins. Out of 759 proteins identified from pooled saliva samples, 396 were found to be attached to the two materials tested-369 on titanium and 298 on ceramic, with 281 common to both. GO annotation of immune processes was undertaken to form a protein-protein interaction network, and 14 hub proteins (?6 interaction partners) (coding genes: B2M, C3, CLU, DEFA1, HSP90AA1, HSP90AB1, LTF, PIGR, PSMA2, RAC1, RAP1A, S100A8, S100A9, and SLP1) were identified as the key proteins connecting multiple (6-9) immune processes. The results offered putative immunological prospects of implant abutment material surface-adsorbed salivary proteins, which could potentially underpin the dynamic nature of implant-mucosal/implant-microbial interactions.
Project description:We have characterized the adsorption of bovine fibrinogen onto the biomedical polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by performing mass spectrometric mapping with a lysine-reactive biotin label. After digestion with trypsin, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry was used to detect peptides from biotinylated bovine fibrinogen, with the goal of identifying lysines that were more accessible for reaction with the chemical label after adsorption. Peptides within domains that are believed to contribute to heparin binding, leukocyte activation, and platelet adhesion were found to be biotin labeled only after bovine fibrinogen adsorbed to the PET surface. Additionally, the accessibility of lysine residues throughout the entire molecule was observed to increase as the concentration of the adsorbing bovine fibrinogen solution decreased, suggesting that the proximity of biologically active motifs to hydrophilic residues leads to their exposure. The surface area per adsorbed bovine fibrinogen molecule was quantified on PET using optical waveguide lightmode spectroscopy (OWLS), which revealed higher surface densities for bovine fibrinogen adsorbed from higher concentration solutions. By measuring changes in both the identity and conformation of proteins that adsorb from complex mixtures such as blood or plasma, this technique may have applications in fundamental studies of protein adsorption and may allow for more accurate predictions of the biocompatibility of materials.
Project description:Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in the CNS after injury and participate in the inhibition of axon regeneration mainly through their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. In the present study, we have identified a new way to alleviate the inhibition of axonal regeneration by CSPG GAGs. We have successfully decreased the amount of CSPG GAG produced by astrocytes by targeting chondroitin polymerizing factor (ChPF), a key enzyme in the CSPG biosynthetic pathway. Using short interfering RNA (siRNA), we reduced ChPF mRNA levels by 70% in both the Neu7 astrocyte cell line and primary rat astrocytes. This reduction leads to a decrease in ChPF protein levels and a reduced amount of CSPG GAG chains in the conditioned media (CM) of these cells. Secretion of neurocan by primary astrocytes and NG2 core protein by Neu7 cells transfected with ChPF siRNA is not decreased, suggesting that inhibiting GAG chain synthesis does not affect core protein trafficking from these cells. CM from siRNA-treated Neu7 cells is a less repulsive substrate for axons than CM from control cells. In addition, axonal outgrowth from cerebellar granule neurons is increased on or in CM from ChPF siRNA-treated Neu7 cells. These data indicate that targeting the biosynthesis of CSPG GAG is a potentially new therapeutic avenue for decreasing CSPG GAG produced by astrocytes after CNS injury.
Project description:Ultraviolet treatment of titanium implants makes their surfaces hydrophilic and enhances osseointegration. However, the mechanism is not fully understood. This study hypothesizes that the recruitment of fibrinogen, a critical molecule for blood clot formation and wound healing, is influenced by the degrees of hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of the implant surfaces. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) implant models were created for fluid flow simulation. The hydrophilicity level was expressed by the contact angle between the implant surface and blood plasma, ranging from 5° (superhydrophilic), 30° (hydrophilic) to 50° and 70° (hydrophobic), and 100° (hydrorepellent). The mass of fibrinogen flowing into the implant interfacial zone (fibrinogen infiltration) increased in a time dependent manner, with a steeper slope for surfaces with greater hydrophilicity. The mass of blood plasma absorbed into the interfacial zone (blood plasma infiltration) was also promoted by the hydrophilic surfaces but it was rapid and non-time-dependent. There was no linear correlation between the fibrinogen infiltration rate and the blood plasma infiltration rate. These results suggest that hydrophilic implant surfaces promote both fibrinogen and blood plasma infiltration to their interface. However, the infiltration of the two components were not proportional, implying a selectively enhanced recruitment of fibrinogen by hydrophilic implant surfaces.