Cost-effectiveness of treating resistant hypertension with an implantable carotid body stimulator.
ABSTRACT: The purposes of this study are to investigate the cost-effectiveness of an implantable carotid body stimulator (Rheos; CVRx, Inc, Minneapolis, MN) for treating resistant hypertension and determine the range of starting systolic blood pressure (SBP) values where the device remains cost-effective. A Markov model compared a 20-mm Hg drop in SBP from an initial level of 180 mm Hg with Rheos to failed medical management in a hypothetical 50-year-old cohort. Direct costs (2007$), utilities, and event rates for future myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, and end-stage renal disease were modeled. Sensitivity analyses tested the assumptions in the model. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for Rheos was $64,400 per quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) using Framingham-derived event probabilities. The ICER was <$100,000 per QALYs for SBPs > or =142 mm Hg. A probability of device removal of <1% per year or SBP reductions of > or =24 mm Hg were variables that decreased the ICER below $50,000 per QALY. For cohort characteristics similar to Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial-Blood Pressure-Lowering Arm (ASCOT-BPLA) participants, the ICER became $26,700 per QALY. Two-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated that lowering SBP 12 mm Hg from 220 mm Hg or 21 mm Hg from 140 mm Hg were required. Rheos may be cost-effective, with an ICER between $50,000 and $100,000 per QALYs. Cohort characteristics and efficacy are key to the cost-effectiveness of new therapies for resistant hypertension .
Project description:BACKGROUND:A recent cluster randomized trial evaluating a multicomponent intervention showed significant reductions in blood pressure in low-income hypertensive subjects in Argentina. OBJECTIVES:To assess the cost-effectiveness of this intervention. METHODS:A total of 1432 hypertensive participants were recruited from 18 primary health care centers. The intervention included home visits led by community health workers, physician education, and text messaging. Resource use and quality of life data using the three-level EuroQol five-dimensional questionnaire were prospectively collected. The study perspective was that of the public health care system, and the time horizon was 18 months. Intention-to-treat analysis was used to analyze cost and health outcomes (systolic blood pressure [SBP] change and quality-adjusted life-years [QALYs]). A 1 time gross domestic product per capita per QALY was used as the cost-effectiveness threshold (US $14,062). RESULTS:Baseline characteristics were similar in the two arms. QALYs significantly increased by 0.06 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.04-0.09) in the intervention group, and SBP net difference favored the intervention group: 5.3 mm Hg (95% CI 0.27-10.34). Mean total costs per participant were higher in the intervention arm: US $304 in the intervention group and US $154 in the control group (adjusted difference of US $140.18; 95% CI US $75.41-US $204.94). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $3299 per QALY (95% credible interval 1635-6099) and US $26 per mm Hg of SBP (95% credible interval 13-46). Subgroup analysis showed that the intervention was cost-effective in all prespecified subgroups (age, sex, cardiovascular risk, and body mass index). CONCLUSIONS:The multicomponent intervention was cost-effective for blood pressure control among low-income hypertensive patients.
Project description:To evaluate the 3-year incremental cost-effectiveness of fluocinolone acetonide implant versus systemic therapy for the treatment of noninfectious intermediate, posterior, and panuveitis.Randomized, controlled, clinical trial.Patients with active or recently active intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis enrolled in the Multicenter Uveitis Steroid Treatment Trial.Data on cost and health utility during 3 years after randomization were evaluated at 6-month intervals. Analyses were stratified by disease laterality at randomization (31 unilateral vs 224 bilateral) because of the large upfront cost of the implant.The primary outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over 3 years: the ratio of the difference in cost (in United States dollars) to the difference in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Costs of medications, surgeries, hospitalizations, and regular procedures (e.g., laboratory monitoring for systemic therapy) were included. We computed QALYs as a weighted average of EQ-5D scores over 3 years of follow-up.The ICER at 3 years was $297,800/QALY for bilateral disease, driven by the high cost of implant therapy (difference implant - systemic [?]: $16,900; P < 0.001) and the modest gains in QALYs (? = 0.057; P = 0.22). The probability of the ICER being cost-effective at thresholds of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY was 0.003 and 0.04, respectively. The ICER for unilateral disease was more favorable, namely, $41,200/QALY at 3 years, because of a smaller difference in cost between the 2 therapies (? = $5300; P = 0.44) and a larger benefit in QALYs with the implant (? = 0.130; P = 0.12). The probability of the ICER being cost-effective at thresholds of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY was 0.53 and 0.74, respectively.Fluocinolone acetonide implant therapy was reasonably cost-effective compared with systemic therapy for individuals with unilateral intermediate, posterior, or panuveitis but not for those with bilateral disease. These results do not apply to the use of implant therapy when systemic therapy has failed or is contraindicated. Should the duration of implant effect prove to be substantially >3 years or should large changes in therapy pricing occur, the cost-effectiveness of implant versus systemic therapy would need to be reevaluated.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>We compared the cost-effectiveness of hypertension treatment in non-Hispanic blacks and non-Hispanic whites according to 2014 US hypertension treatment guidelines.<h4>Methods</h4>The cardiovascular disease (CVD) policy model simulated CVD events, quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), and treatment costs in 35- to 74-year-old adults with untreated hypertension. CVD incidence, mortality, and risk factor levels were obtained from cohort studies, hospital registries, vital statistics, and national surveys. Stage 1 hypertension was defined as blood pressure 140-149/90-99mm Hg; stage 2 hypertension as ≥150/100mm Hg. Probabilistic input distribution sampling informed 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) < $50,000/QALY gained were considered cost-effective.<h4>Results</h4>Treating 0.7 million hypertensive non-Hispanic black adults would prevent about 8,000 CVD events annually; treating 3.4 million non-Hispanic whites would prevent about 35,000 events. Overall 2014 guideline implementation would be cost saving in both groups compared with no treatment. For stage 1 hypertension but without diabetes or chronic kidney disease, cost savings extended to non-Hispanic black males ages 35-44 but not same-aged non-Hispanic white males (ICER $57,000/QALY; 95% UI $15,000-$100,000) and cost-effectiveness extended to non-Hispanic black females ages 35-44 (ICER $46,000/QALY; $17,000-$76,000) but not same-aged non-Hispanic white females (ICER $181,000/QALY; $111,000-$235,000).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Compared with non-Hispanic whites, cost-effectiveness of implementing hypertension guidelines would extend to a larger proportion of non-Hispanic black hypertensive patients.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>The Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial showed that an intensive diet and exercise (D+E) program led to a mean 10.6-kg weight reduction and 51% pain reduction in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The aim of the current study was to investigate the cost-effectiveness of adding this D+E program to treatment in overweight and obese (body mass index >27 kg/m<sup>2</sup> ) patients with knee OA.<h4>Methods</h4>We used the Osteoarthritis Policy Model to estimate quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and lifetime costs for overweight and obese patients with knee OA, with and without the D+E program. We evaluated cost-effectiveness with the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER), a ratio of the differences in lifetime cost and QALYs between treatment strategies. We considered 3 cost-effectiveness thresholds: $50,000/QALY, $100,000/QALY, and $200,000/QALY. Analyses were conducted from health care sector and societal perspectives and used a lifetime horizon. Costs and QALYs were discounted at 3% per year. D+E characteristics were derived from the IDEA trial. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses (PSAs) were used to evaluate parameter uncertainty and the effect of extending the duration of the D+E program.<h4>Results</h4>In the base case, D+E led to 0.054 QALYs gained per person and cost $1,845 from the health care sector perspective and $1,624 from the societal perspective. This resulted in ICERs of $34,100/QALY and $30,000/QALY. In the health care sector perspective PSA, D+E had 58% and 100% likelihoods of being cost-effective with thresholds of $50,000/QALY and $100,000/QALY, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Adding D+E to usual care for overweight and obese patients with knee OA is cost-effective and should be implemented in clinical practice.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of ultrathin Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (UT-DSAEK) versus standard DSAEK. METHODS:A cost-effectiveness analysis using data from a multicentre randomized clinical trial was performed. The time horizon was 12 months postoperatively. Sixty-four eyes of 64 patients with Fuchs' endothelial dystrophy were included and randomized to UT-DSAEK (n = 33) or DSAEK (n = 31). Relevant resources from healthcare and societal perspectives were included in the cost analysis. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were determined using the Health Utilities Index Mark 3 questionnaire. The main outcome was the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER; incremental societal costs per QALY). RESULTS:Societal costs were €9431 (US$11 586) for UT-DSAEK and €9110 (US$11 192) for DSAEK. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were 0.74 in both groups. The ICER indicated inferiority of UT-DSAEK. The cost-effectiveness probability ranged from 37% to 42%, assuming the maximum acceptable ICER ranged from €2500-€80 000 (US$3071-US$98 280) per QALY. Additional analyses were performed omitting one UT-DSAEK patient who required a regraft [ICER €9057 (US$11 127) per QALY, cost-effectiveness probability: 44-62%] and correcting QALYs for an imbalance in baseline utilities [ICER €23 827 (US$29 271) per QALY, cost-effectiveness probability: 36-59%]. Furthermore, the ICER was €2101 (US$2581) per patient with clinical improvement in best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (?0.2 logMAR) and €3274 (US$4022) per patient with clinical improvement in National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 composite score (?10 points). CONCLUSION:The base case analysis favoured DSAEK, since costs of UT-DSAEK were higher while QALYs were comparable. However, additional analyses revealed no preference for UT-DSAEK or DSAEK. Further cost-effectiveness studies are required to reduce uncertainty.
Project description:Based on consensus guidelines, surgical resection of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (BD-IPMN) is indicated in patients with symptoms of cyst size >or=30 mm, intramural nodules, or dilated main pancreatic duct greater than 6 mm. The aim of this study was to determine the cost effectiveness of consensus guideline implementation in the management of BD-IPMN.We developed a decision analytic model to compare the costs and effectiveness of three management strategies for a cohort of 60-year-old patients with branch duct IPMN: (1) surveillance using consensus guidelines for surgical resection (surveillance strategy), (2) surgical resection based on symptoms without surveillance (no surveillance strategy), and (3) immediate surgery (surgery strategy). The primary outcomes were quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Sensitivity analysis was performed over a wide ranges of estimates.The no surveillance strategy was the least costly, but also the least effective, while the surgery strategy was the most costly and most effective. Compared to the no surveillance strategy, the surveillance strategy cost an additional $20,096 per QALY. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of the surgery strategy compared with the surveillance strategy was $132,436 per QALY. In a probabilistic sensitivity analysis, if society was willing to pay $50,000 per quality-adjusted life year gained, then 88.1% of patients using the surveillance strategy would be within budget.Immediate surgery is the most effective, but may be prohibitively expensive. The surveillance strategy is a cost-effective option compared to no surveillance.
Project description:Clopidogrel's effectiveness is likely reduced significantly for prevention of thrombotic events after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients exhibiting a decreased ability to metabolize clopidogrel into its active form. A genetic mutation responsible for this reduced effectiveness is detectable by genotyping. Ticagrelor is not dependent on gene-based metabolic activation and demonstrated greater clinical efficacy than clopidogrel in a recent secondary prevention trial. In 2011, clopidogrel will lose its patent protection and likely will be substantially less expensive than ticagrelor.To determine the cost-effectiveness of ticagrelor compared with a genotype-driven selection of antiplatelet agents.A hybrid decision tree/Markov model was used to estimate the 5-year medical costs (in 2009 US$) and outcomes for a cohort of ACS patients enrolled in Medicare receiving either genotype-driven or ticagrelor-only treatment. Outcomes included life years and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. Data comparing the clinical performance of ticagrelor and clopidogrel were derived from the Platelet Inhibition and Patient Outcomes trial.The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for universal ticagrelor was $10,059 per QALY compared to genotype-driven treatment, and was most sensitive to the price of ticagrelor and the hazard ratio for death for ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel. The ICER remained below $50,000 per QALY until a monthly ticagrelor price of $693 or a 0.93 hazard ratio for death for ticagrelor relative to clopidogrel. In probabilistic analyses, universal ticagrelor was below $50,000 per QALY in 97.7% of simulations.Prescribing ticagrelor universally increases quality-adjusted life years for ACS patients at a cost below a typically accepted threshold.
Project description:<b>Objectives:</b> Rapid socioeconomic and nutrition transitions in Chinese populations have contributed to the growth in childhood obesity. This study presents a cost-effectiveness analysis of a school- and family-based childhood obesity prevention programme in China. <b>Methods:</b> A trial-based economic evaluation assessed cost-effectiveness at 12 months. Forty schools with 1,641 children were randomised to either receive the multi-component (diet and physical activity) intervention or to continue with usual activities. Both public sector and societal perspectives were adopted. Costs and benefits in the form of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were compared and uncertainty was assessed using established UK and US thresholds. <b>Results:</b> The intervention cost was 35.53 Yuan (£7.04/US$10.01) per child from a public sector perspective and 536.95 Yuan (£106/US$151) from a societal perspective. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was 272.7 Yuan (£54/US$77)/BMI z-score change. The ICER was 8,888 Yuan (£1,760/US$2,502) and 73,831 Yuan (£14,620/US$20,796) per QALY from a public sector and societal perspective, respectively and was cost-effective using UK (£20,000) and US (US$50,000) per QALY thresholds. <b>Conclusion:</b> A multi-component school-based prevention programme is a cost-effective means of preventing childhood obesity in China.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab plus standard chemotherapy in the first-line setting for patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the US payer perspective. DESIGN:A Markov model was constructed to analyse the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC. Health outcomes were estimated in quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). The cost information was from Medicare in 2018. One-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses examined the impact of uncertainty and assumptions on the results. SETTING:The US payer perspective. PARTICIPANTS:A hypothetical US cohort of patients with previously untreated metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without EGFR or ALK mutations. INTERVENTIONS:Pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURES:Costs, QALYs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy expressed as cost per QALY gained compared with chemotherapy RESULTS: The base case analysis demonstrated that pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy provided an additional 0.78 QALYs at incremental cost of $151 409, resulting in an ICER of $194 372/QALY. ICER for pembrolizumab plus chemotherapy was >$149 680/QALY in all of our univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS:Pembrolizumab in addition to chemotherapy provides modest incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY for the treatment of previously untreated metastatic NSCLC.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Currently, approved first-line treatment options of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) include (1) androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone, ADT plus one of the following: (2) docetaxel, (3) abiraterone, (4) enzalutamide, and (5) apalutamide. The high cost of novel androgen receptor pathway inhibitors warrants an understanding of the combinations' value by considering both efficacy and cost.<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed to compare the cost-effectiveness of these five treatment options in mHSPC from the US payer perspective to guide treatment sequence.<h4>Methods</h4>A Markov model was developed to compare the lifetime cost and effectiveness of these five first-line treatment options for mHSPC using outcomes data from published literature. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Drug costs were obtained from the Veterans Affairs Pharmaceutical Catalog. We extrapolated survival beyond closure of the trials.<h4>Outcome measurements and statistical analysis</h4>Life-years, QALYs, lifetime costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were estimated. Univariable, 2-way, and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to evaluate parameter uncertainty. A willingness-to-pay (WTP) threshold of US$100,000 per QALY was used.<h4>Results</h4>Compared to ADT alone, docetaxel plus ADT provided a 0.28 QALY gain at an ICER of US$12,870 per QALY. Abiraterone plus ADT provided an additional 1.70 QALYs against docetaxel plus ADT, with an ICER of US$38,897 per QALY. Compared to abiraterone plus ADT, enzalutamide plus ADT provided an additional 0.87 QALYs at an ICER of US$509,813 per QALY. Apalutamide plus ADT was strongly dominated by enzalutamide plus ADT. Given the WTP threshold of US$100,000 per QALY, abiraterone plus ADT represented high-value health care.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Abiraterone plus ADT is the preferred treatment option for men with mHSPC at a WTP threshold of US$100,000 per QALY.