Nonlinear absorption kinetics of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing tocotrienols as lipophilic molecules: in vivo and in vitro studies.
ABSTRACT: Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been broadly used to promote the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo oral bioavailability of vitamin E isoforms, ?-tocotrienol (?-T3) and ?-tocotrienol (?-T3) administered as SEDDS, as compared to commercially available UNIQUE E® Tocotrienols capsules. Results from studies in rats showed that low dose treatment with ?-T3 (90%) and ?-T3 (10%) formulated SEDDS showed bioavailability of 31.5% and 332%, respectively. However, bioavailability showed a progressive decrease with increased treatment dose that displayed nonlinear absorption kinetics. Additional in vitro studies examining cellular uptake studies in Caco 2 cells revealed that the SEDDS formulation increased passive permeability of ?-T3 and ?-T3 by threefold as compared to the commercial capsule formulation. These studies also showed that free surfactants decreased ?-T3 and ?-T3 absorption. Specifically, combined treatment cremophor EL or labrasol with tocotrienols caused a 60-85% reduction in the cellular uptake of ?-T3 and ?-T3 and these effects appear to result from surfactant-induced inhibition of the ?-T3 and ?-T3 transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In summary, results showed that SEDDS formulation significantly increases the absorption and bioavailability ?-T3 and ?-T3. However, this effect is self-limiting because treatment with increasing doses of SEDDS appears to be associated with a corresponding increase in free surfactants levels that directly and negatively impact tocotrienol transport protein function and results in nonlinear absorption kinetics and a progressive decrease in ?-T3 and ?-T3 absorption and bioavailability.
Project description:Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) can improve the oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Solid self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (s-SEDDS) offer several advantages including improved drug stability, ease of administration, and production. Most compounds employed in developing s-SEDDS are solid in nature, with a high amount of surfactants added. The aim of this study was to develop an s-SEDDS using a tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) as the model liquid active substance via a simple adsorption method. The solid formulation was developed using magnesium aluminosilicate as the carrier with 70% TRF and 30% surfactants (poloxamer and Labrasol<sup>®</sup>). The formulation showed good self-emulsification efficiency with stable emulsion formed, excellent powder flowability, and small emulsion droplet size of 210-277 nm. The s-SEDDS with combined surfactants (poloxamer and Labrasol<sup>®</sup>) showed a faster absorption rate compared to preparations with only a single surfactant and enhanced oral bioavailability (3.4-3.8 times higher) compared to the non-self-emulsifying oily preparation when administered at a fasted state in rats. In conclusion, an s-SEDDS containing a high amount of TRF was successfully developed. It may serve as a useful alternative to a liquid product with enhanced oral bioavailability and the added advantage of being a solid dosage form.
Project description:Gamma and delta tocotrienols are isomers of Vitamin E with established potency in pre-clinical anti-cancer research. This single-dose, randomized, crossover study aimed to compare the safety and bioavailability of a new formulation of Gamma Delta Tocotrienol (GDT) in comparison with the existing Tocotrienol-rich Fraction (TRF) in terms of gamma and delta isomers in healthy volunteers. Subjects were given either two 300 mg GDT (450 mg ?-T3 and 150 mg ?-T3) capsules or four 200 mg TRF (451.2 mg ?-T3 &102.72 mg ?-T3) capsules and blood samples were taken at several time points over 24 hours. Plasma tocotrienol concentrations were determined using HPLC method. The 90% CI for gamma and delta tocotrienols for the ratio of log-transformation of GDT/TRF for Cmax and AUC0-? (values were anti-logged and expressed as a percentage) were beyond the bioequivalence limits (106.21-195.46, 154.11-195.93 and 52.35-99.66, 74.82-89.44 respectively). The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test for Tmax did not show any significant difference between GDT and TRF for both isomers (p > 0.05). No adverse events were reported during the entire period of study. GDT was found not bioequivalent to TRF, in terms of AUC and Cmax. Gamma tocotrienol in GDT showed superior bioavailability whilst delta tocotrienol showed less bioavailability compared to TRF.
Project description:Cannabidiol (CBD), a phytocannabinoid compound of <i>Cannabis sativa</i>, shows limited oral bioavailability due to its lipophilicity and extensive first-pass metabolism. CBD is also known for its high intra- and inter-subject absorption variability in humans. To overcome these limitations a novel self-emulsifying drug delivery system (SEDDS) based on VESIsorb<sup>®</sup> formulation technology incorporating CBD, as Hemp-Extract, was developed (SEDDS-CBD). The study objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of SEDDS-CBD in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design in 16 healthy volunteers under fasted conditions. As reference formulation, the same Hemp-Extract diluted with medium-chain triglycerides (MCT-CBD) was used. CBD dose was standardized to 25 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed from individual concentration-time curves. Single oral administration of SEDDS-CBD led to a 4.4-fold higher C<sub>max</sub> and a 2.85-/1.70-fold higher AUC<sub>0-8h</sub>/AUC<sub>0-24h</sub> compared to the reference formulation. T<sub>max</sub> was substantially shorter for SEDDS-CBD (1.0 h) compared to MCT-CBD (3.0 h). Subgroup analysis demonstrated a higher bioavailability in women compared to men. This difference was seen for MCT-CBD while SEDDS-CBD mitigated this gender effect. Overall, SEDDS-CBD showed a significant improvement for all determined pharmacokinetic parameters: increased CBD plasma values (C<sub>max</sub>), favorably enhanced bioavailability (AUC) and fast absorption (T<sub>max</sub>). No safety concerns were noted following either administration.
Project description:Oligonucleotides (OND) represent a promising therapeutic approach. However, their instability and low intestinal permeability hamper oral bioavailability. Well-established for oral delivery, self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) can overcome the weakness of other delivery systems such as long-term instability of nanoparticles or complicated formulation processes. Therefore, the present study aims to prepare SEDDS for delivery of a nonspecific fluorescently labeled OND across the intestinal Caco-2 monolayer. The hydrophobic ion pairing of an OND and a cationic lipid served as an effective hydrophobization method using either dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP). This strategy allowed a successful loading of OND-cationic lipid complexes into both negatively charged and neutral SEDDS. Subjecting both complex-loaded SEDDS to a nuclease, the negatively charged SEDDS protected about 16% of the complexed OND in contrast to 58% protected by its neutral counterpart. Furthermore, both SEDDS containing permeation-enhancing excipients facilitated delivery of OND across the intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayer. The negatively charged SEDDS showed a more stable permeability profile over 120 min, with a permeability of about 2 × 10<sup>-7</sup> cm/s, unlike neutral SEDDS, which displayed an increasing permeability reaching up to 7 × 10<sup>-7</sup> cm/s. In conclusion, these novel SEDDS-based formulations provide a promising tool for OND protection and delivery across the Caco-2 cell monolayer.
Project description:Efforts in discovering new and effective neurotherapeutics are made daily, although most fail to reach clinical trials. The main reason is their poor bioavailability, related to poor aqueous solubility, limited permeability through biological membranes, and the hepatic first-pass metabolism. Nevertheless, crossing the blood-brain barrier is the major drawback associated with brain drug delivery. To overcome it, intranasal administration has become more attractive, in some cases even surpassing the oral route. The unique anatomical features of the nasal cavity allow partial direct drug delivery to the brain, circumventing the blood-brain barrier. Systemic absorption through the nasal cavity also avoids the hepatic first-pass metabolism, increasing the systemic bioavailability of highly metabolized entities. Nevertheless, most neurotherapeutics present physicochemical characteristics that require them to be formulated in lipidic nanosystems as self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS). These are isotropic mixtures of oils, surfactants, and co-surfactants that, after aqueous dilution, generate micro or nanoemulsions loading high concentrations of lipophilic drugs. SEDDS should overcome drug precipitation in absorption sites, increase their permeation through absorptive membranes, and enhance the stability of labile drugs against enzymatic activity. Thus, combining the advantages of SEDDS and those of the intranasal route for brain delivery, an increase in drugs' brain targeting and bioavailability could be expected. This review deeply characterizes SEDDS as a lipidic nanosystem, gathering important information regarding the mechanisms associated with the intranasal delivery of drugs loaded in SEDDS. In the end, in vivo results after SEDDS intranasal or oral administration are discussed, globally revealing their efficacy in comparison with common solutions or suspensions.
Project description:Quantification of tocotrienols in human plasma is critical when the attention towards tocotrienols on its distinctive properties is arising. We aim to develop a simple and practical normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography method to quantify the amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma. Using both the external and internal standards, tocotrienol homologues were quantified via a normal-phase high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector maintained at the excitation wavelength of 295?nm and the emission wavelength of 325?nm. The four tocotrienol homologues were well separated within 30 minutes. A large interindividual variation between subjects was observed as the absorption of tocotrienols is dependent on food matrix and gut lipolysis. The accuracies of lower and upper limit of quantification ranged between 92% and 109% for intraday assays and 90% and 112% for interday assays. This method was successfully applied to quantify the total amount of four tocotrienol homologues in human plasma.
Project description:Tocotrienol, an analogue of vitamin E has been known for its numerous health benefits and anti-cancer effects. Of the four isoforms of tocotrienols, gamma-tocotrienol (?T3) has been frequently reported for their superior anti-tumorigenic activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies, when compared to its counterparts. In this study, the effect of ?T3 treatment in the cytoplasmic and nuclear fraction of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells were assessed using the label-free quantitative proteomics analysis. The cytoplasmic proteome results revealed the ability of ?T3 to inhibit a group of proteasome proteins such as PSMA, PSMB, PSMD, and PSME. The inhibition of proteasome proteins is known to induce apoptosis in cancer cells. As such, the findings from this study suggest ?T3 as a potential proteasome inhibitor that can overcome deficiencies in growth-inhibitory or pro-apoptotic molecules in breast cancer cells. The nuclear proteome results revealed the involvement of important nuclear protein complexes which hardwire the anti-tumorigenesis mechanism in breast cancer following ?T3 treatment. In conclusion, this study uncovered the advancing roles of ?T3 as potential proteasomes inhibitor that can be used for the treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:Radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) is a common and sometimes severe late side effect of radiation therapy for intrathoracic and chest wall tumors. We have previously shown that local heart irradiation in a rat model caused prolonged changes in mitochondrial respiration and increased susceptibility to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. Because tocotrienols are known to protect against oxidative stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, in this study, we examined the effects of tocotrienols on radiation-induced alterations in mitochondria, and structural and functional manifestations of RIHD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received image-guided localized X irradiation to the heart to a total dose of 21 Gy. Twenty-four hours before irradiation, rats received a tocotrienol-enriched formulation or vehicle by oral gavage. Mitochondrial function and mitochondrial membrane parameters were studied at 2 weeks and 28 weeks after irradiation. In addition, cardiac function and histology were examined at 28 weeks. A single oral dose of the tocotrienol-enriched formulation preserved Bax/Bcl2 ratios and prevented mPTP opening and radiation-induced alterations in succinate-driven mitochondrial respiration. Nevertheless, the late effects of local heart irradiation pertaining to myocardial function and structure were not modified. Our studies suggest that a single dose of tocotrienols protects against radiation-induced mitochondrial changes, but these effects are not sufficient against long-term alterations in cardiac function or remodeling.
Project description:Poor bioavailability of Docetaxel (DCT) arising due to its low aqueous solubility and permeability limits its clinical utility. The aim of the present study was to develop DCT loaded self-emulsified drug delivery systems (D-SEDDS) and evaluate its potential ability to improve the oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of DCT. D-SEDDS were characterized for their in vitro antitumor activity, in situ single pass intestinal perfusion (SPIP), bioavailability, chylomicron flow blocking study and bio-distribution profile. The D-SEDDS were prepared using Capryol 90, Vitamin E TPGS, Gelucire 44/14 and Transcutol HP with a ratio of 32.7/29.4/8.3/29.6 using D-Optimal Mixture Design. The solubility of DCT was improved upto 50?mg/mL. The oral bioavailability of the D-SEDDS in rats (21.84?±?3.12%) was increased by 3.19 fold than orally administered Taxotere (6.85?±?1.82%). The enhanced bioavailability was probably due to increase in solubility and permeability. In SPIP, effective permeability of D-SEDDS was significantly higher than Taxotere. D-SEDDS showed 25 fold more in vitro cytotoxic activity compared to free DCT. Chylomicron flow blocking study and tissue distribution demonstrated the intestinal lymphatic transport of D-SEDDS and higher retention in tumor than Taxotere. The data suggests that D-SEDDS showed desired stability, enhanced oral bioavailability and in vitro antitumor efficacy.
Project description:Plant-derived phytonutrients have emerged as health enhancers. Tocotrienols from the vitamin E family gained high attention in recent years due to their multi-targeted biological properties, including lipid-lowering, neuroprotection, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Despite well-defined mechanism of action as an anti-cancer agent, their clinical use is hampered by poor pharmacokinetic profile and low oral bioavailability. Delivery systems based on nanotechnology were proven to be advantageous in elevating the delivery of tocotrienols to tumor sites for enhanced efficacy. To date, preclinical development of nanocarriers for tocotrienols include niosomes, lipid nanoemulsions, nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) and polymeric nanoparticles. Active targeting was explored via the use of transferrin as targeting ligand in niosomes. In vitro, nanocarriers were shown to enhance the anti-proliferative efficacy and cellular uptake of tocotrienols in cancer cells. In vivo, improved bioavailability of tocotrienols were reported with NLCs while marked tumor regression was observed with transferrin-targeted niosomes. In this review, the advantages and limitations of each nanocarriers were critically analyzed. Furthermore, a number of key challenges were identified including scale-up production, biological barriers, and toxicity profiles. To overcome these challenges, three research opportunities were highlighted based on rapid advancements in the field of nanomedicine. This review aims to provide a wholesome perspective for tocotrienol nanoformulations in cancer therapy directed toward effective clinical translation.