Complete genome sequence of Fer-de-Lance virus reveals a novel gene in reptilian paramyxoviruses.
ABSTRACT: The complete RNA genome sequence of the archetype reptilian paramyxovirus, Fer-de-Lance virus (FDLV), has been determined. The genome is 15,378 nucleotides in length and consists of seven nonoverlapping genes in the order 3' N-U-P-M-F-HN-L 5', coding for the nucleocapsid, unknown, phospho-, matrix, fusion, hemagglutinin-neuraminidase, and large polymerase proteins, respectively. The gene junctions contain highly conserved transcription start and stop signal sequences and tri-nucleotide intergenic regions similar to those of other Paramyxoviridae. The FDLV P gene expression strategy is like that of rubulaviruses, which express the accessory V protein from the primary transcript and edit a portion of the mRNA to encode P and I proteins. There is also an overlapping open reading frame potentially encoding a small basic protein in the P gene. The gene designated U (unknown), encodes a deduced protein of 19.4 kDa that has no counterpart in other paramyxoviruses and has no similarity with sequences in the National Center for Biotechnology Information database. Active transcription of the U gene in infected cells was demonstrated by Northern blot analysis, and bicistronic N-U mRNA was also evident. The genomes of two other snake paramyxovirus genotypes were also found to have U genes, with 11 to 16% nucleotide divergence from the FDLV U gene. Pairwise comparisons of amino acid identities and phylogenetic analyses of all deduced FDLV protein sequences with homologous sequences from other Paramyxoviridae indicate that FDLV represents a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxoviridae. We suggest the name Ferlavirus for the new genus, with FDLV as the type species.
Project description:Reptilian ferlavirus, a pathogen of serious concern in snakes, has been reported in Western countries, but little is known about its prevalence in Thailand, where many snake breeding farms are located. In this study, we investigated the reptilian ferlavirus via swab samples derived from 49 diseased snakes and 77 healthy snakes as well as tissue samples taken from nine dead snakes from five independent snake farms. Using molecular detection, we found the ferlavirus in 8.16% of diseased snakes, but not in healthy snakes. Out of nine farmed snakes, eight snakes derived from four farms were found to be positive. Four complete genome sequences of the ferlavirus were successfully obtained and phylogenetically clustered to the highly pathogenic ferlavirus. Tissue tropism of the ferlavirus was identified in various epithelial cell types using the in situ hybridization technique. Interestingly, the hybridization signals were strongly labeled in the male genital tract. Transmission electron microscopy was used to support the ferlaviral localization in the male genital tract. This study provides the first evidence of ferlavirus localization in the male genital tract and contributes to the knowledge about ferlavirus epidemiology, indicating that there needs to be further awareness and elucidation regarding vertical transmission of reptilian ferlavirus.
Project description:In 1994, a new member of the family Paramyxoviridae isolated from fatal cases of respiratory disease in horses and humans was shown to be distantly related to morbilliviruses and provisionally called equine morbillivirus (K. Murray et al., Science 268:94-97, 1995). To facilitate characterization and classification, the virus was purified, viral proteins were identified, and the P/V/C gene was cloned and sequenced. The coding strategy of the gene is similar to that of Sendai and measles viruses, members of the Paramyxovirus and Morbillivirus genera, respectively, in the subfamily Paramyxovirinae. The P/V/C gene contains four open reading frames, three of which, P, C, and V, have Paramyxovirinae counterparts. The P and C proteins are larger and smaller, respectively, than are cognate proteins in members of the subfamily, and the V protein is made as a result of a single G insertion during transcription. The P/V/C gene has two unique features. (i) A fourth open reading frame is located between those of the C and V proteins and potentially encodes a small basic protein similar to those found in some members of the Rhabdoviridae and Filoviridae families. (ii) There is also a long untranslated 3' sequence, a feature common in Filoviridae members. Sequence comparisons confirm that although the virus is a member of the Paramyxovirinae subfamily, it displays only low levels of homology with paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses and negligible homologies with rubulaviruses.
Project description:During the electric arc furnace steelmaking process, the coherent jet technology was widely used to protect the kinetic energy of the supersonic oxygen jet and achieve better mixing effects. Comparing with the conventional oxygen lance, the coherent lance could increase the surface area of impaction cavity, resulting in a better stirring effect and higher reaction rate. However, there was limited research about the effect of restriction structure for the coherent lance tip on the flow field characteristic of the main oxygen jet. In this research, three kinds of restriction structures have been investigated by numerical simulation and combustion experiment at room and high ambient temperature conditions. Then an optimum restriction structure would be tested in a 75 t electrical arc furnace steelmaking process to verify its metallurgical property.
Project description:Lance nematodes (Hoplolaimus spp.) feed on the roots of a wide range of plants, some of which are agronomic crops. Morphometric values of amphimictic lance nematode species overlap considerably, and useful morphological characters for their discrimination require high magnification and significant diagnostic time. Given their morphological similarity, these Hoplolaimus species provide an interesting model to investigate hidden diversity in crop agroecosystems. In this scenario, H. galeatus may have been over-reported and the related species that are morphologically similar could be more widespread in the United States that has been recognized thus far. The main objectives of this study were to delimit Hoplolaimus galeatus and morphologically similar species using morphology, phylogeny, and a barcoding approach, and to estimate the genetic diversity and population structure of the species found. Molecular analyses were performed using sequences of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (Cox1) and the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1) on 23 populations. Four morphospecies were identified: H. galeatus, H. magnistylus, H. concaudajuvencus, and H. stephanus, along with a currently undescribed species. Pronounced genetic structure correlated with geographic origin was found for all species, except for H. galeatus. Hoplolaimus galeatus also exhibited low genetic diversity and the shortest genetic distances among populations. In contrast, H. stephanus, the species with the fewest reports from agricultural soils, was the most common and diverse species found. Results of this project may lead to better delimitation of lance nematode species in the United States by contributing to the understanding the diversity within this group.
Project description:The causative agents of a number of emerging zoonotic diseases have been identified as paramyxoviruses originating in bats. We report here the complete genome sequence of two Teviot paramyxoviruses, novel rubulaviruses isolated from urine samples collected from pteropid bats in Australia. The zoonotic potential of Teviot paramyxovirus is undetermined.
Project description:Mapuera virus (MPRV) is a paramyxovirus that was originally isolated from bats, but its host range remains unknown. It was classified as a member of the genus Rubulavirus on the basis of structural and genetic features. Like other rubulaviruses it encodes a V protein (MPRV/V) that functions as an interferon (IFN) antagonist. Here we show that MPRV/V differs from the IFN antagonists of other rubulaviruses in that it does not induce the proteasomal degradation of STAT proteins, key factors in the IFN signalling cascade. Rather, MPRV/V prevents the nuclear translocation of STATs in response to IFN stimulation and inhibits the formation of the transcription factor complex ISGF3. We also show that MPRV/V blocks IFN signalling in cells from diverse mammalian species and discuss the IFN response as a barrier to cross-species infections.
Project description:Beginning in July 2011, 31 green anaconda (Eunectes murinus) juveniles from an oceanarium in Hong Kong died over a 12-month period. Necropsy revealed at least two of the following features in 23 necropsies: dermatitis, severe pan-nephritis, and/or severe systemic multiorgan necrotizing inflammation. Histopathological examination revealed severe necrotizing inflammation in various organs, most prominently the kidneys. Electron microscopic examination of primary tissues revealed intralesional accumulations of viral nucleocapsids with diameters of 10 to 14 nm, typical of paramyxoviruses. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR results were positive for paramyxovirus (viral loads of 2.33 × 10(4) to 1.05 × 10(8) copies/mg tissue) in specimens from anaconda juveniles that died but negative in specimens from the two anaconda juveniles and anaconda mother that survived. None of the other snakes in the park was moribund, and RT-PCR results for surveillance samples collected from other snakes were negative. The virus was isolated from BHK21 cells, causing cytopathic effects with syncytial formation. The virus could also replicate in 25 of 27 cell lines of various origins, in line with its capability for infecting various organs. Electron microscopy with cell culture material revealed enveloped virus with the typical "herringbone" appearance of helical nucleocapsids in paramyxoviruses. Complete genome sequencing of five isolates confirmed that the infections originated from the same clone. Comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses and mRNA editing experiments revealed a novel paramyxovirus in the genus Ferlavirus, named anaconda paramyxovirus, with a typical Ferlavirus genomic organization of 3'-N-U-P/V/I-M-F-HN-L-5'. Epidemiological and genomic analyses suggested that the anaconda juveniles acquired the virus perinatally from the anaconda mother rather than from other reptiles in the park, with subsequent interanaconda juvenile transmission.
Project description:J virus (J-V) was isolated from feral mice (Mus musculus) trapped in Queensland, Australia, during the early 1970s. Although studies undertaken at the time revealed that J-V was a new paramyxovirus, it remained unclassified beyond the family level. The complete genome sequence of J-V has now been determined, revealing a genome structure unique within the family Paramyxoviridae. At 18,954 nucleotides (nt), the J-V genome is the largest paramyxovirus genome sequenced to date, containing eight genes in the order 3'-N-P/V/C-M-F-SH-TM-G-L-5'. The two genes located between the fusion (F) and attachment (G) protein genes, which have been named the small hydrophobic (SH) protein gene and the transmembrane (TM) protein gene, encode putative proteins of 69 and 258 amino acids, respectively. The 4,401-nt J-V G gene, much larger than other paramyxovirus attachment protein genes sequenced to date, encodes a putative attachment protein of 709 amino acids and distally contains a second open reading frame (ORF) of 2,115 nt, referred to as ORF-X. Taken together, these novel features represent the most significant divergence to date from the common six-gene genome structure of Paramyxovirinae. Although genome analysis has confirmed that J-V can be classified as a member of the subfamily Paramyxovirinae, it cannot be assigned to any of the five existing genera within this subfamily. Interestingly, a recently isolated paramyxovirus appears to be closely related to J-V, and preliminary phylogenetic analyses based on putative matrix protein sequences indicate that these two viruses will likely represent a new genus within the subfamily Paramyxovirinae.
Project description:Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS) is an uncommon neurological disorder characterized by the development of chronic post-hypoxic myoclonus. There are relatively few cases described following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation. We report a patient who developed LAS 3 months after successful resuscitation. Cerebral imaging studies indicate that brain pathology in LAS patients is not uniform, suggesting that the pathophysiology of myoclonus may vary from patient to patient. Our patient adds to this etiological heterogeneity by demonstrating the unusual feature of cerebellar pathology by both cerebral magnetic resonance imaging and single-photon emission computed tomography scans. There is also heterogeneity of these patients in their response to therapy. Unlike some patients described in the literature, our patient has not responded to drug treatment. Studies of these rare patients with LAS are important as they provide insight into the pathophysiology of this condition which, it is hopefully, will facilitate the development of more effective therapy.
Project description:The complete genome sequence was determined for prototype parakeet/Netherlands/449/75 strain of avian paramyxovirus (APMV) serotype 3. The genome is 16,272 nucleotides (nt) in length, consisting of six non-overlapping genes in the order of 3'-N-P/V/W-M-F-HN-L-5', with intergenic regions of 31-63nt. APMV-3 genome follows the "rule of six" and is the largest among the avian paramyxoviruses reported to date, with a trailer region of 707nt, the longest in the family Paramyxoviridae. The cleavage site of F protein, A-R-P-R-G-R downward arrowL, does not conform to the preferred cleavage site of the ubiquitous cellular protease furin. Therefore, exogenous protease was needed for replication in vitro. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of strain Netherlands proteins with the cognate proteins of viruses of all of the five genera of family Paramyxoviridae showed that APMV-3 strain Netherlands is more closely related to APMV-1 than APMV-6.